Aliases for DDX21 Gene
External Ids for DDX21 Gene
Previous GeneCards Identifiers for DDX21 Gene
DEAD box proteins, characterized by the conserved motif Asp-Glu-Ala-Asp (DEAD), are putative RNA helicases. They are implicated in a number of cellular processes involving alteration of RNA secondary structure such as translation initiation, nuclear and mitochondrial splicing, and ribosome and spliceosome assembly. Based on their distribution patterns, some members of this family are believed to be involved in embryogenesis, spermatogenesis, and cellular growth and division. This gene encodes a DEAD box protein, which is an antigen recognized by autoimmune antibodies from a patient with watermelon stomach disease. This protein unwinds double-stranded RNA, folds single-stranded RNA, and may play important roles in ribosomal RNA biogenesis, RNA editing, RNA transport, and general transcription. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
GeneCards Summary for DDX21 Gene
DDX21 (DExD-Box Helicase 21) is a Protein Coding gene. Diseases associated with DDX21 include Stomach Disease and Cone-Rod Dystrophy 19. Among its related pathways are Gene Expression and Activated PKN1 stimulates transcription of AR (androgen receptor) regulated genes KLK2 and KLK3. Gene Ontology (GO) annotations related to this gene include nucleic acid binding and RNA binding. An important paralog of this gene is DDX50.
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Summary for DDX21 Gene
RNA helicase that acts as a sensor of the transcriptional status of both RNA polymerase (Pol) I and II: promotes ribosomal RNA (rRNA) processing and transcription from polymerase II (Pol II) (PubMed:25470060, PubMed:28790157). Binds various RNAs, such as rRNAs, snoRNAs, 7SK and, at lower extent, mRNAs (PubMed:25470060). In the nucleolus, localizes to rDNA locus, where it directly binds rRNAs and snoRNAs, and promotes rRNA transcription, processing and modification. Required for rRNA 2'-O-methylation, possibly by promoting the recruitment of late-acting snoRNAs SNORD56 and SNORD58 with pre-ribosomal complexes (PubMed:25470060, PubMed:25477391). In the nucleoplasm, binds 7SK RNA and is recruited to the promoters of Pol II-transcribed genes: acts by facilitating the release of P-TEFb from inhibitory 7SK snRNP in a manner that is dependent on its helicase activity, thereby promoting transcription of its target genes (PubMed:25470060). Functions as cofactor for JUN-activated transcription: required for phosphorylation of JUN at 'Ser-77' (PubMed:11823437, PubMed:25260534). Can unwind double-stranded RNA (helicase) and can fold or introduce a secondary structure to a single-stranded RNA (foldase) (PubMed:9461305). Together with SIRT7, required to prevent R-loop-associated DNA damage and transcription-associated genomic instability: deacetylation by SIRT7 activates the helicase activity, thereby overcoming R-loop-mediated stalling of RNA polymerases (PubMed:28790157). Involved in rRNA processing (PubMed:14559904, PubMed:18180292). May bind to specific miRNA hairpins (PubMed:28431233). Component of a multi-helicase-TICAM1 complex that acts as a cytoplasmic sensor of viral double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) and plays a role in the activation of a cascade of antiviral responses including the induction of proinflammatory cytokines via the adapter molecule TICAM1 (By similarity).