This gene encodes a serine-type endopeptidase with chymotrypsin- and elastase-2-like activities. The gene encoding this zymogen is expressed specifically in the pancreas and likely functions as a digestive enzyme. [provided by RefSeq, Sep 2016] See more...

Aliases for CTRL Gene

Aliases for CTRL Gene

  • Chymotrypsin Like 2 3 5
  • Chymotrypsin-Like Protease CTRL-1 3 4
  • CTRL1 3 4
  • Chymotrypsin-Like 2
  • EC 3.4.21.- 4
  • EC 3.4.21 50
  • CTRL 5

External Ids for CTRL Gene

Previous GeneCards Identifiers for CTRL Gene

  • GC16M058658
  • GC16M068341
  • GC16M067698
  • GC16M067740
  • GC16M067741
  • GC16M066521
  • GC16M067963
  • GC16M053837

Summaries for CTRL Gene

Entrez Gene Summary for CTRL Gene

  • This gene encodes a serine-type endopeptidase with chymotrypsin- and elastase-2-like activities. The gene encoding this zymogen is expressed specifically in the pancreas and likely functions as a digestive enzyme. [provided by RefSeq, Sep 2016]

GeneCards Summary for CTRL Gene

CTRL (Chymotrypsin Like) is a Protein Coding gene. Diseases associated with CTRL include Netherton Syndrome and Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome. Among its related pathways are Salivary secretion and Collagen chain trimerization. Gene Ontology (GO) annotations related to this gene include serine-type endopeptidase activity and serine-type peptidase activity. An important paralog of this gene is PRSS38.

Gene Wiki entry for CTRL Gene

No data available for CIViC Summary , UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Summary , Tocris Summary , PharmGKB "VIP" Summary , Rfam classification and piRNA Summary for CTRL Gene

Genomics for CTRL Gene

GeneHancer (GH) Regulatory Elements Pubs

Promoters and enhancers for CTRL Gene
GeneHancer (GH) Identifier GH Type GH
GH Sources Gene Association Score Total Score TSS distance (kb) Number of Genes Away Size (kb) Transcription Factor
Binding Sites
Gene Targets
GH16J067931 Promoter/Enhancer 1.2 EPDnew Ensembl ENCODE dbSUPER 250.7 +0.5 521 1.1 POLR2A CTCF TEAD3 TEAD4 ARID4B PAF1 TEAD1 CTRL lnc-PSMB10-1 HSD11B2 ENSG00000261884 lnc-CTRL-2 PSKH1
GH16J067933 Enhancer 0.4 dbSUPER 250.7 -1.7 -1693 0.3 SSRP1 POLR2A ZIC2 CTRL ENSG00000261884 lnc-PSMB10-1 DPEP3 NRN1L PSKH1 EDC4 NFATC3 LCAT
GH16J067928 Enhancer 1 ENCODE dbSUPER 0.7 +3.7 3702 0.2 ZNF654 CTCF REST DEK TRIM22 ZEB1 SIN3A THAP11 KLF9 SAP130 lnc-CTRL-2 CENPT EDC4 ZDHHC1 CTRL PSKH1
GH16J067892 Promoter/Enhancer 2.1 EPDnew Ensembl ENCODE CraniofacialAtlas 0.3 +38.8 38821 2.9 SP1 ZNF207 MYC IKZF1 ZNF600 ZNF580 BRCA1 POLR2A YY1 NONO PSKH1 lnc-CTRL-3 piR-57133-235 DUS2 EDC4 PRMT7 C16orf86 ENKD1 DDX28 DPEP3
GH16J067927 Enhancer 0.8 dbSUPER 0.7 +4.1 4116 0.6 REST DEK TRIM22 ZEB1 CTCF SIN3A THAP11 KLF9 SAP130 SMC3 lnc-CTRL-2 PSKH1 NRN1L SLC12A4 CENPT THAP11 DPEP3 EDC4 C16orf86 ENKD1
- Elite GeneHancer and/or Elite GeneHancer-gene association Download GeneHancer data from 2017 publication | Request up-to-date GeneHancer data (full dataset)

GeneHancers around CTRL on the GeneHancer Hub at the UCSC Golden Path

Cistromic (ChIP-Seq) regulation report from SPP (The Signaling Pathways Project) for CTRL

