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Aliases for DDO Gene

Aliases for DDO Gene

  • D-Aspartate Oxidase 2 3 3 5
  • DASOX 3 4
  • D-Aspartate Oxidase, DDO 3
  • Aspartic Oxidase 3
  • EC 4
  • DDO-1 3
  • DDO-2 3

External Ids for DDO Gene

Previous GeneCards Identifiers for DDO Gene

  • GC06M110539
  • GC06M110736
  • GC06M110758
  • GC06M110672
  • GC06M110820
  • GC06M108280

Summaries for DDO Gene

Entrez Gene Summary for DDO Gene

  • The protein encoded by this gene is a peroxisomal flavoprotein that catalyzes the oxidative deamination of D-aspartate and N-methyl D-aspartate. Flavin adenine dinucleotide or 6-hydroxyflavin adenine dinucleotide can serve as the cofactor in this reaction. Two transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

GeneCards Summary for DDO Gene

DDO (D-Aspartate Oxidase) is a Protein Coding gene. Among its related pathways are Metabolism and Viral mRNA Translation. Gene Ontology (GO) annotations related to this gene include signaling receptor binding and cofactor binding. An important paralog of this gene is DAO.

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for DDO Gene

  • Selectively catalyzes the oxidative deamination of D-aspartate and its N-methylated derivative, N-methyl D-aspartate.

Gene Wiki entry for DDO Gene

Additional gene information for DDO Gene

No data available for CIViC summary , Tocris Summary , PharmGKB "VIP" Summary , fRNAdb sequence ontologies and piRNA Summary for DDO Gene

Genomics for DDO Gene

GeneHancer (GH) Regulatory Elements for DDO Gene

Promoters and enhancers for DDO Gene
GeneHancer (GH) Identifier GH Type GH
GH Sources Gene Association Score Total Score TSS distance (kb) Number of Genes Away Size (kb) Transcription Factor
Binding Sites
Gene Targets
GH06J110414 Promoter/Enhancer 1.8 EPDnew Ensembl ENCODE 678.5 +0.2 169 1.3 ELF3 FOXA2 PKNOX1 ARID4B DMAP1 ZNF48 RAD21 YY1 EGR1 RXRA DDO LOC105377936 METTL24
GH06J110418 Enhancer 0.7 ENCODE 30.7 -3.8 -3843 2.8 DRAP1 SOX13 FOXA2 SAP130 MLX MAX KDM3A ZNF48 ZSCAN9 RARA DDO SLC22A16 WASF1 LOC105377936 GC06P110436
GH06J110355 Promoter/Enhancer 1.3 Ensembl ENCODE dbSUPER 7.8 +58.7 58719 3.5 CTCF ZNF202 ARNT REST FOXM1 SP1 NFIC POLR2A ZFX EZH2 METTL24 ZBTB24 MFSD4B ENSG00000272356 FCF1P5 DDO LOC102724586
GH06J110399 Enhancer 0.5 Ensembl 16.3 +15.7 15661 1.4 MEIS2 ZFHX2 ZEB2 EGR2 DDO SLC22A16 METTL24
GH06J110391 Enhancer 0.6 ENCODE 11 +24.5 24539 0.2 CTCF ZNF654 TRIM22 JUNB REST BATF RAD21 CC2D1A SMC3 ZNF143 DDO METTL24
- Elite GeneHancer and/or Elite GeneHancer-gene association Download GeneHancer data from 2017 publication | Request up-to-date GeneHancer data (full dataset)

GeneHancers around DDO on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Top Transcription factor binding sites by QIAGEN in the DDO gene promoter:
  • AREB6
  • Cart-1
  • MEF-2A
  • MEF-2
  • aMEF-2
  • HNF-1A
  • HNF-1
  • Hlf

Genomic Locations for DDO Gene

Genomic Locations for DDO Gene
23,792 bases
Minus strand
23,792 bases
Minus strand

Genomic View for DDO Gene

Genes around DDO on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Cytogenetic band:
DDO Gene in genomic location: bands according to Ensembl, locations according to GeneLoc (and/or Entrez Gene and/or Ensembl if different)
Genomic Location for DDO Gene
GeneLoc Logo Genomic Neighborhood Exon StructureGene Density

RefSeq DNA sequence for DDO Gene

Proteins for DDO Gene

  • Protein details for DDO Gene (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)

    Protein Symbol:
    Recommended name:
    D-aspartate oxidase
    Protein Accession:
    Secondary Accessions:
    • A8KAG4
    • Q5JXM4
    • Q5JXM5
    • Q5JXM6
    • Q8N552

