Deoxycytidine kinase (DCK) is required for the phosphorylation of several deoxyribonucleosides and their nucleoside analogs. Deficiency of DCK is associated with resistance to antiviral and anticancer chemotherapeutic agents. Conversely, increased deoxycytidine kinase activity is associated with increased activation of these compounds to cytotoxic nucleoside triphosphate der... See more...

Aliases for DCK Gene

Aliases for DCK Gene

  • Deoxycytidine Kinase 2 3 4 5
  • Deoxyadenosine Kinase 3 4
  • Deoxyguanosine Kinase 3 4
  • EC 2.7.1.74 4 50
  • DCK 4 5
  • Deoxynucleoside Kinase 3
  • EC 2.7.1.113 4
  • EC 2.7.1.76 4
  • EC 2.7.1 50

External Ids for DCK Gene

Previous GeneCards Identifiers for DCK Gene

  • GC04P071816
  • GC04P072099
  • GC04P072259
  • GC04P072325
  • GC04P072224
  • GC04P072078
  • GC04P067664

Summaries for DCK Gene

Entrez Gene Summary for DCK Gene

  • Deoxycytidine kinase (DCK) is required for the phosphorylation of several deoxyribonucleosides and their nucleoside analogs. Deficiency of DCK is associated with resistance to antiviral and anticancer chemotherapeutic agents. Conversely, increased deoxycytidine kinase activity is associated with increased activation of these compounds to cytotoxic nucleoside triphosphate derivatives. DCK is clinically important because of its relationship to drug resistance and sensitivity. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

GeneCards Summary for DCK Gene

DCK (Deoxycytidine Kinase) is a Protein Coding gene. Diseases associated with DCK include Purine Nucleoside Phosphorylase Deficiency and Periampullary Adenocarcinoma. Among its related pathways are superpathway of pyrimidine deoxyribonucleotides de novo biosynthesis and Metabolism of nucleotides. Gene Ontology (GO) annotations related to this gene include protein homodimerization activity and nucleoside kinase activity. An important paralog of this gene is DGUOK.

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Summary for DCK Gene

  • Phosphorylates the deoxyribonucleosides deoxycytidine, deoxyguanosine and deoxyadenosine (PubMed:1996353, PubMed:12808445, PubMed:18377927, PubMed:19159229, PubMed:20614893). Has broad substrate specificity, and does not display selectivity based on the chirality of the substrate. It is also an essential enzyme for the phosphorylation of numerous nucleoside analogs widely employed as antiviral and chemotherapeutic agents (PubMed:12808445).

Gene Wiki entry for DCK Gene

No data available for CIViC Summary , Tocris Summary , PharmGKB "VIP" Summary , Rfam classification and piRNA Summary for DCK Gene

Genomics for DCK Gene

GeneHancer (GH) Regulatory Elements Pubs

Promoters and enhancers for DCK Gene
- Elite GeneHancer and/or Elite GeneHancer-gene association Download GeneHancer data from 2017 publication | Request up-to-date GeneHancer data (full dataset)

GeneHancers around DCK on the GeneHancer Hub at the UCSC Golden Path

Cistromic (ChIP-Seq) regulation report from SPP (The Signaling Pathways Project) for DCK

Top Transcription factor binding sites by QIAGEN in the DCK gene promoter:
  • AML1a
  • CUTL1
  • HFH-1
  • HNF-3beta
  • p53
  • POU2F1
  • POU2F1a
  • POU3F1
  • STAT5B
  • ZIC2

Genomic Locations for DCK Gene

Latest Assembly
chr4:70,992,538-71,030,914
(GRCh38/hg38)
Size:
38,377 bases
Orientation:
Plus strand

Previous Assembly
chr4:71,859,366-71,896,631
(GRCh37/hg19 by Entrez Gene)
Size:
37,266 bases
Orientation:
Plus strand

chr4:71,858,255-71,896,631
(GRCh37/hg19 by Ensembl)
Size:
38,377 bases
Orientation:
Plus strand

Genomic View for DCK Gene

Genes around DCK on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Cytogenetic band:
DCK Gene in genomic location: bands according to Ensembl, locations according to GeneLoc (and/or Entrez Gene and/or Ensembl if different)
Genomic Location for DCK Gene
GeneLoc Logo Genomic Neighborhood Exon StructureGene Density

RefSeq DNA sequence for DCK Gene

Proteins for DCK Gene

  • Protein details for DCK Gene (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)

    Protein Symbol:
    P27707-DCK_HUMAN
    Recommended name:
    Deoxycytidine kinase
    Protein Accession:
    P27707
    Secondary Accessions:
    • B2R8V6
    • Q5TZY7
    • Q6FI11

    Protein attributes for DCK Gene

    Size:
    260 amino acids
    Molecular mass:
    30519 Da
    Quaternary structure:
    • Homodimer.

