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Aliases for CYC1 Gene

Aliases for CYC1 Gene

  • Cytochrome C1 2 3 5
  • Ubiquinol-Cytochrome-C Reductase Complex Cytochrome C1 Subunit 3 4
  • Cytochrome B-C1 Complex Subunit 4 3 4
  • Complex III Subunit IV 3 4
  • Complex III Subunit 4 3 4
  • Cytochrome C-1 3 4
  • Cytochrome C1, Heme Protein, Mitochondrial 3
  • MC3DN6 3
  • UQCR4 3

External Ids for CYC1 Gene

Previous GeneCards Identifiers for CYC1 Gene

  • GC08U990014
  • GC08M145286
  • GC08P144925
  • GC08P145255
  • GC08P145221
  • GC08P145149
  • GC08P140425

Summaries for CYC1 Gene

Entrez Gene Summary for CYC1 Gene

  • This gene encodes a subunit of the cytochrome bc1 complex, which plays an important role in the mitochondrial respiratory chain by transferring electrons from the Rieske iron-sulfur protein to cytochrome c. Mutations in this gene may cause mitochondrial complex III deficiency, nuclear type 6. [provided by RefSeq, Dec 2013]

GeneCards Summary for CYC1 Gene

CYC1 (Cytochrome C1) is a Protein Coding gene. Diseases associated with CYC1 include Mitochondrial Complex Iii Deficiency, Nuclear Type 6 and Isolated Complex Iii Deficiency. Among its related pathways are Metabolism and Respiratory electron transport, ATP synthesis by chemiosmotic coupling, and heat production by uncoupling proteins.. Gene Ontology (GO) annotations related to this gene include iron ion binding and electron transfer activity.

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for CYC1 Gene

  • This is the heme-containing component of the cytochrome b-c1 complex, which accepts electrons from Rieske protein and transfers electrons to cytochrome c in the mitochondrial respiratory chain.

Gene Wiki entry for CYC1 Gene

Additional gene information for CYC1 Gene

No data available for CIViC summary , Tocris Summary , PharmGKB "VIP" Summary , fRNAdb sequence ontologies and piRNA Summary for CYC1 Gene

Genomics for CYC1 Gene

GeneHancer (GH) Regulatory Elements for CYC1 Gene

Promoters and enhancers for CYC1 Gene
GeneHancer (GH) Identifier GH Type GH
GH Sources Gene Association Score Total Score TSS distance (kb) Number of Genes Away Size (kb) Transcription Factor
Binding Sites
Gene Targets
GH08J144094 Promoter/Enhancer 2 EPDnew Ensembl ENCODE 650.7 +1.5 1543 4.7 HDGF PKNOX1 CLOCK ARID4B SIN3A DMAP1 ZBTB7B YY1 SLC30A9 POLR2B CYC1 WDR97 ZNF7 CPSF1 ZNF250 ZNF251 LRRC14 ENSG00000255182 VPS28 ADCK5
GH08J143968 Promoter/Enhancer 2.5 EPDnew Ensembl ENCODE dbSUPER 11.2 -120.8 -120787 11 HDGF CLOCK FOXA2 ZFP64 ARID4B SIN3A DMAP1 ZNF2 ZBTB7B IRF4 PLEC ZNF623 ZNF7 ZNF251 LRRC14 ZNF16 CPSF1 GPAA1 WDR97 ZNF707
GH08J144062 Promoter/Enhancer 1.7 EPDnew FANTOM5 ENCODE dbSUPER 12.2 -31.5 -31525 2.3 ELF3 CTCF TFAP4 ZNF792 SAP130 ARID4B MAX KDM3A RAD21 YY1 EXOSC4 OPLAH WDR97 ENSG00000255224 SPATC1 CYC1 MAF1 SHARPIN PARP10 PLEC
GH08J144073 Enhancer 1.4 FANTOM5 Ensembl ENCODE 12.2 -20.6 -20630 1.2 HDGF PKNOX1 ATF1 SMAD1 ARNT TCF12 POLR2B ZNF766 ATF7 ZNF491 WDR97 ZNF251 ENSG00000254533 TSSK5P SPATC1 ENSG00000255085 CYC1 MAF1 SHARPIN ZNF252P
GH08J144046 Enhancer 1.1 Ensembl ENCODE dbSUPER 11.8 -45.0 -45046 6.7 TFAP4 USF1 ARID4B ZIC2 HIC1 CCNT2 ZFHX2 POLR2B POLR2A RBM22 SHARPIN ENSG00000255224 GPAA1 CYC1 MAF1 WDR97 PLEC C8orf82 RHPN1 ENSG00000254690
- Elite GeneHancer and/or Elite GeneHancer-gene association Download GeneHancer data from 2017 publication | Request up-to-date GeneHancer data (full dataset)