Top Transcription factor binding sites by QIAGEN in the CTRL gene promoter:
  • COMP1
  • E47
  • GR
  • GR-alpha
  • GR-beta
  • LCR-F1
  • p53

Genomic Locations for CTRL Gene

Latest Assembly
4,726 bases
Minus strand

Previous Assembly
(GRCh37/hg19 by Entrez Gene)
2,289 bases
Minus strand

(GRCh37/hg19 by Ensembl)
4,775 bases
Minus strand

Genomic View for CTRL Gene

Genes around CTRL on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Cytogenetic band:
CTRL Gene in genomic location: bands according to Ensembl, locations according to GeneLoc (and/or Entrez Gene and/or Ensembl if different)
Genomic Location for CTRL Gene
GeneLoc Logo Genomic Neighborhood Exon StructureGene Density

RefSeq DNA sequence for CTRL Gene

Proteins for CTRL Gene

  • Protein details for CTRL Gene (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)

    Protein Symbol:
    Recommended name:
    Chymotrypsin-like protease CTRL-1
    Protein Accession:

    Protein attributes for CTRL Gene

    264 amino acids
    Molecular mass:
    28002 Da
    Quaternary structure:
    No Data Available

neXtProt entry for CTRL Gene

Selected DME Specific Peptides for CTRL Gene


Post-translational modifications for CTRL Gene

  • Glycosylation at Asn114
  • Modification sites at PhosphoSitePlus

Other Protein References for CTRL Gene

Domains & Families for CTRL Gene

Gene Families for CTRL Gene

Human Protein Atlas (HPA):
  • Enzymes
  • Predicted secreted proteins

Protein Domains for CTRL Gene

  • Serine protease, trypsin family
  • Chymotrypsin serine protease family (S1) signature

Suggested Antigen Peptide Sequences for CTRL Gene

GenScript: Design optimal peptide antigens:
  • Chymotrypsin-like protease CTRL-1 (CTRL_HUMAN)
  • CTRL protein (Q8IUW0_HUMAN)

Graphical View of Domain Structure for InterPro Entry



  • Belongs to the peptidase S1 family.
  • Belongs to the peptidase S1 family.
genes like me logo Genes that share domains with CTRL: view

Function for CTRL Gene

Molecular function for CTRL Gene

GENATLAS Biochemistry:
chymotrypsin protease-like,pancreas

Enzyme Numbers (IUBMB) for CTRL Gene

Phenotypes From GWAS Catalog for CTRL Gene

Gene Ontology (GO) - Molecular Function for CTRL Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0004252 serine-type endopeptidase activity IEA,IBA 21873635
GO:0005515 protein binding IPI 32296183
GO:0008233 peptidase activity IEA --
GO:0008236 serine-type peptidase activity IEA,IDA 9065485
GO:0016787 hydrolase activity IEA --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with CTRL: view
genes like me logo Genes that share phenotypes with CTRL: view

Inhibitory RNAs for research

  • Search GeneCopoeia for shRNA, lentivirus and/or AAV clone products for CTRL

No data available for Human Phenotype Ontology , Animal Models , miRNA , Transcription Factor Targets and HOMER Transcription for CTRL Gene

Localization for CTRL Gene

Subcellular locations from

Extracellular space Cytosol Plasma membrane Cytoskeleton Lysosome Endosome Peroxisome ER Golgi Apparatus Nucleus Mitochondrion 0 1 2 3 4 5 Confidence
COMPARTMENTS Subcellular localization image for CTRL gene
Compartment Confidence
extracellular 5
cytoskeleton 3
nucleus 3
cytosol 3
plasma membrane 2
mitochondrion 2
endoplasmic reticulum 2
endosome 2
lysosome 2
golgi apparatus 2
peroxisome 1

Gene Ontology (GO) - Cellular Components for CTRL Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0005615 extracellular space IDA 9065485
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with CTRL: view

No data available for Subcellular locations from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot and Subcellular locations from the Human Protein Atlas (HPA) for CTRL Gene

Pathways & Interactions for CTRL Gene

PathCards logo

SuperPathways for CTRL Gene

genes like me logo Genes that share pathways with CTRL: view

Pathways by source for CTRL Gene

Gene Ontology (GO) - Biological Process for CTRL Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0006508 proteolysis IEA,IBA 21873635
GO:0030163 protein catabolic process IC 9065485
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with CTRL: view