    Three dimensional structures from OCA and Proteopedia for DCK Gene

neXtProt entry for DCK Gene

Selected DME Specific Peptides for DCK Gene

P27707:
  • KKISIEGNI
  • FERSVYSDRYIFA
  • EDWEVVPEPVARWCNVQSTQ

Post-translational modifications for DCK Gene

  • Phosphorylated and activated in vitro upon phosphorylation at Ser-74 by CSNK1D/CK1.
  • Ubiquitination at Lys34, Lys88, Lys117, Lys211, and Lys254
  • Modification sites at PhosphoSitePlus

Other Protein References for DCK Gene

Domains & Families for DCK Gene

Gene Families for DCK Gene

HGNC:
Human Protein Atlas (HPA):
  • Enzymes
  • FDA approved drug targets
  • Predicted intracellular proteins

Protein Domains for DCK Gene

InterPro:
Blocks:
  • Deoxynucleoside kinase

Suggested Antigen Peptide Sequences for DCK Gene

GenScript: Design optimal peptide antigens:
  • Deoxycytidine kinase (DCK_HUMAN)

Graphical View of Domain Structure for InterPro Entry

P27707

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot:

DCK_HUMAN :
  • Belongs to the DCK/DGK family.
Family:
  • Belongs to the DCK/DGK family.
genes like me logo Genes that share domains with DCK: view

Function for DCK Gene

Molecular function for DCK Gene

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Function:
Phosphorylates the deoxyribonucleosides deoxycytidine, deoxyguanosine and deoxyadenosine (PubMed:1996353, PubMed:12808445, PubMed:18377927, PubMed:19159229, PubMed:20614893). Has broad substrate specificity, and does not display selectivity based on the chirality of the substrate. It is also an essential enzyme for the phosphorylation of numerous nucleoside analogs widely employed as antiviral and chemotherapeutic agents (PubMed:12808445).
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot CatalyticActivity:
Reaction=2'-deoxycytidine + a ribonucleoside 5'-triphosphate = a ribonucleoside 5'-diphosphate + dCMP + H(+); Xref=Rhea:RHEA:20061, ChEBI:CHEBI:15378, ChEBI:CHEBI:15698, ChEBI:CHEBI:57566, ChEBI:CHEBI:57930, ChEBI:CHEBI:61557; EC=2.7.1.74; Evidence={ECO:0000269|PubMed:12808445, ECO:0000269|PubMed:18377927, ECO:0000269|PubMed:19159229, ECO:0000269|PubMed:1996353, ECO:0000269|PubMed:20614893};.
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot CatalyticActivity:
Reaction=2'-deoxyadenosine + ATP = ADP + dAMP + H(+); Xref=Rhea:RHEA:23452, ChEBI:CHEBI:15378, ChEBI:CHEBI:17256, ChEBI:CHEBI:30616, ChEBI:CHEBI:58245, ChEBI:CHEBI:456216; EC=2.7.1.76; Evidence={ECO:0000269|PubMed:18377927, ECO:0000269|PubMed:19159229, ECO:0000269|PubMed:1996353};.
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot CatalyticActivity:
Reaction=2'-deoxyguanosine + ATP = ADP + dGMP + H(+); Xref=Rhea:RHEA:19201, ChEBI:CHEBI:15378, ChEBI:CHEBI:17172, ChEBI:CHEBI:30616, ChEBI:CHEBI:57673, ChEBI:CHEBI:456216; EC=2.7.1.113; Evidence={ECO:0000269|PubMed:19159229, ECO:0000269|PubMed:1996353};.
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot BiophysicochemicalProperties:
Kinetic parameters: KM=6.2 uM for deoxycytidine (dC) {ECO:0000269|PubMed:12808445}; KM=15.5 uM for cytarabine (araC) {ECO:0000269|PubMed:12808445}; KM=22 uM for gemcitabine (dC) {ECO:0000269|PubMed:12808445};
GENATLAS Biochemistry:
deoxycytidine kinase,pyrimidine salvage pathway