GeneHancers around CYC1 on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Top Transcription factor binding sites by QIAGEN in the CYC1 gene promoter:
  • Elk-1
  • E2F
  • E2F-5
  • E2F-4
  • E2F-3a
  • E2F-2
  • E2F-1
  • c-Ets-1
  • YY1

Genomic Locations for CYC1 Gene

Genomic Locations for CYC1 Gene
2,501 bases
Plus strand
2,499 bases
Plus strand

Genomic View for CYC1 Gene

Genes around CYC1 on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Cytogenetic band:
CYC1 Gene in genomic location: bands according to Ensembl, locations according to GeneLoc (and/or Entrez Gene and/or Ensembl if different)
Genomic Location for CYC1 Gene
GeneLoc Logo Genomic Neighborhood Exon StructureGene Density

RefSeq DNA sequence for CYC1 Gene

Proteins for CYC1 Gene

  • Protein details for CYC1 Gene (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)

    Protein Symbol:
    Recommended name:
    Cytochrome c1, heme protein, mitochondrial
    Protein Accession:
    Secondary Accessions:
    • Q5U062
    • Q6FHS7

    Protein attributes for CYC1 Gene

    325 amino acids
    Molecular mass:
    35422 Da
    Quaternary structure:
    • The bc1 complex contains 11 subunits: 3 respiratory subunits (cytochrome b, cytochrome c1 and Rieske/UQCRFS1), 2 core proteins (UQCRC1/QCR1 and UQCRC2/QCR2) and 6 low-molecular weight proteins (UQCRH/QCR6, UQCRB/QCR7, UQCRQ/QCR8, UQCR10/QCR9, UQCR11/QCR10 and a cleavage product of Rieske/UQCRFS1).

    Three dimensional structures from OCA and Proteopedia for CYC1 Gene

neXtProt entry for CYC1 Gene

Post-translational modifications for CYC1 Gene

Other Protein References for CYC1 Gene

ENSEMBL proteins:
REFSEQ proteins:

No data available for DME Specific Peptides for CYC1 Gene

Domains & Families for CYC1 Gene

Gene Families for CYC1 Gene

Protein Domains for CYC1 Gene

Suggested Antigen Peptide Sequences for CYC1 Gene

Graphical View of Domain Structure for InterPro Entry



  • Belongs to the cytochrome c family.
  • Belongs to the cytochrome c family.
genes like me logo Genes that share domains with CYC1: view

Function for CYC1 Gene

Molecular function for CYC1 Gene

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Function:
This is the heme-containing component of the cytochrome b-c1 complex, which accepts electrons from Rieske protein and transfers electrons to cytochrome c in the mitochondrial respiratory chain.
GENATLAS Biochemistry:
cytochrome c-1,subunit of the mitochondrial bc1 complex III of mitochondrial respiratory chain,oxidative phosphorylation(OXPHOS)

Phenotypes From GWAS Catalog for CYC1 Gene

Gene Ontology (GO) - Molecular Function for CYC1 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0009055 electron transfer activity IEA --
GO:0020037 heme binding IEA --
GO:0045153 electron transporter, transferring electrons within CoQH2-cytochrome c reductase complex activity IBA --
GO:0045155 electron transporter, transferring electrons from CoQH2-cytochrome c reductase complex and cytochrome c oxidase complex activity TAS 2536365
GO:0046872 metal ion binding IEA --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with CYC1: view
genes like me logo Genes that share phenotypes with CYC1: view

