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Aliases for DDTL Gene

Aliases for DDTL Gene

  • D-Dopachrome Tautomerase Like 2 3 5
  • D-Dopachrome Decarboxylase-Like Protein 2 3 4
  • D-Dopachrome Tautomerase-Like Protein 3 4
  • Phenylpyruvate Tautomerase II 3
  • D-Dopachrome Decarboxylase 3
  • KB-226F1.2 3
  • EC 4.1.1.- 4
  • DDT 3

External Ids for DDTL Gene

Previous GeneCards Identifiers for DDTL Gene

  • GC22U900384
  • GC22P022639
  • GC22P024309
  • GC22P007252

Summaries for DDTL Gene

GeneCards Summary for DDTL Gene

DDTL (D-Dopachrome Tautomerase Like) is a Protein Coding gene. Gene Ontology (GO) annotations related to this gene include lyase activity. An important paralog of this gene is ENSG00000285762.

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for DDTL Gene

Additional gene information for DDTL Gene

No data available for Entrez Gene Summary , CIViC summary , Tocris Summary , Gene Wiki entry , PharmGKB "VIP" Summary , fRNAdb sequence ontologies and piRNA Summary for DDTL Gene

Genomics for DDTL Gene

GeneHancer (GH) Regulatory Elements for DDTL Gene

Promoters and enhancers for DDTL Gene
GeneHancer (GH) Identifier GH Type GH
GH Sources Gene Association Score Total Score TSS distance (kb) Number of Genes Away Size (kb) Transcription Factor
Binding Sites
Gene Targets
GH22J023966 Promoter 0.5 Ensembl 600.7 +0.1 63 3 DDTL ENSG00000272787
GH22J023985 Enhancer 0.5 Ensembl 7 +19.6 19562 2 ZNF384 ZFHX2 ZNF18 EGR2 MIF-AS1 GSTT2 DDTL ENSG00000225282 ENSG00000224205 ENSG00000285762
GH22J024195 Enhancer 1.2 FANTOM5 ENCODE dbSUPER 1.2 +230.3 230336 3.6 ZNF121 CEBPG SP1 IKZF1 RFX1 SOX13 IKZF2 CEBPA CTBP1 RUNX3 SUSD2 GGT1 DDTL GGT5
- Elite GeneHancer and/or Elite GeneHancer-gene association Download GeneHancer data from 2017 publication | Request up-to-date GeneHancer data (full dataset)

GeneHancers around DDTL on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Top Transcription factor binding sites by QIAGEN in the DDTL gene promoter:
  • NF-kappaB1
  • SREBP-1a
  • SREBP-1b
  • SREBP-1c

Genomic Locations for DDTL Gene

Genomic Locations for DDTL Gene
5,722 bases
Plus strand
5,723 bases
Plus strand

Genomic View for DDTL Gene

Genes around DDTL on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Cytogenetic band:
DDTL Gene in genomic location: bands according to Ensembl, locations according to GeneLoc (and/or Entrez Gene and/or Ensembl if different)
Genomic Location for DDTL Gene
GeneLoc Logo Genomic Neighborhood Exon StructureGene Density

RefSeq DNA sequence for DDTL Gene

Proteins for DDTL Gene

  • Protein details for DDTL Gene (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)

    Protein Symbol:
    Recommended name:
    D-dopachrome decarboxylase-like protein
    Protein Accession:
    Secondary Accessions:
    • B4DJJ7

    Protein attributes for DDTL Gene

    134 amino acids
    Molecular mass:
    14195 Da
    Quaternary structure:
    No Data Available

neXtProt entry for DDTL Gene

Post-translational modifications for DDTL Gene

  • Modification sites at PhosphoSitePlus
  • Modification sites at neXtProt

Other Protein References for DDTL Gene

ENSEMBL proteins:
REFSEQ proteins:

No data available for DME Specific Peptides for DDTL Gene

Domains & Families for DDTL Gene

Gene Families for DDTL Gene

Human Protein Atlas (HPA):
  • Predicted intracellular proteins

Protein Domains for DDTL Gene

Suggested Antigen Peptide Sequences for DDTL Gene

GenScript: Design optimal peptide antigens:
  • D-dopachrome tautomerase-like protein (DDTL_HUMAN)

Graphical View of Domain Structure for InterPro Entry



  • Belongs to the MIF family.
  • Belongs to the MIF family.
genes like me logo Genes that share domains with DDTL: view

Function for DDTL Gene

Molecular function for DDTL Gene

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Function:
May have lyase activity.