No data available for SIGNOR curated interactions for CTRL Gene

Drugs & Compounds for CTRL Gene

(38) Drugs for CTRL Gene - From: ApexBio and Novoseek

Name Status Disease Links Group Role Mechanism of Action Clinical Trials
AM 114 Pharma 20S proteasome inhibitor 0
Bortezomib (PS-341) Pharma Proteasome Inhibitor 0
Carfilzomib (PR-171) Pharma Proteasome inhibitor,epoxomicin analog 0
CEP-18770 Pharma Proteasome inhibitor 0
MLN9708 Pharma Proteasome inhibitor, 20S Proteasome Inhibitor 0

(26) Additional Compounds for CTRL Gene - From: Novoseek

Name Synonyms Role CAS Number PubChem IDs PubMed IDs

(6) ApexBio Compounds for CTRL Gene

Compound Action Cas Number
AM 114 20S proteasome inhibitor 856849-35-9
Bortezomib (PS-341) Proteasome Inhibitor 179324-69-7
Carfilzomib (PR-171) Proteasome inhibitor,epoxomicin analog 868540-17-4
CEP-18770 Proteasome inhibitor 847499-27-8
MLN9708 Proteasome inhibitor 1201902-80-8
PI-1840 Chymotrypsin-like (CT-L) inhibitor 1401223-22-0
genes like me logo Genes that share compounds with CTRL: view

Drug products for research

Transcripts for CTRL Gene

mRNA/cDNA for CTRL Gene

4 NCBI additional mRNA sequence :
8 Ensembl transcripts including schematic representations, and UCSC links to gene/alias where relevant :

Inhibitory RNAs for research

  • Search GeneCopoeia for shRNA, lentivirus and/or AAV clone products for CTRL

Alternative Splicing Database (ASD) splice patterns (SP) for CTRL Gene

ExUns: 1a · 1b · 1c ^ 2 ^ 3 ^ 4 ^ 5a · 5b ^ 6a · 6b ^ 7a · 7b ^ 8a · 8b ^ 9a · 9b ^ 10a · 10b ^ 11a · 11b ^ 12 ^ 13a · 13b · 13c · 13d ^ 14 ^
SP1: - - - -
SP2: - -
SP3: - - -
SP4: - -
SP5: - -
SP6: - -
SP7: -
SP9: - -
SP10: - -

ExUns: 15 ^ 16a · 16b

Relevant External Links for CTRL Gene

GeneLoc Exon Structure for

Expression for CTRL Gene

mRNA expression in normal human tissues from GTEx, Illumina, BioGPS, and SAGE for CTRL Gene

mRNA expression in embryonic tissues and stem cells from LifeMap Discovery

mRNA differential expression in normal tissues according to GTEx for CTRL Gene

This gene is overexpressed in Pancreas (x49.0).

Protein differential expression in normal tissues from HIPED for CTRL Gene

This gene is overexpressed in Pancreatic juice (62.9) and Pancreas (6.1).

Integrated Proteomics: protein expression in normal tissues and cell lines from ProteomicsDB and MOPED for CTRL Gene

Protein tissue co-expression partners for CTRL Gene

- Elite partner

Transcriptomic regulation report from SPP (The Signaling Pathways Project) for CTRL

SOURCE GeneReport for Unigene cluster for CTRL Gene:


Evidence on tissue expression from TISSUES for CTRL Gene

  • Pancreas(4.8)
  • Kidney(2.6)
  • Blood(2.5)
  • Nervous system(2.5)
  • Skin(2.4)
  • Muscle(2.3)
  • Intestine(2.2)
  • Liver(2.1)
  • Bone marrow(2.1)
  • Heart(2.1)
  • Lung(2)
  • Spleen(2)
genes like me logo Genes that share expression patterns with CTRL: view

Primer products for research

No data available for mRNA Expression by UniProt/SwissProt and Phenotype-based relationships between genes and organs from Gene ORGANizer for CTRL Gene

Orthologs for CTRL Gene

This gene was present in the common ancestor of animals.