Human Phenotype Ontology for CYC1 Gene

HPO Id HPO Name Alternative Ids Definition Synonyms

Animal Model Products

CRISPR Products

miRNA for CYC1 Gene

miRTarBase miRNAs that target CYC1

Inhibitory RNA Products

  • Search GeneCopoeia for shRNA, lentivirus and/or AAV clone products for CYC1

No data available for Enzyme Numbers (IUBMB) , Animal Models , Transcription Factor Targets and HOMER Transcription for CYC1 Gene

Localization for CYC1 Gene

Subcellular locations from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for CYC1 Gene

Mitochondrion inner membrane; Single-pass membrane protein; Intermembrane side.

Subcellular locations from

Extracellular space Cytosol Plasma membrane Cytoskeleton Lysosome Endosome Peroxisome ER Golgi Apparatus Nucleus Mitochondrion 0 1 2 3 4 5 Confidence
COMPARTMENTS Subcellular localization image for CYC1 gene
Compartment Confidence
mitochondrion 5
nucleus 5
plasma membrane 1
extracellular 1
cytosol 1
lysosome 1

Subcellular locations from the

Human Protein Atlas (HPA)

Gene Ontology (GO) - Cellular Components for CYC1 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0005634 nucleus HDA 21630459
GO:0005739 mitochondrion TAS,IDA --
GO:0005743 mitochondrial inner membrane TAS --
GO:0005750 mitochondrial respiratory chain complex III IBA --
GO:0016020 membrane HDA,IEA 19946888
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with CYC1: view

Pathways & Interactions for CYC1 Gene

genes like me logo Genes that share pathways with CYC1: view

Gene Ontology (GO) - Biological Process for CYC1 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0006122 mitochondrial electron transport, ubiquinol to cytochrome c TAS --
GO:0033762 response to glucagon IEA --
GO:0042776 mitochondrial ATP synthesis coupled proton transport IBA --
GO:0055114 oxidation-reduction process IEA --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with CYC1: view

No data available for SIGNOR curated interactions for CYC1 Gene

Drugs & Compounds for CYC1 Gene

(20) Drugs for CYC1 Gene - From: DrugBank, HMDB, and Novoseek

Name Status Disease Links Group Role Mechanism of Action Clinical Trials
Ubiquinone-2 Experimental Pharma Target 0
(5S)-3-ANILINO-5-(2,4-DIFLUOROPHENYL)-5-METHYL-1,3-OXAZOLIDINE-2,4-DIONE Experimental Pharma Target 0
2-Hexyloxy-6-Hydroxymethyl-Tetrahydro-Pyran-3,4,5-Triol Experimental Pharma Target 0
2-NONYL-4-HYDROXYQUINOLINE N-OXIDE Experimental Pharma Target 0
5-HEPTYL-6-HYDROXY-1,3-BENZOTHIAZOLE-4,7-DIONE Experimental Pharma Target 0

(7) Additional Compounds for CYC1 Gene - From: HMDB and Novoseek

Name Synonyms Role CAS Number PubChem IDs PubMed IDs
  • CoQH2
  • Coenzymes QH2
  • Reduced ubiquinone
  • Ubiquinol
  • Ubiquinone-1
genes like me logo Genes that share compounds with CYC1: view

Transcripts for CYC1 Gene

mRNA/cDNA for CYC1 Gene

Unigene Clusters for CYC1 Gene

Cytochrome c-1:
Representative Sequences:

CRISPR Products

Inhibitory RNA Products

  • Search GeneCopoeia for shRNA, lentivirus and/or AAV clone products for CYC1

Alternative Splicing Database (ASD) splice patterns (SP) for CYC1 Gene

ExUns: 1 ^ 2a · 2b · 2c ^ 3a · 3b ^ 4a · 4b ^ 5 ^ 6a · 6b ^ 7
SP2: -
SP3: -

Relevant External Links for CYC1 Gene

GeneLoc Exon Structure for
ECgene alternative splicing isoforms for

Expression for CYC1 Gene

mRNA expression in normal human tissues from GTEx, Illumina, BioGPS, and CGAP SAGE for CYC1 Gene

mRNA differential expression in normal tissues according to GTEx for CYC1 Gene

This gene is overexpressed in Heart - Left Ventricle (x4.8).

