Free for academic non-profit institutions. Other users need a Commercial license

Aliases for CSF2 Gene

Aliases for CSF2 Gene

  • Colony Stimulating Factor 2 2 3 5
  • Molgramostin 2 3 4
  • Sargramostim 2 3 4
  • Colony Stimulating Factor 2 (Granulocyte-Macrophage) 2 3
  • GMCSF 3 4
  • CSF 3 4
  • Granulocyte Macrophage-Colony Stimulating Factor 3
  • Granulocyte-Macrophage Colony-Stimulating Factor 3
  • Granulocyte-Macrophage Colony Stimulating Factor 2
  • Colony-Stimulating Factor 4
  • GM-CSF 4

External Ids for CSF2 Gene

Previous GeneCards Identifiers for CSF2 Gene

  • GC05P130931
  • GC05P131856
  • GC05P131440
  • GC05P131485
  • GC05P131437
  • GC05P131409
  • GC05P126601

Summaries for CSF2 Gene

Entrez Gene Summary for CSF2 Gene

  • The protein encoded by this gene is a cytokine that controls the production, differentiation, and function of granulocytes and macrophages. The active form of the protein is found extracellularly as a homodimer. This gene has been localized to a cluster of related genes at chromosome region 5q31, which is known to be associated with interstitial deletions in the 5q- syndrome and acute myelogenous leukemia. Other genes in the cluster include those encoding interleukins 4, 5, and 13. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

GeneCards Summary for CSF2 Gene

CSF2 (Colony Stimulating Factor 2) is a Protein Coding gene. Diseases associated with CSF2 include Mucositis and Cyclic Neutropenia. Among its related pathways are Akt Signaling and Rheumatoid arthritis. Gene Ontology (GO) annotations related to this gene include cytokine activity and granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor receptor binding.

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for CSF2 Gene

  • Cytokine that stimulates the growth and differentiation of hematopoietic precursor cells from various lineages, including granulocytes, macrophages, eosinophils and erythrocytes.

Gene Wiki entry for CSF2 Gene

Additional gene information for CSF2 Gene

No data available for CIViC summary , Tocris Summary , PharmGKB "VIP" Summary , fRNAdb sequence ontologies and piRNA Summary for CSF2 Gene

Genomics for CSF2 Gene

GeneHancer (GH) Regulatory Elements for CSF2 Gene

Promoters and enhancers for CSF2 Gene
GeneHancer (GH) Identifier GH Type GH
GH Sources Gene Association Score Total Score TSS distance (kb) Number of Genes Away Size (kb) Transcription Factor
Binding Sites
Gene Targets
GH05J132073 Promoter/Enhancer 1 EPDnew ENCODE 650.7 +0.2 174 1.3 MEIS2 FOXA2 SP5 RUNX3 CSF2 ENSG00000253067
GH05J132075 Enhancer 0.6 Ensembl 650.7 +1.7 1711 0.2 USF1 L3MBTL2 USF2 MNT ZNF592 ZNF507 MITF ZFHX2 EGR1 NR2C1 CSF2 MEIKIN ENSG00000253067
GH05J132070 Enhancer 1.1 FANTOM5 ENCODE 26 -3.0 -3019 0.4 ATF1 TCF12 ZNF766 EGR1 FOS ATF7 CREM ZEB2 ELF1 ZNF592 CSF2 IL3 P4HA2 ENSG00000224015 P4HA2-AS1 PDLIM4 IL5 FNIP1 RAPGEF6 SLC22A4
GH05J132110 Enhancer 0.5 FANTOM5 dbSUPER 44.5 +37.3 37308 0.3 RUNX3 IL3 CSF2 IL5 ENSG00000253067 P4HA2-AS1 ENSG00000224015 RAD50 RAPGEF6 ENSG00000227616
GH05J132100 Enhancer 1.6 FANTOM5 Ensembl ENCODE dbSUPER 13.2 +29.2 29199 4.5 PKNOX1 ATF1 ARNT IRF4 ZNF766 GATA2 FOS ATF7 RUNX3 JUNB SLC22A5 P4HA2 ENSG00000253067 CSF2 IL3 ENSG00000224015 P4HA2-AS1 SLC22A4 RAPGEF6 IRF1
- Elite GeneHancer and/or Elite GeneHancer-gene association Download GeneHancer data from 2017 publication | Request up-to-date GeneHancer data (full dataset)

GeneHancers around CSF2 on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Top Transcription factor binding sites by QIAGEN in the CSF2 gene promoter:
  • STAT3
  • AML1a

