This antimicrobial gene is part of a chemokine superfamily that encodes secreted proteins involved in immunoregulatory and inflammatory processes. The superfamily is divided into four subfamilies based on the arrangement of the N-terminal cysteine residues of the mature peptide. This chemokine, a member of the CXC subfamily, is expressed at sites of inflammation and may suppres... See more...

Aliases for CXCL2 Gene

Aliases for CXCL2 Gene

  • C-X-C Motif Chemokine Ligand 2 2 3 5
  • Macrophage Inflammatory Protein 2-Alpha 3 4
  • Chemokine (C-X-C Motif) Ligand 2 2 3
  • Growth-Regulated Protein Beta 3 4
  • C-X-C Motif Chemokine 2 3 4
  • GRO2 Oncogene 2 3
  • MIP2-Alpha 3 4
  • Gro-Beta 3 4
  • MIP2A 3 4
  • SCYB2 3 4
  • GRO2 3 4
  • Melanoma Growth Stimulatory Activity Beta 3
  • MGSA Beta 3
  • CINC-2a 3
  • MGSA-B 3
  • MIP-2a 3
  • GROb 3
  • MIP2 3
  • GROB 4

External Ids for CXCL2 Gene

Previous HGNC Symbols for CXCL2 Gene

  • GRO2

Previous GeneCards Identifiers for CXCL2 Gene

  • GC04M074951
  • GC04M075202
  • GC04M075363
  • GC04M075429
  • GC04M075329
  • GC04M074962
  • GC04M070774

Summaries for CXCL2 Gene

Entrez Gene Summary for CXCL2 Gene

  • This antimicrobial gene is part of a chemokine superfamily that encodes secreted proteins involved in immunoregulatory and inflammatory processes. The superfamily is divided into four subfamilies based on the arrangement of the N-terminal cysteine residues of the mature peptide. This chemokine, a member of the CXC subfamily, is expressed at sites of inflammation and may suppress hematopoietic progenitor cell proliferation. [provided by RefSeq, Sep 2014]

GeneCards Summary for CXCL2 Gene

CXCL2 (C-X-C Motif Chemokine Ligand 2) is a Protein Coding gene. Diseases associated with CXCL2 include Pneumonia and Peritonitis. Among its related pathways are CCR5 Pathway in Macrophages and NOD-like receptor signaling pathway. Gene Ontology (GO) annotations related to this gene include chemokine activity and CXCR chemokine receptor binding. An important paralog of this gene is CXCL1.

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Summary for CXCL2 Gene

  • Produced by activated monocytes and neutrophils and expressed at sites of inflammation. Hematoregulatory chemokine, which, in vitro, suppresses hematopoietic progenitor cell proliferation. GRO-beta(5-73) shows a highly enhanced hematopoietic activity.

Additional gene information for CXCL2 Gene

No data available for CIViC Summary , Tocris Summary , Gene Wiki entry , PharmGKB "VIP" Summary , Rfam classification and piRNA Summary for CXCL2 Gene

Genomics for CXCL2 Gene

GeneHancer (GH) Regulatory Elements for CXCL2 Gene

Promoters and enhancers for CXCL2 Gene
- Elite GeneHancer and/or Elite GeneHancer-gene association Download GeneHancer data from 2017 publication | Request up-to-date GeneHancer data (full dataset)

GeneHancers around CXCL2 on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Top Transcription factor binding sites by QIAGEN in the CXCL2 gene promoter:
  • AML1a
  • C/EBPalpha
  • NF-E2
  • PPAR-gamma1
  • PPAR-gamma2
  • TBP
  • TFIID

Genomic Locations for CXCL2 Gene

Genomic Locations for CXCL2 Gene
chr4:74,097,035-74,099,280
(GRCh38/hg38)
Size:
2,246 bases
Orientation:
Minus strand
chr4:74,962,752-74,965,010
(GRCh37/hg19)
Size:
2,259 bases
Orientation:
Minus strand

Genomic View for CXCL2 Gene

Genes around CXCL2 on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Cytogenetic band:
CXCL2 Gene in genomic location: bands according to Ensembl, locations according to GeneLoc (and/or Entrez Gene and/or Ensembl if different)
Genomic Location for CXCL2 Gene
GeneLoc Logo Genomic Neighborhood Exon StructureGene Density

RefSeq DNA sequence for CXCL2 Gene

Proteins for CXCL2 Gene

  • Protein details for CXCL2 Gene (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)

    Protein Symbol:
    P19875-CXCL2_HUMAN
    Recommended name:
    C-X-C motif chemokine 2
    Protein Accession:
    P19875
    Secondary Accessions:
    • Q6FGD6
    • Q9UPB8

    Protein attributes for CXCL2 Gene

    Size:
    107 amino acids
    Molecular mass:
    11389 Da
    Quaternary structure:
    No Data Available

    Three dimensional structures from OCA and Proteopedia for CXCL2 Gene

neXtProt entry for CXCL2 Gene

Post-translational modifications for CXCL2 Gene

  • The N-terminal processed form GRO-beta(5-73) is produced by proteolytic cleavage after secretion from bone marrow stromal cells.