    Protein attributes for DDO Gene

    341 amino acids
    Molecular mass:
    37535 Da
    Name=FAD; Xref=ChEBI:CHEBI:57692; Name=6-hydroxy-FAD; Xref=ChEBI:CHEBI:60470;
    Quaternary structure:
    No Data Available

    Alternative splice isoforms for DDO Gene


neXtProt entry for DDO Gene

Post-translational modifications for DDO Gene

  • Modification sites at PhosphoSitePlus
  • Modification sites at neXtProt

Other Protein References for DDO Gene

No data available for DME Specific Peptides for DDO Gene

Domains & Families for DDO Gene

Gene Families for DDO Gene

Human Protein Atlas (HPA):
  • Enzymes
  • Predicted membrane proteins

Protein Domains for DDO Gene

Suggested Antigen Peptide Sequences for DDO Gene

GenScript: Design optimal peptide antigens:

Graphical View of Domain Structure for InterPro Entry



  • Belongs to the DAMOX/DASOX family.
  • Belongs to the DAMOX/DASOX family.
genes like me logo Genes that share domains with DDO: view

Function for DDO Gene

Molecular function for DDO Gene

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Function:
Selectively catalyzes the oxidative deamination of D-aspartate and its N-methylated derivative, N-methyl D-aspartate.
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot CatalyticActivity:
D-aspartate + H(2)O + O(2) = oxaloacetate + NH(3) + H(2)O(2).

Enzyme Numbers (IUBMB) for DDO Gene

Phenotypes From GWAS Catalog for DDO Gene

Gene Ontology (GO) - Molecular Function for DDO Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0005102 signaling receptor binding IPI 20178365
GO:0005515 protein binding IPI 9820813
GO:0008445 D-aspartate oxidase activity IDA,EXP 20603179
GO:0016491 oxidoreductase activity IEA --
GO:0048037 cofactor binding IDA 20603179
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with DDO: view
genes like me logo Genes that share phenotypes with DDO: view

Animal Models for DDO Gene

MGI Knock Outs for DDO:
  • Ddo Ddo<tm1Snyd>
  • Ddo Ddo<tm1Rdl>

Animal Model Products

  • Taconic Biosciences Mouse Models for DDO

CRISPR Products

Inhibitory RNA Products

  • Search GeneCopoeia for shRNA, lentivirus and/or AAV clone products for DDO

No data available for Human Phenotype Ontology , Transcription Factor Targets and HOMER Transcription for DDO Gene

Localization for DDO Gene

Subcellular locations from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for DDO Gene


Subcellular locations from

Extracellular space Cytosol Plasma membrane Cytoskeleton Lysosome Endosome Peroxisome ER Golgi Apparatus Nucleus Mitochondrion 0 1 2 3 4 5 Confidence
COMPARTMENTS Subcellular localization image for DDO gene
Compartment Confidence
peroxisome 5
cytosol 3
plasma membrane 1
mitochondrion 1
nucleus 1
endoplasmic reticulum 1

Subcellular locations from the

Human Protein Atlas (HPA)

Gene Ontology (GO) - Cellular Components for DDO Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0005777 peroxisome NAS 9820813
GO:0005782 peroxisomal matrix TAS --
GO:0005829 cytosol IDA --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with DDO: view

Pathways & Interactions for DDO Gene

genes like me logo Genes that share pathways with DDO: view

Pathways by source for DDO Gene

Gene Ontology (GO) - Biological Process for DDO Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0006531 aspartate metabolic process IEA --
GO:0007320 insemination IEA --
GO:0007625 grooming behavior IEA --
GO:0019478 D-amino acid catabolic process IDA 20603179
GO:0034641 cellular nitrogen compound metabolic process TAS --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with DDO: view

No data available for SIGNOR curated interactions for DDO Gene

Drugs & Compounds for DDO Gene

(7) Drugs for DDO Gene - From: HMDB and Novoseek

Name Status Disease Links Group Role Mechanism of Action Clinical Trials
Ammonia Approved Pharma 0
FAD Approved Pharma 0
Hydrogen peroxide Approved, Vet_approved Pharma 73
Oxygen Approved, Vet_approved Pharma 0
Water Approved Pharma 0

(3) Additional Compounds for DDO Gene - From: Novoseek and HMDB

Name Synonyms Role CAS Number PubChem IDs PubMed IDs
Oxalacetic acid
  • 2-Oxobutanedioic acid
  • 2-Oxosuccinic acid
  • 3-Carboxy-3-oxopropanoic acid
  • keto-Succinic acid
  • Ketosuccinic acid
genes like me logo Genes that share compounds with DDO: view

