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Aliases for CROT Gene

Aliases for CROT Gene

  • Carnitine O-Octanoyltransferase 2 3 5
  • COT 3 4
  • Peroxisomal Carnitine O-Octanoyltransferase 3
  • Peroxisomal Carnitine Acyltransferase 3
  • EC 4

External Ids for CROT Gene

Previous GeneCards Identifiers for CROT Gene

  • GC07P085510
  • GC07P086573
  • GC07P086587
  • GC07P086619
  • GC07P086812
  • GC07P086974
  • GC07P081585
  • GC07P087347
  • GC07P087349
  • GC07P087351
  • GC07P087353
  • GC07P087355
  • GC07P087357
  • GC07P087359
  • GC07P087361

Summaries for CROT Gene

Entrez Gene Summary for CROT Gene

  • This gene encodes a member of the carnitine/choline acetyltransferase family. The encoded protein converts 4,8-dimethylnonanoyl-CoA to its corresponding carnitine ester. This transesterification occurs in the peroxisome and is necessary for transport of medium- and long- chain acyl-CoA molecules out of the peroxisome to the cytosol and mitochondria. The protein thus plays a role in lipid metabolism and fatty acid beta-oxidation. Alternatively spliced transcript variants have been described.[provided by RefSeq, Jan 2009]

GeneCards Summary for CROT Gene

CROT (Carnitine O-Octanoyltransferase) is a Protein Coding gene. Among its related pathways are Metabolism and Peroxisomal lipid metabolism. Gene Ontology (GO) annotations related to this gene include signaling receptor binding and carnitine O-octanoyltransferase activity. An important paralog of this gene is CRAT.

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for CROT Gene

  • Beta-oxidation of fatty acids. The highest activity concerns the C6 to C10 chain length substrate. Converts the end product of pristanic acid beta oxidation, 4,8-dimethylnonanoyl-CoA, to its corresponding carnitine ester.

Gene Wiki entry for CROT Gene

Additional gene information for CROT Gene

No data available for CIViC summary , Tocris Summary , PharmGKB "VIP" Summary , fRNAdb sequence ontologies and piRNA Summary for CROT Gene

Genomics for CROT Gene

GeneHancer (GH) Regulatory Elements for CROT Gene

Promoters and enhancers for CROT Gene
GeneHancer (GH) Identifier GH Type GH
GH Sources Gene Association Score Total Score TSS distance (kb) Number of Genes Away Size (kb) Transcription Factor
Binding Sites
Gene Targets
GH07J087343 Promoter/Enhancer 2.2 EPDnew Ensembl ENCODE 650.7 -0.3 -260 4.4 HDGF PKNOX1 ARID4B SIN3A FEZF1 ZNF2 YY1 POLR2B FOS SP3 TP53TG1 GC07P087364 GC07M087345 GC07M087343 ENSG00000276185 ENSG00000273623 CROT DBF4
GH07J087315 Promoter/Enhancer 1.5 EPDnew Ensembl ENCODE 650.3 -28.5 -28502 2.4 PKNOX1 JUN EBF1 BATF RELA GATA3 EED ATF7 FOSL2 FOS CROT TP53TG1 PIR31944 ENSG00000273623
GH07J087318 Enhancer 1.1 FANTOM5 Ensembl ENCODE 18.2 -26.4 -26382 1 CTCF FOXA2 SAP130 SIN3A DMAP1 ZNF644 ZNF48 RAD21 YY1 E2F1 CROT TP53TG1 LOC101927420 PIR31944 ENSG00000273623
GH07J087331 Enhancer 0.9 ENCODE 12.1 -13.7 -13711 2.6 ATF1 FOXA2 ARNT NCOA2 TCF12 ZNF766 CBX5 GATA2 ATF7 CAVIN1 DMTF1 TP53TG1 CROT LOC101927420 ENSG00000273623 PIR31944
GH07J087179 Enhancer 0.4 dbSUPER 27.2 -162.4 -162385 7.7 ZNF121 ATF4 CEBPG ENSG00000278236 CROT TP53TG1 ENSG00000200397 TMEM243 KIAA1324L LOC101927420 DMTF1
- Elite GeneHancer and/or Elite GeneHancer-gene association Download GeneHancer data from 2017 publication | Request up-to-date GeneHancer data (full dataset)

GeneHancers around CROT on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Top Transcription factor binding sites by QIAGEN in the CROT gene promoter:
  • HFH-3
  • FOXI1
  • Sox5
  • POU2F1
  • POU2F1a
  • POU2F1b
  • POU2F1c
  • Oct-B1
  • oct-B2
  • oct-B3

Genomic Locations for CROT Gene

Genomic Locations for CROT Gene
54,162 bases
Plus strand
54,162 bases
Plus strand

Genomic View for CROT Gene

Genes around CROT on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Cytogenetic band:
CROT Gene in genomic location: bands according to Ensembl, locations according to GeneLoc (and/or Entrez Gene and/or Ensembl if different)
Genomic Location for CROT Gene
GeneLoc Logo Genomic Neighborhood Exon StructureGene Density

RefSeq DNA sequence for CROT Gene

Proteins for CROT Gene

  • Protein details for CROT Gene (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)

    Protein Symbol:
    Recommended name:
    Peroxisomal carnitine O-octanoyltransferase
    Protein Accession:
    Secondary Accessions:
    • A4D1D6
    • E7EQF2
    • Q86V17
    • Q8IUW9
    • Q9Y6I2

    Protein attributes for CROT Gene

    612 amino acids
    Molecular mass:
    70178 Da
    Quaternary structure:
    • Monomer.