Other Protein References for CXCL2 Gene

ENSEMBL proteins:
REFSEQ proteins:

Antibody Products

  • Abcam antibodies for CXCL2

No data available for DME Specific Peptides for CXCL2 Gene

Domains & Families for CXCL2 Gene

Gene Families for CXCL2 Gene

HGNC:
Human Protein Atlas (HPA):
  • Cancer-related genes
  • Plasma proteins
  • Predicted secreted proteins

Suggested Antigen Peptide Sequences for CXCL2 Gene

GenScript: Design optimal peptide antigens:
  • Macrophage inflammatory protein 2-alpha (CXCL2_HUMAN)

Graphical View of Domain Structure for InterPro Entry

P19875

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot:

CXCL2_HUMAN :
  • Belongs to the intercrine alpha (chemokine CxC) family.
Family:
  • Belongs to the intercrine alpha (chemokine CxC) family.
genes like me logo Genes that share domains with CXCL2: view

Function for CXCL2 Gene

Molecular function for CXCL2 Gene

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Function:
Produced by activated monocytes and neutrophils and expressed at sites of inflammation. Hematoregulatory chemokine, which, in vitro, suppresses hematopoietic progenitor cell proliferation. GRO-beta(5-73) shows a highly enhanced hematopoietic activity.

Phenotypes From GWAS Catalog for CXCL2 Gene

Gene Ontology (GO) - Molecular Function for CXCL2 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0005125 cytokine activity IEA --
GO:0005515 protein binding IPI 18275857
GO:0008009 chemokine activity TAS,IBA 21873635
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with CXCL2: view
genes like me logo Genes that share phenotypes with CXCL2: view

Animal Models for CXCL2 Gene

MGI Knock Outs for CXCL2:

Animal Model Products

CRISPR Products

miRNA for CXCL2 Gene

Clone Products

No data available for Enzyme Numbers (IUBMB) , Human Phenotype Ontology , Transcription Factor Targets and HOMER Transcription for CXCL2 Gene

Localization for CXCL2 Gene

Subcellular locations from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for CXCL2 Gene

Secreted.

Subcellular locations from

COMPARTMENTS
Extracellular space Cytosol Plasma membrane Cytoskeleton Lysosome Endosome Peroxisome ER Golgi Apparatus Nucleus Mitochondrion 0 1 2 3 4 5 Confidence
COMPARTMENTS Subcellular localization image for CXCL2 gene
Compartment Confidence
extracellular 5
nucleus 2
plasma membrane 1
cytoskeleton 1
mitochondrion 1
endoplasmic reticulum 1
cytosol 1

Gene Ontology (GO) - Cellular Components for CXCL2 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0005576 extracellular region TAS --
GO:0005615 extracellular space TAS,IBA 21873635
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with CXCL2: view

No data available for Subcellular locations from the Human Protein Atlas (HPA) for CXCL2 Gene

Pathways & Interactions for CXCL2 Gene

PathCards logo

SuperPathways for CXCL2 Gene

SuperPathway Contained pathways
1 PEDF Induced Signaling
.94
.94
.73
.71
.62
.61
.47
.46
2 Peptide ligand-binding receptors
3 Chemokine Superfamily Pathway: Human/Mouse Ligand-Receptor Interactions
4 ERK Signaling
.61
.61
.51
5 Signaling by GPCR
genes like me logo Genes that share pathways with CXCL2: view

Pathways by source for CXCL2 Gene

Gene Ontology (GO) - Biological Process for CXCL2 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0002237 response to molecule of bacterial origin IDA 19912257
GO:0006935 chemotaxis TAS 2643119
GO:0006952 defense response IEA --
GO:0006954 inflammatory response IBA,TAS 21873635
GO:0006955 immune response IBA 21873635
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with CXCL2: view

No data available for SIGNOR curated interactions for CXCL2 Gene

Drugs & Compounds for CXCL2 Gene

(19) Drugs for CXCL2 Gene - From: Novoseek

Name Status Disease Links Group Role Mechanism of Action Clinical Trials

(22) Additional Compounds for CXCL2 Gene - From: Novoseek

Name Synonyms Role CAS Number PubChem IDs PubMed IDs
genes like me logo Genes that share compounds with CXCL2: view