Genomic Locations for CSF2 Gene

Genomic Locations for CSF2 Gene
2,381 bases
Plus strand
2,377 bases
Plus strand

Genomic View for CSF2 Gene

Genes around CSF2 on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Cytogenetic band:
CSF2 Gene in genomic location: bands according to Ensembl, locations according to GeneLoc (and/or Entrez Gene and/or Ensembl if different)
Genomic Location for CSF2 Gene
GeneLoc Logo Genomic Neighborhood Exon StructureGene Density

RefSeq DNA sequence for CSF2 Gene

Proteins for CSF2 Gene

  • Protein details for CSF2 Gene (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)

    Protein Symbol:
    Recommended name:
    Granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor
    Protein Accession:
    Secondary Accessions:
    • Q14CE8
    • Q2VPI8
    • Q8NFI6

    Protein attributes for CSF2 Gene

    144 amino acids
    Molecular mass:
    16295 Da
    Quaternary structure:
    • Monomer. The signaling GM-CSF receptor complex is a dodecamer of two head-to-head hexamers of two alpha, two beta, and two ligand subunits.

    Three dimensional structures from OCA and Proteopedia for CSF2 Gene

neXtProt entry for CSF2 Gene

Post-translational modifications for CSF2 Gene

  • Glycosylation at Asn54, Asn44, Thr27, posLast=2626, posLast=2424, and posLast=2222
  • Modification sites at PhosphoSitePlus

Other Protein References for CSF2 Gene

ENSEMBL proteins:
REFSEQ proteins:

Antibody Products

  • Abcam antibodies for CSF2

No data available for DME Specific Peptides for CSF2 Gene

Domains & Families for CSF2 Gene

Gene Families for CSF2 Gene

Human Protein Atlas (HPA):
  • Cancer-related genes
  • Predicted secreted proteins

Suggested Antigen Peptide Sequences for CSF2 Gene

GenScript: Design optimal peptide antigens:

Graphical View of Domain Structure for InterPro Entry



  • Belongs to the GM-CSF family.
  • Belongs to the GM-CSF family.
genes like me logo Genes that share domains with CSF2: view

Function for CSF2 Gene

Molecular function for CSF2 Gene

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Function:
Cytokine that stimulates the growth and differentiation of hematopoietic precursor cells from various lineages, including granulocytes, macrophages, eosinophils and erythrocytes.
GENATLAS Biochemistry:
colony-stimulating factor 2,16.3kDa,(granulocyte-macrophage)

LifeMap Function Summary for CSF2 Gene

CSF2 as growth factor is involved in stem cell differentiation protocols towards the derivation of the following cells:

Phenotypes From GWAS Catalog for CSF2 Gene

Gene Ontology (GO) - Molecular Function for CSF2 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0004713 protein tyrosine kinase activity TAS --
GO:0005088 Ras guanyl-nucleotide exchange factor activity TAS --
GO:0005125 cytokine activity IDA,IEA 3925454
GO:0005129 granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor receptor binding IEA,TAS --
GO:0005515 protein binding IPI 18692472
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with CSF2: view
genes like me logo Genes that share phenotypes with CSF2: view

Animal Models for CSF2 Gene

MGI Knock Outs for CSF2:

Animal Model Products

Clone Products

  • Addgene plasmids for CSF2

No data available for Enzyme Numbers (IUBMB) , Human Phenotype Ontology , miRNA , Transcription Factor Targets and HOMER Transcription for CSF2 Gene

Localization for CSF2 Gene

Subcellular locations from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for CSF2 Gene


Subcellular locations from

Extracellular space Cytosol Plasma membrane Cytoskeleton Lysosome Endosome Peroxisome ER Golgi Apparatus Nucleus Mitochondrion 0 1 2 3 4 5 Confidence
COMPARTMENTS Subcellular localization image for CSF2 gene
Compartment Confidence
extracellular 5
plasma membrane 3
cytoskeleton 2
mitochondrion 2
nucleus 2
cytosol 2
lysosome 2
peroxisome 1
endoplasmic reticulum 1
golgi apparatus 1
endosome 1

Subcellular locations from the

Human Protein Atlas (HPA)

Gene Ontology (GO) - Cellular Components for CSF2 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0005576 extracellular region TAS --
GO:0005615 extracellular space IDA,IEA 3925454
GO:0043231 intracellular membrane-bounded organelle IDA --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with CSF2: view

Pathways & Interactions for CSF2 Gene

SuperPathway Contained pathways
1 RET signaling
2 PEDF Induced Signaling
3 ERK Signaling
4 G beta-gamma signalling through PI3Kgamma
5 Signaling by GPCR
genes like me logo Genes that share pathways with CSF2: view

SIGNOR curated interactions for CSF2 Gene


Gene Ontology (GO) - Biological Process for CSF2 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0000165 MAPK cascade TAS --
GO:0001821 histamine secretion IEA --
GO:0001892 embryonic placenta development IEA --
GO:0002521 leukocyte differentiation IBA --
GO:0006955 immune response IEA --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with CSF2: view