Enzyme Numbers (IUBMB) for DDTL Gene

Phenotypes From GWAS Catalog for DDTL Gene

Gene Ontology (GO) - Molecular Function for DDTL Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0002020 protease binding IEA --
GO:0016829 lyase activity IEA --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with DDTL: view
genes like me logo Genes that share phenotypes with DDTL: view

Animal Model Products

CRISPR Products

Inhibitory RNA Products

  • Search GeneCopoeia for shRNA, lentivirus and/or AAV clone products for DDTL

No data available for Human Phenotype Ontology , Animal Models , Transcription Factor Targets and HOMER Transcription for DDTL Gene

Localization for DDTL Gene

Subcellular locations from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for DDTL Gene


Subcellular locations from

Extracellular space Cytosol Plasma membrane Cytoskeleton Lysosome Endosome Peroxisome ER Golgi Apparatus Nucleus Mitochondrion 0 1 2 3 4 5 Confidence
COMPARTMENTS Subcellular localization image for DDTL gene
Compartment Confidence
cytosol 3
extracellular 1
peroxisome 1
mitochondrion 0
lysosome 0

Gene Ontology (GO) - Cellular Components for DDTL Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0005615 extracellular space IEA --
GO:0005737 cytoplasm IEA --
GO:0070062 extracellular exosome HDA 23533145
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with DDTL: view

No data available for Subcellular locations from the Human Protein Atlas (HPA) for DDTL Gene

Pathways & Interactions for DDTL Gene

PathCards logo

SuperPathways for DDTL Gene

No Data Available

Gene Ontology (GO) - Biological Process for DDTL Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0050729 positive regulation of inflammatory response IEA --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with DDTL: view

No data available for Pathways by source and SIGNOR curated interactions for DDTL Gene

Drugs & Compounds for DDTL Gene

No Compound Related Data Available

Transcripts for DDTL Gene

mRNA/cDNA for DDTL Gene

(1) REFSEQ mRNAs :
(6) Additional mRNA sequences :
(1) Ensembl transcripts including schematic representations, and UCSC links to gene/alias where relevant :

Unigene Clusters for DDTL Gene

D-dopachrome tautomerase-like:
Representative Sequences:

CRISPR Products

Inhibitory RNA Products

  • Search GeneCopoeia for shRNA, lentivirus and/or AAV clone products for DDTL

Alternative Splicing Database (ASD) splice patterns (SP) for DDTL Gene

No ASD Table

Relevant External Links for DDTL Gene

GeneLoc Exon Structure for
ECgene alternative splicing isoforms for

Expression for DDTL Gene

mRNA expression in normal human tissues from GTEx, Illumina, BioGPS, and CGAP SAGE for DDTL Gene

mRNA differential expression in normal tissues according to GTEx for DDTL Gene

This gene is overexpressed in Heart - Left Ventricle (x6.2).

Protein differential expression in normal tissues from HIPED for DDTL Gene

This gene is overexpressed in Liver, secretome (44.8) and Liver (11.6).

Integrated Proteomics: protein expression in normal tissues and cell lines from ProteomicsDB and MOPED for DDTL Gene

NURSA nuclear receptor signaling pathways regulating expression of DDTL Gene:


SOURCE GeneReport for Unigene cluster for DDTL Gene:


Evidence on tissue expression from TISSUES for DDTL Gene

  • Nervous system(4.7)
genes like me logo Genes that share expression patterns with DDTL: view

Primer Products

No data available for mRNA expression in embryonic tissues and stem cells from LifeMap Discovery , Protein tissue co-expression partners , mRNA Expression by UniProt/SwissProt and Phenotype-based relationships between genes and organs from Gene ORGANizer for DDTL Gene

Orthologs for DDTL Gene

This gene was present in the common ancestor of chordates.