Transcripts for CXCL2 Gene

mRNA/cDNA for CXCL2 Gene

(1) REFSEQ mRNAs :
(9) Additional mRNA sequences :
(122) Selected AceView cDNA sequences:
(3) Ensembl transcripts including schematic representations, and UCSC links to gene/alias where relevant :

CRISPR Products

Clone Products

Alternative Splicing Database (ASD) splice patterns (SP) for CXCL2 Gene

No ASD Table

Relevant External Links for CXCL2 Gene

GeneLoc Exon Structure for
CXCL2
ECgene alternative splicing isoforms for
CXCL2

Expression for CXCL2 Gene

mRNA expression in normal human tissues from GTEx, Illumina, BioGPS, and CGAP SAGE for CXCL2 Gene

mRNA expression in embryonic tissues and stem cells from LifeMap Discovery

mRNA differential expression in normal tissues according to GTEx for CXCL2 Gene

This gene is overexpressed in Liver (x19.8) and Lung (x4.3).

Protein differential expression in normal tissues from HIPED for CXCL2 Gene

This gene is overexpressed in Milk (38.2) and Platelet (27.2).

Integrated Proteomics: protein expression in normal tissues and cell lines from ProteomicsDB and MOPED for CXCL2 Gene



Protein tissue co-expression partners for CXCL2 Gene

NURSA nuclear receptor signaling pathways regulating expression of CXCL2 Gene:

CXCL2

SOURCE GeneReport for Unigene cluster for CXCL2 Gene:

Hs.75765

Evidence on tissue expression from TISSUES for CXCL2 Gene

  • Eye(4.2)
  • Liver(3.8)
  • Lung(3.7)
  • Blood(2.8)
  • Bone marrow(2.7)
  • Intestine(2.6)
  • Nervous system(2.5)
  • Heart(2.4)
  • Lymph node(2.2)
  • Muscle(2.2)
  • Spleen(2.1)
genes like me logo Genes that share expression patterns with CXCL2: view

No data available for mRNA Expression by UniProt/SwissProt and Phenotype-based relationships between genes and organs from Gene ORGANizer for CXCL2 Gene

Orthologs for CXCL2 Gene

This gene was present in the common ancestor of chordates.

Orthologs for CXCL2 Gene

Organism Taxonomy Gene Similarity Type Details
chimpanzee
(Pan troglodytes)
Mammalia CXCL2 33 32
  • 98.44 (n)
OneToOne
cow
(Bos Taurus)
Mammalia CXCL2 32
  • 85.46 (n)
-- 33
  • 82 (a)
ManyToMany
CXCL3 33
  • 80 (a)
ManyToMany
GRO1 33
  • 52 (a)
ManyToMany
rat
(Rattus norvegicus)
Mammalia Cxcl1 32
  • 79.11 (n)
mouse
(Mus musculus)
Mammalia Cxcl1 17 33 32
  • 78.67 (n)
platypus
(Ornithorhynchus anatinus)
Mammalia -- 33
  • 58 (a)
ManyToMany
-- 33
  • 54 (a)
ManyToMany
-- 33
  • 52 (a)
ManyToMany
-- 33
  • 38 (a)
ManyToMany
oppossum
(Monodelphis domestica)
Mammalia -- 33
  • 42 (a)
OneToMany
chicken
(Gallus gallus)
Aves -- 33
  • 38 (a)
OneToMany
lizard
(Anolis carolinensis)
Reptilia -- 33
  • 39 (a)
OneToMany
Species where no ortholog for CXCL2 was found in the sources mined by GeneCards:
  • A. gosspyii yeast (Ashbya gossypii)
  • Actinobacteria (Mycobacterium tuberculosis)
  • African clawed frog (Xenopus laevis)
  • African malaria mosquito (Anopheles gambiae)
  • Alicante grape (Vitis vinifera)
  • alpha proteobacteria (Wolbachia pipientis)
  • amoeba (Dictyostelium discoideum)
  • Archea (Pyrococcus horikoshii)
  • baker's yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae)
  • barley (Hordeum vulgare)
  • beta proteobacteria (Neisseria meningitidis)
  • bread mold (Neurospora crassa)
  • Chromalveolata (Phytophthora infestans)
  • common water flea (Daphnia pulex)
  • corn (Zea mays)
  • dog (Canis familiaris)
  • E. coli (Escherichia coli)
  • filamentous fungi (Aspergillus nidulans)
  • Firmicute bacteria (Streptococcus pneumoniae)
  • fission yeast (Schizosaccharomyces pombe)
  • fruit fly (Drosophila melanogaster)
  • green algae (Chlamydomonas reinhardtii)
  • honey bee (Apis mellifera)
  • K. lactis yeast (Kluyveromyces lactis)
  • loblloly pine (Pinus taeda)
  • malaria parasite (Plasmodium falciparum)
  • medicago trunc (Medicago Truncatula)
  • moss (Physcomitrella patens)
  • orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus)
  • pig (Sus scrofa)
  • rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)
  • rice (Oryza sativa)
  • rice blast fungus (Magnaporthe grisea)
  • schistosome parasite (Schistosoma mansoni)
  • sea anemone (Nematostella vectensis)
  • sea squirt (Ciona intestinalis)
  • sea squirt (Ciona savignyi)
  • sea urchin (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus)
  • sorghum (Sorghum bicolor)
  • soybean (Glycine max)
  • stem rust fungus (Puccinia graminis)
  • sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum)
  • thale cress (Arabidopsis thaliana)
  • tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum)
  • toxoplasmosis (Toxoplasma gondii)
  • Trichoplax (Trichoplax adhaerens)
  • tropical clawed frog (Silurana tropicalis)
  • wheat (Triticum aestivum)
  • worm (Caenorhabditis elegans)
  • zebrafish (Danio rerio)