Orthologs for CTRL Gene

Organism Taxonomy Gene Similarity Type Details
(Pan troglodytes)
Mammalia CTRL 29 30
  • 99.37 (n)
(Canis familiaris)
Mammalia CTRL 29 30
  • 88.04 (n)
(Rattus norvegicus)
Mammalia Ctrl 29
  • 84.95 (n)
(Mus musculus)
Mammalia Ctrl 29 16 30
  • 84.01 (n)
(Ornithorhynchus anatinus)
Mammalia CTRL 30
  • 72 (a)
(Monodelphis domestica)
Mammalia CTRL 30
  • 70 (a)
(Bos Taurus)
Mammalia CTRB1 30
  • 54 (a)
(Gallus gallus)
Aves CTRL 29
  • 70.07 (n)
(Anolis carolinensis)
Reptilia CTRL 30
  • 72 (a)
(Danio rerio)
Actinopterygii ctrl 29 30
  • 65.17 (n)
CTRL (1 of 3) 30
  • 56 (a)
CTRL (3 of 3) 30
  • 49 (a)
Dr.4930 29
Fruit Fly
(Drosophila melanogaster)
Insecta CG11836 31
  • 39 (a)
CG11824 31
  • 39 (a)
CG6467 31
  • 38 (a)
Sb 31
  • 37 (a)
mas 31
  • 36 (a)
CG6483 31
  • 35 (a)
CG7542 30 31
  • 34 (a)
BcDNA:LD13269 31
  • 34 (a)
Jon65Aiv 30
  • 33 (a)
Jon44E 30
  • 33 (a)
CG10469 30
  • 31 (a)
yip7 30
  • 31 (a)
CG10477 30
  • 31 (a)
CG8952 30
  • 31 (a)
Jon65Aiii 30
  • 31 (a)
Jon99Cii 30
  • 31 (a)
Jon99Ciii 30
  • 31 (a)
Jon99Fii 30
  • 30 (a)
Jon99Fi 30
  • 30 (a)
Jon66Ci 30
  • 29 (a)
Jon25Biii 30
  • 29 (a)
Jon25Bii 30
  • 29 (a)
Jon66Cii 30
  • 29 (a)
CG10472 30
  • 29 (a)
Jon99Ci 30
  • 28 (a)
Jon65Ai 30
  • 28 (a)
Jon65Aii 30
  • 27 (a)
CG18180 30
  • 27 (a)
Jon25Bi 30
  • 27 (a)
CG6462 30
  • 26 (a)
CG18179 30
  • 26 (a)
CG11529 30
  • 26 (a)
CG8329 30
  • 25 (a)
CG3088 30
  • 24 (a)
sphinx2 30
  • 22 (a)
sphinx1 30
  • 20 (a)
CG6592 30
  • 19 (a)
Jon74E 30
  • 19 (a)
Sea Squirt
(Ciona savignyi)
Ascidiacea -- 30
  • 19 (a)
Species where no ortholog for CTRL was found in the sources mined by GeneCards:
  • A. gosspyii yeast (Eremothecium gossypii)
  • Actinobacteria (Mycobacterium tuberculosis)
  • African clawed frog (Xenopus laevis)
  • African malaria mosquito (Anopheles gambiae)
  • Alicante grape (Vitis vinifera)
  • Alpha proteobacteria (Wolbachia pipientis)
  • Amoeba (Dictyostelium discoideum)
  • Archea (Pyrococcus horikoshii)
  • Baker's yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae)
  • Barley (Hordeum vulgare)
  • Beta proteobacteria (Neisseria meningitidis)
  • Bread mold (Neurospora crassa)
  • Chromalveolata (Phytophthora infestans)
  • Common water flea (Daphnia pulex)
  • Corn (Zea mays)
  • E. coli (Escherichia coli)
  • Filamentous fungi (Aspergillus nidulans)
  • Firmicute Bacteria (Streptococcus pneumoniae)
  • Fission Yeast (Schizosaccharomyces pombe)
  • Green Algae (Chlamydomonas reinhardtii)
  • Honey Bee (Apis mellifera)
  • K. Lactis Yeast (Kluyveromyces lactis)
  • Loblloly Pine (Pinus taeda)
  • Malaria Parasite (Plasmodium falciparum)
  • Medicago Trunc (Medicago Truncatula)
  • Moss (Physcomitrella patens)
  • Orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus)
  • Pig (Sus scrofa)
  • Rainbow Trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)
  • Rice (Oryza sativa)
  • Rice Blast Fungus (Magnaporthe grisea)
  • Schistosome Parasite (Schistosoma mansoni)
  • Sea Anemone (Nematostella vectensis)
  • Sea Vase (Ciona intestinalis)
  • Sea Urchin (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus)
  • Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor)
  • Soybean (Glycine max)
  • Stem Rust Fungus (Puccinia graminis)
  • Sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum)
  • Thale Cress (Arabidopsis thaliana)
  • Tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum)
  • Toxoplasmosis (Toxoplasma gondii)
  • Trichoplax (Trichoplax adhaerens)
  • Tropical Clawed Frog (Silurana tropicalis)
  • Wheat (Triticum aestivum)
  • Worm (Caenorhabditis elegans)