Orthologs for DDTL Gene

Organism Taxonomy Gene Similarity Type Details
(Pan troglodytes)
Mammalia LOC747294 34
  • 95.79 (n)
(Monodelphis domestica)
Mammalia -- 35
  • 71 (a)
(Ornithorhynchus anatinus)
Mammalia -- 35
  • 65 (a)
(Mus musculus)
Mammalia Ddt 35
  • 58 (a)
(Gallus gallus)
Aves DDT 35
  • 55 (a)
(Anolis carolinensis)
Reptilia -- 35
  • 45 (a)
(Danio rerio)
Actinopterygii ddt 35
  • 41 (a)
Species where no ortholog for DDTL was found in the sources mined by GeneCards:
  • A. gosspyii yeast (Ashbya gossypii)
  • Actinobacteria (Mycobacterium tuberculosis)
  • African clawed frog (Xenopus laevis)
  • African malaria mosquito (Anopheles gambiae)
  • Alicante grape (Vitis vinifera)
  • alpha proteobacteria (Wolbachia pipientis)
  • amoeba (Dictyostelium discoideum)
  • Archea (Pyrococcus horikoshii)
  • baker's yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae)
  • barley (Hordeum vulgare)
  • beta proteobacteria (Neisseria meningitidis)
  • bread mold (Neurospora crassa)
  • Chromalveolata (Phytophthora infestans)
  • common water flea (Daphnia pulex)
  • corn (Zea mays)
  • cow (Bos Taurus)
  • dog (Canis familiaris)
  • E. coli (Escherichia coli)
  • filamentous fungi (Aspergillus nidulans)
  • Firmicute bacteria (Streptococcus pneumoniae)
  • fission yeast (Schizosaccharomyces pombe)
  • fruit fly (Drosophila melanogaster)
  • green algae (Chlamydomonas reinhardtii)
  • honey bee (Apis mellifera)
  • K. lactis yeast (Kluyveromyces lactis)
  • loblloly pine (Pinus taeda)
  • malaria parasite (Plasmodium falciparum)
  • medicago trunc (Medicago Truncatula)
  • moss (Physcomitrella patens)
  • orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus)
  • pig (Sus scrofa)
  • rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)
  • rat (Rattus norvegicus)
  • rice (Oryza sativa)
  • rice blast fungus (Magnaporthe grisea)
  • schistosome parasite (Schistosoma mansoni)
  • sea anemone (Nematostella vectensis)
  • sea squirt (Ciona intestinalis)
  • sea squirt (Ciona savignyi)
  • sea urchin (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus)
  • sorghum (Sorghum bicolor)
  • soybean (Glycine max)
  • stem rust fungus (Puccinia graminis)
  • sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum)
  • thale cress (Arabidopsis thaliana)
  • tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum)
  • toxoplasmosis (Toxoplasma gondii)
  • Trichoplax (Trichoplax adhaerens)
  • tropical clawed frog (Silurana tropicalis)
  • wheat (Triticum aestivum)
  • worm (Caenorhabditis elegans)

Evolution for DDTL Gene

Gene Tree for DDTL (if available)
Gene Tree for DDTL (if available)
Evolutionary constrained regions (ECRs) for DDTL: view image

Paralogs for DDTL Gene

Paralogs for DDTL Gene

(2) SIMAP similar genes for DDTL Gene using alignment to 1 proteins:

genes like me logo Genes that share paralogs with DDTL: view

Variants for DDTL Gene

Sequence variations from dbSNP and Humsavar for DDTL Gene

SNP ID Clin Chr 22 pos Variation AA Info Type
rs1000155777 -- 23,970,640(+) G/A/T genic_downstream_transcript_variant, intron_variant
rs1001108851 -- 23,969,037(+) C/T 3_prime_UTR_variant, intron_variant
rs1001147883 -- 23,969,290(+) T/C 3_prime_UTR_variant, intron_variant
rs1001149768 -- 23,971,758(+) C/T 3_prime_UTR_variant, genic_downstream_transcript_variant
rs1001776114 -- 23,970,676(+) G/A genic_downstream_transcript_variant, intron_variant