Evolution for CXCL2 Gene

ENSEMBL:
Gene Tree for CXCL2 (if available)
TreeFam:
Gene Tree for CXCL2 (if available)
Aminode:
Evolutionary constrained regions (ECRs) for CXCL2: view image

Paralogs for CXCL2 Gene

Paralogs for CXCL2 Gene

(13) SIMAP similar genes for CXCL2 Gene using alignment to 1 proteins:

  • CXCL2_HUMAN
genes like me logo Genes that share paralogs with CXCL2: view

Variants for CXCL2 Gene

Sequence variations from dbSNP and Humsavar for CXCL2 Gene

SNP ID Clin Chr 04 pos Variation AA Info Type
rs1000028688 -- 74,100,846(-) A/C upstream_transcript_variant
rs1000543594 -- 74,100,278(-) TTTT/TTT upstream_transcript_variant
rs1000652738 -- 74,096,860(-) A/G downstream_transcript_variant
rs1001712689 -- 74,098,394(-) G/A intron_variant
rs1002270561 -- 74,100,099(-) C/A upstream_transcript_variant

Structural Variations from Database of Genomic Variants (DGV) for CXCL2 Gene

Variant ID Type Subtype PubMed ID
esv3575747 CNV gain 25503493
nsv1004768 CNV gain 25217958
nsv1006029 CNV gain 25217958
nsv525980 CNV gain 19592680

Variation tolerance for CXCL2 Gene

Residual Variation Intolerance Score: 61.3% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)
Gene Damage Index Score: 0.90; 18.77% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)

Additional Variant Information for CXCL2 Gene

SNPedia medical, phenotypic, and genealogical associations of SNPs for
CXCL2

SNP Genotyping and Copy Number Assay Products

No data available for Polymorphic Variants from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for CXCL2 Gene

Disorders for CXCL2 Gene

MalaCards: The human disease database

(9) MalaCards diseases for CXCL2 Gene - From: DISEASES, Novoseek, and GeneCards

Disorder Aliases PubMed IDs
pneumonia
  • acute pneumonia
peritonitis
  • acute generalized peritonitis
acanthamoeba keratitis
keratitis, hereditary
  • keratitis
stachybotrys chartarum
  • stachybotrys atra
- elite association - COSMIC cancer census association via MalaCards
Search CXCL2 in MalaCards View complete list of genes associated with diseases

Additional Disease Information for CXCL2

Genetic Association Database
(GAD)
Human Genome Epidemiology Navigator
(HuGE)
ATLAS of Genetics and Cytogenetics in Oncology and Haematology
genes like me logo Genes that share disorders with CXCL2: view

No data available for UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot and Genatlas for CXCL2 Gene

Publications for CXCL2 Gene

  1. A CXCL2 polymorphism is associated with better outcomes in patients with severe sepsis. (PMID: 17944017) Villar J … Kacmarek RM (Critical care medicine 2007) 3 23 43 56
  2. Identification of unique truncated KC/GRO beta chemokines with potent hematopoietic and anti-infective activities. (PMID: 10725737) King AG … Pelus LM (Journal of immunology (Baltimore, Md. : 1950) 2000) 3 4 23 56
  3. Cloning and characterization of cDNAs for murine macrophage inflammatory protein 2 and its human homologues. (PMID: 2201751) Tekamp-Olson P … Cerami A (The Journal of experimental medicine 1990) 3 4 23 56
  4. Identification of three related human GRO genes encoding cytokine functions. (PMID: 2217207) Haskill S … Sager R (Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 1990) 2 3 4 56
  5. Genome-wide association study of white blood cell count in 16,388 African Americans: the continental origins and genetic epidemiology network (COGENT). (PMID: 21738479) Reiner AP … Wilson JG (PLoS genetics 2011) 3 43 56

Products for CXCL2 Gene

Sources for CXCL2 Gene