Transcripts for DDO Gene

mRNA/cDNA for DDO Gene

(2) REFSEQ mRNAs :
(4) Additional mRNA sequences :
(46) Selected AceView cDNA sequences:
(3) Ensembl transcripts including schematic representations, and UCSC links where relevant :

Unigene Clusters for DDO Gene

D-aspartate oxidase:
Representative Sequences:

CRISPR Products

Inhibitory RNA Products

  • Search GeneCopoeia for shRNA, lentivirus and/or AAV clone products for DDO

Alternative Splicing Database (ASD) splice patterns (SP) for DDO Gene

No ASD Table

Relevant External Links for DDO Gene

GeneLoc Exon Structure for
ECgene alternative splicing isoforms for

Expression for DDO Gene

mRNA expression in normal human tissues from GTEx, Illumina, BioGPS, and CGAP SAGE for DDO Gene

mRNA expression in embryonic tissues and stem cells from LifeMap Discovery

mRNA differential expression in normal tissues according to GTEx for DDO Gene

This gene is overexpressed in Heart - Left Ventricle (x6.8).

Protein differential expression in normal tissues from HIPED for DDO Gene

This gene is overexpressed in Plasma (23.9), Heart (22.1), and Adrenal (8.2).

Integrated Proteomics: protein expression in normal tissues and cell lines from ProteomicsDB, MaxQB, and MOPED for DDO Gene

Protein tissue co-expression partners for DDO Gene

NURSA nuclear receptor signaling pathways regulating expression of DDO Gene:


SOURCE GeneReport for Unigene cluster for DDO Gene:


Evidence on tissue expression from TISSUES for DDO Gene

  • Nervous system(4.4)
  • Kidney(2.5)
genes like me logo Genes that share expression patterns with DDO: view

No data available for mRNA Expression by UniProt/SwissProt and Phenotype-based relationships between genes and organs from Gene ORGANizer for DDO Gene

Orthologs for DDO Gene

This gene was present in the common ancestor of animals and fungi.

Orthologs for DDO Gene

Organism Taxonomy Gene Similarity Type Details
(Pan troglodytes)
Mammalia DDO 34 33
  • 99.64 (n)
(Bos Taurus)
Mammalia DDO 34 33
  • 86.61 (n)
(Mus musculus)
Mammalia Ddo 16 34 33
  • 80.65 (n)
(Rattus norvegicus)
Mammalia Ddo 33
  • 79.77 (n)
(Canis familiaris)
Mammalia DDO 34 33
  • 75.68 (n)
(Ornithorhynchus anatinus)
Mammalia DDO 34
  • 68 (a)
(Monodelphis domestica)
Mammalia DDO 34
  • 60 (a)
(Gallus gallus)
Aves DDO 34 33
  • 66.76 (n)
(Anolis carolinensis)
Reptilia DDO 34
  • 65 (a)
tropical clawed frog
(Silurana tropicalis)
Amphibia ddo 33
  • 60.93 (n)
(Danio rerio)
Actinopterygii LOC100332733 33
  • 58.87 (n)
DDO (1 of 2) 34
  • 53 (a)
DDO (2 of 2) 34
  • 50 (a)
fruit fly
(Drosophila melanogaster)
Insecta CG12338 34 33
  • 48.19 (n)
CG11236 35
  • 35 (a)
African malaria mosquito
(Anopheles gambiae)
Insecta AgaP_AGAP005323 33
  • 45.82 (n)
(Caenorhabditis elegans)
Secernentea daao-1 33
  • 45.64 (n)
Y69A2AR.5 35
  • 37 (a)
ddo-1 34
  • 32 (a)
ddo-2 34
  • 29 (a)
ddo-3 34
  • 27 (a)
K. lactis yeast
(Kluyveromyces lactis)
Saccharomycetes KLLA0A02475g 33
  • 42.25 (n)
fission yeast
(Schizosaccharomyces pombe)
Schizosaccharomycetes SPCC1450.07c 33
  • 43.55 (n)
bread mold
(Neurospora crassa)
Ascomycetes NCU06558 33
  • 43.48 (n)
sea squirt
(Ciona savignyi)
Ascidiacea -- 34
  • 39 (a)
Species where no ortholog for DDO was found in the sources mined by GeneCards:
  • A. gosspyii yeast (Ashbya gossypii)
  • Actinobacteria (Mycobacterium tuberculosis)
  • African clawed frog (Xenopus laevis)
  • Alicante grape (Vitis vinifera)
  • alpha proteobacteria (Wolbachia pipientis)
  • amoeba (Dictyostelium discoideum)
  • Archea (Pyrococcus horikoshii)
  • baker's yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae)
  • barley (Hordeum vulgare)
  • beta proteobacteria (Neisseria meningitidis)
  • Chromalveolata (Phytophthora infestans)
  • common water flea (Daphnia pulex)
  • corn (Zea mays)
  • E. coli (Escherichia coli)
  • filamentous fungi (Aspergillus nidulans)
  • Firmicute bacteria (Streptococcus pneumoniae)
  • green algae (Chlamydomonas reinhardtii)
  • honey bee (Apis mellifera)
  • loblloly pine (Pinus taeda)
  • malaria parasite (Plasmodium falciparum)
  • medicago trunc (Medicago Truncatula)
  • moss (Physcomitrella patens)
  • orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus)
  • pig (Sus scrofa)
  • rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)
  • rice (Oryza sativa)
  • rice blast fungus (Magnaporthe grisea)
  • schistosome parasite (Schistosoma mansoni)
  • sea anemone (Nematostella vectensis)
  • sea urchin (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus)
  • sorghum (Sorghum bicolor)
  • soybean (Glycine max)
  • stem rust fungus (Puccinia graminis)
  • sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum)
  • thale cress (Arabidopsis thaliana)
  • tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum)
  • toxoplasmosis (Toxoplasma gondii)
  • Trichoplax (Trichoplax adhaerens)
  • wheat (Triticum aestivum)