Enzyme Numbers (IUBMB) for DCK Gene

Phenotypes From GWAS Catalog for DCK Gene

Gene Ontology (GO) - Molecular Function for DCK Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0000166 nucleotide binding IEA --
GO:0004136 deoxyadenosine kinase activity IEA --
GO:0004137 deoxycytidine kinase activity IBA,IDA 12808445
GO:0004138 deoxyguanosine kinase activity IEA --
GO:0005524 ATP binding IEA --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with DCK: view
genes like me logo Genes that share phenotypes with DCK: view

Animal Models for DCK Gene

MGI Knock Outs for DCK:
  • Dck Dck<tm1.1Radu>

Inhibitory RNAs for research

  • Search GeneCopoeia for shRNA, lentivirus and/or AAV clone products for DCK

No data available for Human Phenotype Ontology , Transcription Factor Targets and HOMER Transcription for DCK Gene

Localization for DCK Gene

Subcellular locations from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for DCK Gene

Nucleus.

Subcellular locations from

COMPARTMENTS
Extracellular space Cytosol Plasma membrane Cytoskeleton Lysosome Endosome Peroxisome ER Golgi Apparatus Nucleus Mitochondrion 0 1 2 3 4 5 Confidence
COMPARTMENTS Subcellular localization image for DCK gene
Compartment Confidence
nucleus 5
cytosol 5
mitochondrion 4
plasma membrane 2
extracellular 2
cytoskeleton 1
endoplasmic reticulum 1
endosome 1
lysosome 1

Subcellular locations from the

Human Protein Atlas (HPA)

Gene Ontology (GO) - Cellular Components for DCK Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0005634 nucleus IEA --
GO:0005654 nucleoplasm IDA --
GO:0005737 cytoplasm IBA 21873635
GO:0005739 mitochondrion IBA 21873635
GO:0005829 cytosol TAS --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with DCK: view

Pathways & Interactions for DCK Gene

genes like me logo Genes that share pathways with DCK: view

Gene Ontology (GO) - Biological Process for DCK Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0006139 nucleobase-containing compound metabolic process IEA --
GO:0006170 dAMP biosynthetic process IEA --
GO:0006220 pyrimidine nucleotide metabolic process TAS,IDA 12808445
GO:0009157 deoxyribonucleoside monophosphate biosynthetic process IEA --
GO:0016310 phosphorylation IEA --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with DCK: view

No data available for SIGNOR curated interactions for DCK Gene

Drugs & Compounds for DCK Gene

(56) Drugs for DCK Gene - From: DrugBank, PharmGKB, DGIdb, HMDB, and Novoseek

Name Status Disease Links Group Role Mechanism of Action Clinical Trials
Cytarabine Approved, Investigational Pharma Enzyme, substrate 1376
Fludarabine Approved Pharma Target, agonist, inhibitor DNA synthsis inhibitor 1633,1633
Gemcitabine Approved Pharma Enzyme, substrate Ribonucleotide reductase and DNA synthesis inhibitor, Nucleoside Analogs 2590
Clofarabine Approved, Investigational Pharma Enzyme, substrate Antimetabolite,inhibit DNA polymerase and ribonucleotide reductase 168
Emtricitabine Approved, Investigational Pharma Enzyme, substrate 625

(51) Additional Compounds for DCK Gene - From: Novoseek and HMDB

Name Synonyms Role CAS Number PubChem IDs PubMed IDs
ADP
  • 5'-Adenylphosphoric acid
  • Adenosine 5'-diphosphate
  • ADENOSINE-5'-diphosphATE
  • H3ADP
  • 5'-Adenylphosphate
58-64-0
NTP
genes like me logo Genes that share compounds with DCK: view

Transcripts for DCK Gene

mRNA/cDNA for DCK Gene

1 REFSEQ mRNAs :
12 NCBI additional mRNA sequence :
6 Ensembl transcripts including schematic representations, and UCSC links to gene/alias where relevant :

Inhibitory RNAs for research

  • Search GeneCopoeia for shRNA, lentivirus and/or AAV clone products for DCK

Alternative Splicing Database (ASD) splice patterns (SP) for DCK Gene

ExUns: 1a · 1b ^ 2 ^ 3 ^ 4 ^ 5 ^ 6 ^ 7 ^ 8
SP1: - -
SP2: -
SP3: -
SP4: - - -

Relevant External Links for DCK Gene

GeneLoc Exon Structure for
DCK

Expression for DCK Gene

mRNA expression in normal human tissues from GTEx, Illumina, BioGPS, and SAGE for DCK Gene

mRNA expression in embryonic tissues and stem cells from LifeMap Discovery

Protein differential expression in normal tissues from HIPED for DCK Gene

This gene is overexpressed in Bone (49.2).