Protein differential expression in normal tissues from HIPED for CYC1 Gene

This gene is overexpressed in Heart (12.1), Brain (8.2), and Nasal epithelium (6.1).

Integrated Proteomics: protein expression in normal tissues and cell lines from ProteomicsDB, MaxQB, and MOPED for CYC1 Gene

Protein tissue co-expression partners for CYC1 Gene

- Elite partner

NURSA nuclear receptor signaling pathways regulating expression of CYC1 Gene:


SOURCE GeneReport for Unigene cluster for CYC1 Gene:


Evidence on tissue expression from TISSUES for CYC1 Gene

  • Lung(4.8)
  • Skin(4.8)
  • Nervous system(4.8)
  • Liver(4.6)
  • Heart(3.8)
  • Muscle(3.8)
  • Pancreas(3.5)
  • Intestine(3.1)
  • Stomach(2.8)
  • Eye(2.5)
  • Kidney(2.5)

Phenotype-based relationships between genes and organs from Gene ORGANizer for CYC1 Gene

Germ Layers:
  • ectoderm
  • endoderm
  • mesoderm
  • cardiovascular
  • digestive
  • endocrine
  • immune
  • integumentary
  • nervous
  • reproductive
  • respiratory
  • skeletal muscle
  • skeleton
  • urinary
Head and neck:
  • brain
  • cerebellum
  • cranial nerve
  • ear
  • eye
  • eyelid
  • face
  • forehead
  • head
  • larynx
  • mouth
  • neck
  • nose
  • skull
  • tongue
  • vocal cord
  • heart
  • heart valve
  • lung
  • abdominal wall
  • adrenal gland
  • biliary tract
  • gallbladder
  • kidney
  • liver
  • pancreas
  • testicle
  • arm
  • digit
  • finger
  • foot
  • hand
  • lower limb
  • toe
  • upper limb
  • blood
  • coagulation system
  • hair
  • peripheral nerve
  • peripheral nervous system
  • red blood cell
  • skin
  • spinal cord
  • sweat gland
  • white blood cell
genes like me logo Genes that share expression patterns with CYC1: view

No data available for mRNA expression in embryonic tissues and stem cells from LifeMap Discovery and mRNA Expression by UniProt/SwissProt for CYC1 Gene

Orthologs for CYC1 Gene

This gene was present in the common ancestor of eukaryotes.