Structural Variations from Database of Genomic Variants (DGV) for DDTL Gene

Variant ID Type Subtype PubMed ID
dgv35n47 CNV loss 21111241
dgv4528n100 CNV gain 25217958
dgv4532n100 CNV gain 25217958
dgv4534n100 CNV loss 25217958
dgv4535n100 CNV gain 25217958
dgv4536n100 CNV loss 25217958
dgv751n67 CNV loss 20364138
dgv8039n54 CNV gain 21841781
dgv826e199 CNV deletion 23128226
esv2421686 OTHER complex 20811451
esv2593346 CNV deletion 19546169
esv2656467 CNV deletion 23128226
esv2656800 CNV deletion 23128226
esv2667916 CNV deletion 23128226
esv2724041 CNV deletion 23290073
esv2724066 CNV deletion 23290073
esv2966013 CNV deletion 24192839
esv3034901 CNV deletion 24192839
esv3557984 CNV deletion 23714750
esv3575443 CNV gain 25503493
esv3575444 CNV gain 25503493
esv3584777 CNV loss 24956385
esv3893452 CNV gain+loss 25118596
esv3893453 CNV loss 25118596
esv3893457 CNV gain 25118596
esv3893461 CNV gain 25118596
esv6716 CNV loss 19470904
esv999560 CNV deletion 20482838
nsv1057737 CNV loss 25217958
nsv1059397 CNV gain 25217958
nsv1063251 CNV gain+loss 25217958
nsv1066891 CNV gain 25217958
nsv1072628 CNV deletion 25765185
nsv1072629 CNV deletion 25765185
nsv1110863 OTHER inversion 24896259
nsv1145372 CNV deletion 24896259
nsv1153441 CNV deletion 26484159
nsv1160735 CNV deletion 26073780
nsv1160736 OTHER complex 26073780
nsv197 CNV deletion 15895083
nsv436348 CNV deletion 17901297
nsv442792 CNV loss 18776908
nsv469844 CNV loss 16826518
nsv471423 CNV gain 19718026
nsv482073 CNV gain 20164927
nsv511075 OTHER complex 20534489
nsv511643 CNV loss 21212237
nsv512650 CNV loss 21212237
nsv526567 CNV gain 19592680
nsv588651 CNV gain 21841781
nsv588669 CNV loss 21841781
nsv7350 OTHER inversion 18451855
nsv829105 CNV loss 20364138
nsv829109 CNV loss 20364138
nsv834155 CNV gain+loss 17160897
nsv953055 CNV deletion 24416366
nsv964607 CNV duplication 23825009

Variation tolerance for DDTL Gene

Gene Damage Index Score: 1.72; 32.65% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)

Additional Variant Information for DDTL Gene

SNPedia medical, phenotypic, and genealogical associations of SNPs for
Human Gene Mutation Database (HGMD)

SNP Genotyping and Copy Number Assay Products

No data available for Polymorphic Variants from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for DDTL Gene

Disorders for DDTL Gene

Additional Disease Information for DDTL

Genetic Association Database
Human Genome Epidemiology Navigator
ATLAS of Genetics and Cytogenetics in Oncology and Haematology

No disorders were found for DDTL Gene.

No data available for MalaCards , UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot and Genatlas for DDTL Gene

Publications for DDTL Gene

  1. The DNA sequence of human chromosome 22. (PMID: 10591208) Dunham I … O'Brien KP (Nature 1999) 2 3 4 58
  2. Variation at the NFATC2 locus increases the risk of thiazolidinedione-induced edema in the Diabetes REduction Assessment with ramipril and rosiglitazone Medication (DREAM) study. (PMID: 20628086) Bailey SD … DREAM investigators (Diabetes care 2010) 3 45 58
  3. Complete sequencing and characterization of 21,243 full-length human cDNAs. (PMID: 14702039) Ota T … Sugano S (Nature genetics 2004) 3 4 58
  4. Structure and organization of the human theta-class glutathione S-transferase and D-dopachrome tautomerase gene complex. (PMID: 9729470) Coggan M … Board P (The Biochemical journal 1998) 2 3 58
  5. Associations of common copy number variants in glutathione S-transferase mu 1 and D-dopachrome tautomerase-like protein genes with risk of schizophrenia in a Japanese population. (PMID: 26175060) Nakamura T … Arai H (American journal of medical genetics. Part B, Neuropsychiatric genetics : the official publication of the International Society of Psychiatric Genetics 2015) 3 58

Products for DDTL Gene

Sources for DDTL Gene

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