Integrated Proteomics: protein expression in normal tissues and cell lines from ProteomicsDB, MaxQB, and MOPED for DCK Gene



Protein tissue co-expression partners for DCK Gene

Transcriptomic regulation report from SPP (The Signaling Pathways Project) for DCK

SOURCE GeneReport for Unigene cluster for DCK Gene:

Hs.709

Evidence on tissue expression from TISSUES for DCK Gene

  • Nervous system(3.7)
  • Lymph node(2.6)
  • Intestine(2.6)
  • Bone marrow(2.6)
  • Blood(2.4)
  • Spleen(2.4)
  • Liver(2.3)
  • Pancreas(2.2)
  • Skin(2.1)
genes like me logo Genes that share expression patterns with DCK: view

No data available for mRNA differential expression in normal tissues , mRNA Expression by UniProt/SwissProt and Phenotype-based relationships between genes and organs from Gene ORGANizer for DCK Gene

Orthologs for DCK Gene

This gene was present in the common ancestor of eukaryotes.

Orthologs for DCK Gene

Organism Taxonomy Gene Similarity Type Details
Chimpanzee
(Pan troglodytes)
Mammalia DCK 29 30
  • 99.36 (n)
OneToOne
Cow
(Bos Taurus)
Mammalia DCK 29 30
  • 92.82 (n)
OneToOne
Dog
(Canis familiaris)
Mammalia DCK 29 30
  • 89.87 (n)
OneToOne
Rat
(Rattus norvegicus)
Mammalia Dck 29
  • 89.45 (n)
Mouse
(Mus musculus)
Mammalia Dck 29 16 30
  • 88.33 (n)
OneToOne
Oppossum
(Monodelphis domestica)
Mammalia DCK 30
  • 87 (a)
OneToOne
Platypus
(Ornithorhynchus anatinus)
Mammalia DCK 30
  • 75 (a)
OneToOne
Chicken
(Gallus gallus)
Aves DCK 29 30
  • 78.39 (n)
OneToOne
Lizard
(Anolis carolinensis)
Reptilia DCK 30
  • 80 (a)
OneToOne
Tropical Clawed Frog
(Silurana tropicalis)
Amphibia dck.1 29
  • 72.69 (n)
Str.15187 29
African clawed frog
(Xenopus laevis)
Amphibia Xl.6839 29
Zebrafish
(Danio rerio)
Actinopterygii dck 29 30
  • 66.67 (n)
OneToOne
Dr.24858 29
Rainbow Trout
(Oncorhynchus mykiss)
Actinopterygii Omy.10686 29
Fruit Fly
(Drosophila melanogaster)
Insecta dnk 30
  • 27 (a)
OneToMany
Rice
(Oryza sativa)
Liliopsida Os05g0430200 29
  • 54.71 (n)
Sea Squirt
(Ciona savignyi)
Ascidiacea -- 30
  • 44 (a)
OneToMany
Species where no ortholog for DCK was found in the sources mined by GeneCards:
  • A. gosspyii yeast (Eremothecium gossypii)
  • Actinobacteria (Mycobacterium tuberculosis)
  • African malaria mosquito (Anopheles gambiae)
  • Alicante grape (Vitis vinifera)
  • Alpha proteobacteria (Wolbachia pipientis)
  • Amoeba (Dictyostelium discoideum)
  • Archea (Pyrococcus horikoshii)
  • Baker's yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae)
  • Barley (Hordeum vulgare)
  • Beta proteobacteria (Neisseria meningitidis)
  • Bread mold (Neurospora crassa)
  • Chromalveolata (Phytophthora infestans)
  • Common water flea (Daphnia pulex)
  • Corn (Zea mays)
  • E. coli (Escherichia coli)
  • Filamentous fungi (Aspergillus nidulans)
  • Firmicute Bacteria (Streptococcus pneumoniae)
  • Fission Yeast (Schizosaccharomyces pombe)
  • Green Algae (Chlamydomonas reinhardtii)
  • Honey Bee (Apis mellifera)
  • K. Lactis Yeast (Kluyveromyces lactis)
  • Loblloly Pine (Pinus taeda)
  • Malaria Parasite (Plasmodium falciparum)
  • Medicago Trunc (Medicago Truncatula)
  • Moss (Physcomitrella patens)
  • Orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus)
  • Pig (Sus scrofa)
  • Rice Blast Fungus (Magnaporthe grisea)
  • Schistosome Parasite (Schistosoma mansoni)
  • Sea Anemone (Nematostella vectensis)
  • Sea Vase (Ciona intestinalis)
  • Sea Urchin (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus)
  • Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor)
  • Soybean (Glycine max)
  • Stem Rust Fungus (Puccinia graminis)
  • Sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum)
  • Thale Cress (Arabidopsis thaliana)
  • Tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum)
  • Toxoplasmosis (Toxoplasma gondii)
  • Trichoplax (Trichoplax adhaerens)
  • Wheat (Triticum aestivum)
  • Worm (Caenorhabditis elegans)