Orthologs for CYC1 Gene

Organism Taxonomy Gene Similarity Type Details
(Pan troglodytes)
Mammalia CYC1 34 33
  • 99.38 (n)
(Bos Taurus)
Mammalia CYC1 34 33
  • 90.56 (n)
(Canis familiaris)
Mammalia CYC1 34 33
  • 89.33 (n)
(Mus musculus)
Mammalia Cyc1 16 34 33
  • 87.59 (n)
(Rattus norvegicus)
Mammalia Cyc1 33
  • 87.35 (n)
(Monodelphis domestica)
Mammalia CYC1 34
  • 78 (a)
(Anolis carolinensis)
Reptilia CYC1 34
  • 80 (a)
tropical clawed frog
(Silurana tropicalis)
Amphibia MGC75973 33 33
  • 70.76 (n)
African clawed frog
(Xenopus laevis)
Amphibia cyc1-prov 33
(Danio rerio)
Actinopterygii cyc1 34 33
  • 67.86 (n)
srnyz104 33
rainbow trout
(Oncorhynchus mykiss)
Actinopterygii Omy.8431 33
African malaria mosquito
(Anopheles gambiae)
Insecta AgaP_AGAP006936 33
  • 65.16 (n)
fruit fly
(Drosophila melanogaster)
Insecta CG4769 34 35 33
  • 61.9 (n)
CG14508 34 35
  • 46 (a)
(Caenorhabditis elegans)
Secernentea cyc-1 34 33
  • 56.46 (n)
C54G4.8 35
  • 49 (a)
A. gosspyii yeast
(Ashbya gossypii)
Saccharomycetes AGOS_ADR208W 33
  • 61.77 (n)
K. lactis yeast
(Kluyveromyces lactis)
Saccharomycetes KLLA0F16555g 33
  • 56.73 (n)
baker's yeast
(Saccharomyces cerevisiae)
Saccharomycetes CYT1 36 34 33
  • 56.6 (n)
thale cress
(Arabidopsis thaliana)
eudicotyledons AT5G40810 33
  • 57.64 (n)
(Oryza sativa)
Liliopsida Os01g0935700 33
  • 60.46 (n)
Os.6336 33
(Zea mays)
Liliopsida Zm.788 33
(Hordeum vulgare)
Liliopsida Hv.526 33
(Triticum aestivum)
Liliopsida Ta.28376 33
bread mold
(Neurospora crassa)
Ascomycetes NCU09816 33
  • 61.65 (n)
fission yeast
(Schizosaccharomyces pombe)
Schizosaccharomycetes cyt1 33
  • 58.5 (n)
sea squirt
(Ciona savignyi)
Ascidiacea -- 34
  • 50 (a)
Cin.4648 33
sea squirt
(Ciona intestinalis)
Ascidiacea Cin.4648 33
Species where no ortholog for CYC1 was found in the sources mined by GeneCards:
  • Actinobacteria (Mycobacterium tuberculosis)
  • Alicante grape (Vitis vinifera)
  • alpha proteobacteria (Wolbachia pipientis)
  • amoeba (Dictyostelium discoideum)
  • Archea (Pyrococcus horikoshii)
  • beta proteobacteria (Neisseria meningitidis)
  • chicken (Gallus gallus)
  • Chromalveolata (Phytophthora infestans)
  • common water flea (Daphnia pulex)
  • E. coli (Escherichia coli)
  • filamentous fungi (Aspergillus nidulans)
  • Firmicute bacteria (Streptococcus pneumoniae)
  • green algae (Chlamydomonas reinhardtii)
  • honey bee (Apis mellifera)
  • loblloly pine (Pinus taeda)
  • malaria parasite (Plasmodium falciparum)
  • medicago trunc (Medicago Truncatula)
  • moss (Physcomitrella patens)
  • orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus)
  • pig (Sus scrofa)
  • platypus (Ornithorhynchus anatinus)
  • rice blast fungus (Magnaporthe grisea)
  • schistosome parasite (Schistosoma mansoni)
  • sea anemone (Nematostella vectensis)
  • sea urchin (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus)
  • sorghum (Sorghum bicolor)
  • soybean (Glycine max)
  • stem rust fungus (Puccinia graminis)
  • sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum)
  • tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum)
  • toxoplasmosis (Toxoplasma gondii)
  • Trichoplax (Trichoplax adhaerens)

Evolution for CYC1 Gene

Gene Tree for CYC1 (if available)
Gene Tree for CYC1 (if available)
Evolutionary constrained regions (ECRs) for CYC1: view image

Paralogs for CYC1 Gene

No data available for Paralogs for CYC1 Gene

Variants for CYC1 Gene

Sequence variations from dbSNP and Humsavar for CYC1 Gene

SNP ID Clin Chr 08 pos Variation AA Info Type
rs587777041 pathogenic, Mitochondrial complex III deficiency, nuclear type 6, Mitochondrial complex III deficiency, nuclear 6 (MC3DN6) [MIM:615453] 144,095,991(+) G/T coding_sequence_variant, missense_variant
rs587777042 pathogenic, Mitochondrial complex III deficiency, nuclear type 6, not provided, Mitochondrial complex III deficiency, nuclear 6 (MC3DN6) [MIM:615453] 144,096,615(+) C/T coding_sequence_variant, missense_variant
rs144257411 likely-benign, not provided 144,095,930(+) T/C coding_sequence_variant, missense_variant
rs1021549129 likely-benign, not specified 144,096,653(+) G/A coding_sequence_variant, synonymous_variant
rs191769818 likely-benign, not specified 144,096,328(+) C/T intron_variant