Evolution for DDO Gene

Gene Tree for DDO (if available)
Gene Tree for DDO (if available)
Evolutionary constrained regions (ECRs) for DDO: view image

Paralogs for DDO Gene

Paralogs for DDO Gene

(3) SIMAP similar genes for DDO Gene using alignment to 2 proteins:

  • F2Z2E0_HUMAN
genes like me logo Genes that share paralogs with DDO: view

Variants for DDO Gene

Sequence variations from dbSNP and Humsavar for DDO Gene

SNP ID Clin Chr 06 pos Variation AA Info Type
VAR_036244 A breast cancer sample p.Phe136Leu
rs1000136346 -- 110,396,131(-) G/A intron_variant
rs1000200224 -- 110,416,795(-) G/T upstream_transcript_variant
rs1000340903 -- 110,406,104(-) A/G intron_variant
rs1000364417 -- 110,402,359(-) A/C intron_variant

Structural Variations from Database of Genomic Variants (DGV) for DDO Gene

Variant ID Type Subtype PubMed ID
esv2732570 CNV deletion 23290073
nsv516397 CNV gain 19592680

Variation tolerance for DDO Gene

Residual Variation Intolerance Score: 97.5% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)
Gene Damage Index Score: 3.54; 55.74% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)

Additional Variant Information for DDO Gene

SNPedia medical, phenotypic, and genealogical associations of SNPs for

SNP Genotyping and Copy Number Assay Products

No data available for Polymorphic Variants from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for DDO Gene

Disorders for DDO Gene

Additional Disease Information for DDO

Genetic Association Database
Human Genome Epidemiology Navigator
ATLAS of Genetics and Cytogenetics in Oncology and Haematology

No disorders were found for DDO Gene.

No data available for MalaCards , UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot and Genatlas for DDO Gene

Publications for DDO Gene

  1. Structural and functional characterization of the human brain D-aspartate oxidase. (PMID: 9163533) Setoyama C … Miura R (Journal of biochemistry 1997) 2 3 4 22 58
  2. Human variation in alcohol response is influenced by variation in neuronal signaling genes. (PMID: 20201926) Joslyn G … White RL (Alcoholism, clinical and experimental research 2010) 3 44 58
  3. No association between the D-aspartate oxidase locus and schizophrenia. (PMID: 19125110) Jamra RA … Schumacher J (Psychiatric genetics 2009) 3 22 58
  4. The status, quality, and expansion of the NIH full-length cDNA project: the Mammalian Gene Collection (MGC). (PMID: 15489334) Gerhard DS … MGC Project Team (Genome research 2004) 3 4 58
  5. The DNA sequence and analysis of human chromosome 6. (PMID: 14574404) Mungall AJ … Beck S (Nature 2003) 3 4 58

Products for DDO Gene

Sources for DDO Gene

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