Evolution for CTRL Gene

Gene Tree for CTRL (if available)
Gene Tree for CTRL (if available)
Evolutionary constrained regions (ECRs) for CTRL: view image
Alliance of Genome Resources:
Additional Orthologs for CTRL

Paralogs for CTRL Gene

Paralogs for CTRL Gene

genes like me logo Genes that share paralogs with CTRL: view

Variants for CTRL Gene

Sequence variations, with clinical significance, from ClinVar and Humsavar, with links to dbSNP for CTRL Gene

SNP ID Clinical significance and condition Chr 16 pos Variation AA Info Type
rs139670985 Benign: not provided 67,930,456(-) C/G
NM_001907.3(CTRL):c.451G>C (p.Glu151Gln)
rs140026167 Benign: not provided 67,931,196(-) C/T
NM_001907.3(CTRL):c.58G>A (p.Gly20Ser)
rs146079104 Likely Benign: not provided 67,931,146(-) G/A
NM_001907.3(CTRL):c.108C>T (p.Asn36=)
rs184748865 Benign: not provided 67,930,933(-) G/A
NM_001907.3(CTRL):c.223C>T (p.His75Tyr)
rs752607432 Likely Benign: Long QT syndrome 67,930,939(-) C/T
NM_001907.3(CTRL):c.217G>A (p.Ala73Thr)

dbSNP identifiers (rs#s) for variants without ClinVar clinical significance for CTRL Gene

All consequence types are included: molecular consequences (e.g. missense, synonymous), and location-based (e.g. intron, upstream).

Structural Variations from Database of Genomic Variants (DGV) for CTRL Gene

Variant ID Type Subtype PubMed ID
nsv522852 CNV gain 19592680
nsv524363 CNV loss 19592680

Variation tolerance for CTRL Gene

Residual Variation Intolerance Score: 86.1% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)
Gene Damage Index Score: 8.25; 85.05% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)

Additional Variant Information for CTRL Gene

Human Gene Mutation Database (HGMD)
SNPedia medical, phenotypic, and genealogical associations of SNPs for
Leiden Open Variation Database (LOVD)

SNP Genotyping and Copy Number Assays for research

No data available for Polymorphic Variants from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for CTRL Gene

Disorders for CTRL Gene

MalaCards: The human disease database

(14) MalaCards diseases for CTRL Gene - From: COP and GCD

Disorder Aliases PubMed IDs
netherton syndrome
  • neth
severe acute respiratory syndrome
  • sars
mouth disease
  • mouth disorders
mantle cell lymphoma
  • lymphoma, mantle cell
spastic paraplegia 41, autosomal dominant
  • spg41
- elite association - COSMIC cancer census association via MalaCards
Search CTRL in MalaCards View complete list of genes associated with diseases

Additional Disease Information for CTRL

genes like me logo Genes that share disorders with CTRL: view

No data available for UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot and Genatlas for CTRL Gene

Publications for CTRL Gene

  1. A tight cluster of five unrelated human genes on chromosome 16q22.1. (PMID: 8268911) Larsen F … Prydz H (Human molecular genetics 1993) 2 3 4 22
  2. The status, quality, and expansion of the NIH full-length cDNA project: the Mammalian Gene Collection (MGC). (PMID: 15489334) Gerhard DS … MGC Project Team (Genome research 2004) 3 4
  3. A reference map of the human binary protein interactome. (PMID: 32296183) Luck K … Calderwood MA (Nature 2020) 3
  4. Impaired plasma membrane localization of ubiquitin ligase complex underlies 3-M syndrome development. (PMID: 31343991) Wang P … Xiong Y (The Journal of clinical investigation 2019) 3
  5. Architecture of the human interactome defines protein communities and disease networks. (PMID: 28514442) Huttlin EL … Harper JW (Nature 2017) 3

Products for CTRL Gene

Sources for CTRL Gene