Evolution for DCK Gene

ENSEMBL:
Gene Tree for DCK (if available)
TreeFam:
Gene Tree for DCK (if available)
Aminode:
Evolutionary constrained regions (ECRs) for DCK: view image
Alliance of Genome Resources:
Additional Orthologs for DCK

Paralogs for DCK Gene

Paralogs for DCK Gene

(7) SIMAP similar genes for DCK Gene using alignment to 5 proteins:

  • DCK_HUMAN
  • D6R9C6_HUMAN
  • D6RCP9_HUMAN
  • D6RFG8_HUMAN
  • D6RG38_HUMAN
genes like me logo Genes that share paralogs with DCK: view

Variants for DCK Gene

Sequence variations, with clinical significance, from ClinVar and Humsavar, with links to dbSNP for DCK Gene

SNP ID Clinical significance and condition Chr 04 pos Variation AA Info Type
rs1578429814 Likely Benign: not provided 71,023,583(+) T/C
NM_000788.3(DCK):c.426T>C (p.Tyr142=)
SYNONYMOUS

dbSNP identifiers (rs#s) for variants without ClinVar clinical significance for DCK Gene

All consequence types are included: molecular consequences (e.g. missense, synonymous), and location-based (e.g. intron, upstream).

Structural Variations from Database of Genomic Variants (DGV) for DCK Gene

Variant ID Type Subtype PubMed ID
esv3325241 CNV insertion 20981092
nsv594652 CNV loss 21841781

Variation tolerance for DCK Gene

Residual Variation Intolerance Score: 57.7% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)
Gene Damage Index Score: 3.86; 58.92% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)

Additional Variant Information for DCK Gene

Human Gene Mutation Database (HGMD)
DCK
SNPedia medical, phenotypic, and genealogical associations of SNPs for
DCK
Leiden Open Variation Database (LOVD)
DCK

SNP Genotyping and Copy Number Assays for research

No data available for Polymorphic Variants from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for DCK Gene

Disorders for DCK Gene

MalaCards: The human disease database

(15) MalaCards diseases for DCK Gene - From: COP and GCD

Disorder Aliases PubMed IDs
purine nucleoside phosphorylase deficiency
  • nucleoside phosphorylase deficiency
periampullary adenocarcinoma
hairy cell leukemia
  • hcl-v
neurofibrosarcoma
  • neurosarcoma
uterine sarcoma
  • sarcoma of the uterus
- elite association - COSMIC cancer census association via MalaCards
Search DCK in MalaCards View complete list of genes associated with diseases

Additional Disease Information for DCK

Human Genome Epidemiology Navigator
(HuGE)
Atlas
ATLAS of Genetics and Cytogenetics in Oncology and Haematology
Open Targets Platform
Open Targets Platform
genes like me logo Genes that share disorders with DCK: view

No data available for UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot and Genatlas for DCK Gene

Publications for DCK Gene

  1. [Correlation of deoxycytidine kinase gene expression with fludarabine resistance in patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia]. (PMID: 20137114) Yao L … Li JY (Zhongguo shi yan xue ye xue za zhi 2010) 3 22 25
  2. Single nucleotide polymorphisms of gemcitabine metabolic genes and pancreatic cancer survival and drug toxicity. (PMID: 20028759) Okazaki T … Li D (Clinical cancer research : an official journal of the American Association for Cancer Research 2010) 3 22 40
  3. Extending thymidine kinase activity to the catalytic repertoire of human deoxycytidine kinase. (PMID: 19159229) Hazra S … Lavie A (Biochemistry 2009) 3 4 22
  4. Twenty novel genetic variations and haplotype structures of the DCK gene encoding human deoxycytidine kinase (dCK). (PMID: 18974616) Kim SR … Sawada J (Drug metabolism and pharmacokinetics 2008) 3 22 40
  5. An association between RRM1 haplotype and gemcitabine-induced neutropenia in breast cancer patients. (PMID: 17602053) Rha SY … Chung HC (The oncologist 2007) 3 22 40

Products for DCK Gene

Sources for DCK Gene