Drugs & Compounds for CSF2 Gene

(88) Drugs for CSF2 Gene - From: DrugBank, DGIdb, and Novoseek

Name Status Disease Links Group Role Mechanism of Action Clinical Trials
KB002 Investigational Pharma Target 0
GM-CSF Pharma Agonist 0
MOR103 Pharma 0
MT203 Pharma 0

(60) Additional Compounds for CSF2 Gene - From: Novoseek

Name Synonyms Role CAS Number PubChem IDs PubMed IDs
genes like me logo Genes that share compounds with CSF2: view

Transcripts for CSF2 Gene

mRNA/cDNA for CSF2 Gene

(1) REFSEQ mRNAs :
(8) Additional mRNA sequences :
(20) Selected AceView cDNA sequences:
(1) Ensembl transcripts including schematic representations, and UCSC links where relevant :

Unigene Clusters for CSF2 Gene

Colony stimulating factor 2 (granulocyte-macrophage):
Representative Sequences:

Clone Products

  • Addgene plasmids for CSF2

Alternative Splicing Database (ASD) splice patterns (SP) for CSF2 Gene

No ASD Table

Relevant External Links for CSF2 Gene

GeneLoc Exon Structure for
ECgene alternative splicing isoforms for

Expression for CSF2 Gene

mRNA expression in normal human tissues from GTEx, Illumina, BioGPS, and CGAP SAGE for CSF2 Gene

mRNA expression in embryonic tissues and stem cells from LifeMap Discovery

mRNA differential expression in normal tissues according to GTEx for CSF2 Gene

This gene is overexpressed in Lung (x19.8) and Small Intestine - Terminal Ileum (x8.4).

Integrated Proteomics: protein expression in normal tissues and cell lines from ProteomicsDB and MOPED for CSF2 Gene

Protein tissue co-expression partners for CSF2 Gene

NURSA nuclear receptor signaling pathways regulating expression of CSF2 Gene:


SOURCE GeneReport for Unigene cluster for CSF2 Gene:


Evidence on tissue expression from TISSUES for CSF2 Gene

  • Blood(4.8)
  • Bone marrow(3.5)
  • Spleen(3.5)
  • Lymph node(3.4)
  • Lung(2.9)
  • Skin(2.5)
  • Heart(2.4)
  • Liver(2)
  • Nervous system(2)
genes like me logo Genes that share expression patterns with CSF2: view

No data available for Protein differential expression in normal tissues , mRNA Expression by UniProt/SwissProt and Phenotype-based relationships between genes and organs from Gene ORGANizer for CSF2 Gene

Orthologs for CSF2 Gene

This gene was present in the common ancestor of mammals.

Orthologs for CSF2 Gene

Organism Taxonomy Gene Similarity Type Details
(Pan troglodytes)
Mammalia CSF2 34 33
  • 99.31 (n)
(Bos Taurus)
Mammalia CSF2 34 33
  • 82.98 (n)
(Canis familiaris)
Mammalia CSF2 34 33
  • 81.48 (n)
(Rattus norvegicus)
Mammalia Csf2 33
  • 74.31 (n)
(Mus musculus)
Mammalia Csf2 16 34 33
  • 71.16 (n)
Species where no ortholog for CSF2 was found in the sources mined by GeneCards:
  • A. gosspyii yeast (Ashbya gossypii)
  • Actinobacteria (Mycobacterium tuberculosis)
  • African clawed frog (Xenopus laevis)
  • African malaria mosquito (Anopheles gambiae)
  • Alicante grape (Vitis vinifera)
  • alpha proteobacteria (Wolbachia pipientis)
  • amoeba (Dictyostelium discoideum)
  • Archea (Pyrococcus horikoshii)
  • baker's yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae)
  • barley (Hordeum vulgare)
  • beta proteobacteria (Neisseria meningitidis)
  • bread mold (Neurospora crassa)
  • chicken (Gallus gallus)
  • Chromalveolata (Phytophthora infestans)
  • common water flea (Daphnia pulex)
  • corn (Zea mays)
  • E. coli (Escherichia coli)
  • filamentous fungi (Aspergillus nidulans)
  • Firmicute bacteria (Streptococcus pneumoniae)
  • fission yeast (Schizosaccharomyces pombe)
  • fruit fly (Drosophila melanogaster)
  • green algae (Chlamydomonas reinhardtii)
  • honey bee (Apis mellifera)
  • K. lactis yeast (Kluyveromyces lactis)
  • lizard (Anolis carolinensis)
  • loblloly pine (Pinus taeda)
  • malaria parasite (Plasmodium falciparum)
  • medicago trunc (Medicago Truncatula)
  • moss (Physcomitrella patens)
  • oppossum (Monodelphis domestica)
  • orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus)
  • pig (Sus scrofa)
  • platypus (Ornithorhynchus anatinus)
  • rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)
  • rice (Oryza sativa)
  • rice blast fungus (Magnaporthe grisea)
  • schistosome parasite (Schistosoma mansoni)
  • sea anemone (Nematostella vectensis)
  • sea squirt (Ciona intestinalis)
  • sea squirt (Ciona savignyi)
  • sea urchin (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus)
  • sorghum (Sorghum bicolor)
  • soybean (Glycine max)
  • stem rust fungus (Puccinia graminis)
  • sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum)
  • thale cress (Arabidopsis thaliana)
  • tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum)
  • toxoplasmosis (Toxoplasma gondii)
  • Trichoplax (Trichoplax adhaerens)
  • tropical clawed frog (Silurana tropicalis)
  • wheat (Triticum aestivum)
  • worm (Caenorhabditis elegans)
  • zebrafish (Danio rerio)