Structural Variations from Database of Genomic Variants (DGV) for CYC1 Gene

Variant ID Type Subtype PubMed ID
dgv12431n54 CNV loss 21841781
dgv12433n54 CNV gain 21841781
dgv906n27 CNV loss 19166990
esv2738050 CNV deletion 23290073
esv2759651 CNV gain 17122850
esv29971 CNV loss 17803354
nsv1025071 CNV gain 25217958
nsv428208 CNV gain 18775914
nsv466014 CNV loss 19166990
nsv470249 CNV loss 18288195
nsv470250 CNV gain 18288195
nsv515809 CNV gain+loss 19592680
nsv612907 CNV gain+loss 21841781
nsv612914 CNV loss 21841781
nsv612915 CNV loss 21841781
nsv950015 CNV deletion 24416366

Variation tolerance for CYC1 Gene

Residual Variation Intolerance Score: 37.3% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)
Gene Damage Index Score: 0.85; 17.76% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)

Additional Variant Information for CYC1 Gene

Human Gene Mutation Database (HGMD)
SNPedia medical, phenotypic, and genealogical associations of SNPs for

SNP Genotyping and Copy Number Assay Products

No data available for Polymorphic Variants from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for CYC1 Gene

Disorders for CYC1 Gene

MalaCards: The human disease database

(4) MalaCards diseases for CYC1 Gene - From: HGMD, OMIM, ClinVar, GTR, Orphanet, Swiss-Prot, DISEASES, and GeneCards

Disorder Aliases PubMed IDs
mitochondrial complex iii deficiency, nuclear type 6
  • mc3dn6
isolated complex iii deficiency
  • isolated coq-cytochrome c reductase deficiency
mitochondrial complex iii deficiency
  • complex 3 mitochondrial respiratory chain deficiency
contagious pustular dermatitis
  • ecthyma contagiosum
- elite association - COSMIC cancer census association via MalaCards
Search CYC1 in MalaCards View complete list of genes associated with diseases


  • Mitochondrial complex III deficiency, nuclear 6 (MC3DN6) [MIM:615453]: An autosomal recessive disorder caused by mitochondrial dysfunction. It is characterized by onset in early childhood of episodic acute lactic acidosis, ketoacidosis, and insulin-responsive hyperglycemia, usually associated with infection. Laboratory studies show decreased activity of mitochondrial complex III. Psychomotor development is normal. {ECO:0000269 PubMed:23910460}. Note=The disease is caused by mutations affecting the gene represented in this entry.

Additional Disease Information for CYC1

Genetic Association Database
Human Genome Epidemiology Navigator
ATLAS of Genetics and Cytogenetics in Oncology and Haematology
genes like me logo Genes that share disorders with CYC1: view

No data available for Genatlas for CYC1 Gene

Publications for CYC1 Gene

  1. Mutations in CYC1, encoding cytochrome c1 subunit of respiratory chain complex III, cause insulin-responsive hyperglycemia. (PMID: 23910460) Gaignard P … Rustin P (American journal of human genetics 2013) 3 4 58
  2. Evaluation of candidate stromal epithelial cross-talk genes identifies association between risk of serous ovarian cancer and TERT, a cancer susceptibility "hot-spot". (PMID: 20628624) Johnatty SE … Australian Cancer Study (Ovarian Cancer) (PLoS genetics 2010) 3 44 58
  3. Genetic variants in nuclear-encoded mitochondrial genes influence AIDS progression. (PMID: 20877624) Hendrickson SL … O'Brien SJ (PloS one 2010) 3 44 58
  4. The status, quality, and expansion of the NIH full-length cDNA project: the Mammalian Gene Collection (MGC). (PMID: 15489334) Gerhard DS … MGC Project Team (Genome research 2004) 3 4 58
  5. A mitochondrial cytochrome b mutation but no mutations of nuclearly encoded subunits in ubiquinol cytochrome c reductase (complex III) deficiency. (PMID: 10453733) Valnot I … Rötig A (Human genetics 1999) 3 4 58

Products for CYC1 Gene

Sources for CYC1 Gene

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