Evolution for CSF2 Gene

Gene Tree for CSF2 (if available)
Gene Tree for CSF2 (if available)
Evolutionary constrained regions (ECRs) for CSF2: view image

Paralogs for CSF2 Gene

No data available for Paralogs for CSF2 Gene

Variants for CSF2 Gene

Polymorphic Variants from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for CSF2 Gene

Variant Ile-117 may be a risk factor for atopic asthma.

Sequence variations from dbSNP and Humsavar for CSF2 Gene

SNP ID Clin Chr 05 pos Variation AA Info Type
rs1000494540 -- 132,072,999(+) G/A upstream_transcript_variant
rs1002165189 -- 132,074,623(+) G/A intron_variant
rs1002685758 -- 132,072,358(+) G/C/T upstream_transcript_variant
rs1002820215 -- 132,072,075(+) C/G upstream_transcript_variant
rs1003808899 -- 132,073,466(+) C/T upstream_transcript_variant

Structural Variations from Database of Genomic Variants (DGV) for CSF2 Gene

Variant ID Type Subtype PubMed ID
esv25745 CNV gain 19812545
nsv1024604 CNV gain 25217958

Variation tolerance for CSF2 Gene

Residual Variation Intolerance Score: 47.9% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)
Gene Damage Index Score: 8.70; 86.50% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)

Additional Variant Information for CSF2 Gene

Human Gene Mutation Database (HGMD)
SNPedia medical, phenotypic, and genealogical associations of SNPs for

SNP Genotyping and Copy Number Assay Products

Disorders for CSF2 Gene

MalaCards: The human disease database

(80) MalaCards diseases for CSF2 Gene - From: HGMD, DISEASES, Novoseek, and GeneCards

Disorder Aliases PubMed IDs
  • inflammatory disease of mucous membrane
cyclic neutropenia
  • cyclic hematopoiesis
candida glabrata
anthracycline extravasation
pulmonary alveolar proteinosis
- elite association - COSMIC cancer census association via MalaCards
Search CSF2 in MalaCards View complete list of genes associated with diseases

Additional Disease Information for CSF2

Genetic Association Database
Human Genome Epidemiology Navigator
ATLAS of Genetics and Cytogenetics in Oncology and Haematology
genes like me logo Genes that share disorders with CSF2: view

No data available for UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot and Genatlas for CSF2 Gene

Publications for CSF2 Gene

  1. Association of genetic variations in the CSF2 and CSF3 genes with lung function in smoking-induced COPD. (PMID: 18353856) He JQ … Sandford AJ (The European respiratory journal 2008) 3 22 44 58
  2. Cloning, sequence, and expression of a human granulocyte/macrophage colony-stimulating factor. (PMID: 3898082) Cantrell MA … Gillis S (Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 1985) 2 3 4 58
  3. Meta-analysis identifies nine new loci associated with rheumatoid arthritis in the Japanese population. (PMID: 22446963) Okada Y … Yamamoto K (Nature genetics 2012) 3 44 58
  4. In vivo expression of Toll-like receptor 2, Toll-like receptor 4, CSF2 and LY64 in Chinese chronic periodontitis patients. (PMID: 20233331) Sun Y … Shu R (Oral diseases 2010) 3 22 58
  5. Common polymorphisms in ITGA2, PON1 and THBS2 are associated with coronary atherosclerosis in a candidate gene association study of the Chinese Han population. (PMID: 20485444) Wang Y … Huang W (Journal of human genetics 2010) 3 44 58

Products for CSF2 Gene

  • Addgene plasmids for CSF2

Sources for CSF2 Gene

Loading form....