    Alternative splice isoforms for CROT Gene


neXtProt entry for CROT Gene

Post-translational modifications for CROT Gene

  • Modification sites at PhosphoSitePlus
  • Modification sites at neXtProt

No data available for DME Specific Peptides for CROT Gene

Domains & Families for CROT Gene

Gene Families for CROT Gene

Human Protein Atlas (HPA):
  • Enzymes
  • Plasma proteins
  • Predicted intracellular proteins
  • Transporters

Protein Domains for CROT Gene

Suggested Antigen Peptide Sequences for CROT Gene

GenScript: Design optimal peptide antigens:

Graphical View of Domain Structure for InterPro Entry



  • Belongs to the carnitine/choline acetyltransferase family.
  • Belongs to the carnitine/choline acetyltransferase family.
genes like me logo Genes that share domains with CROT: view

Function for CROT Gene

Molecular function for CROT Gene

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Function:
Beta-oxidation of fatty acids. The highest activity concerns the C6 to C10 chain length substrate. Converts the end product of pristanic acid beta oxidation, 4,8-dimethylnonanoyl-CoA, to its corresponding carnitine ester.
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot CatalyticActivity:
Octanoyl-CoA + L-carnitine = CoA + L-octanoylcarnitine.

Enzyme Numbers (IUBMB) for CROT Gene

Phenotypes From GWAS Catalog for CROT Gene

Gene Ontology (GO) - Molecular Function for CROT Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0005102 signaling receptor binding IPI 20178365
GO:0008458 carnitine O-octanoyltransferase activity TAS --
GO:0016740 transferase activity IEA --
GO:0016746 transferase activity, transferring acyl groups IEA --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with CROT: view
genes like me logo Genes that share phenotypes with CROT: view

Animal Model Products

  • Taconic Biosciences Mouse Models for CROT

Clone Products

No data available for Human Phenotype Ontology , Animal Models , Transcription Factor Targets and HOMER Transcription for CROT Gene

Localization for CROT Gene

Subcellular locations from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for CROT Gene


Subcellular locations from

Extracellular space Cytosol Plasma membrane Cytoskeleton Lysosome Endosome Peroxisome ER Golgi Apparatus Nucleus Mitochondrion 0 1 2 3 4 5 Confidence
COMPARTMENTS Subcellular localization image for CROT gene
Compartment Confidence
peroxisome 5
mitochondrion 3
cytosol 3
nucleus 2

Subcellular locations from the

Human Protein Atlas (HPA)

Gene Ontology (GO) - Cellular Components for CROT Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0005739 mitochondrion IEA --
GO:0005777 peroxisome NAS 10486279
GO:0005782 peroxisomal matrix TAS --
GO:0043231 intracellular membrane-bounded organelle IDA --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with CROT: view

Pathways & Interactions for CROT Gene

genes like me logo Genes that share pathways with CROT: view

Pathways by source for CROT Gene

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Q9UKG9-OCTC_HUMAN

  • Pathway: Lipid metabolism; fatty acid beta-oxidation.

Gene Ontology (GO) - Biological Process for CROT Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0006091 generation of precursor metabolites and energy IDA 10486279
GO:0006629 lipid metabolic process IEA --
GO:0006631 fatty acid metabolic process IMP 21619872
GO:0006635 fatty acid beta-oxidation IEA,IDA 21619872
GO:0009437 carnitine metabolic process ISS --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with CROT: view

No data available for SIGNOR curated interactions for CROT Gene

Drugs & Compounds for CROT Gene

(10) Drugs for CROT Gene - From: DrugBank, DGIdb, HMDB, and Novoseek

Name Status Disease Links Group Role Mechanism of Action Clinical Trials
L-Carnitine Approved, Investigational Pharma Target 0
Caprylic acid Approved, Experimental, Investigational Pharma 0
lauric acid Approved, Experimental Pharma Agonist 0
(3-Carboxy-2-(R)-Hydroxy-Propyl)-Trimethyl-Ammonium Experimental Pharma Target 0
3-Carboxy-N,N,N-Trimethyl-2-(Octanoyloxy)Propan-1-Aminium Experimental Pharma Target 0

(9) Additional Compounds for CROT Gene - From: HMDB and Novoseek

Name Synonyms Role CAS Number PubChem IDs PubMed IDs
4,8 Dimethylnonanoyl carnitine
  • 4,8-Dimethylnonanoylcarnitine
  • 4(R)-8-Dimethyl-nonanoyl-CoA
  • 4(R)-8-Dimethyl-nonanoyl-coenzyme A
  • S-(4,8-Dimethylnonanoate
  • S-(4,8-Dimethylnonanoate)-CoA
  • S-(4,8-Dimethylnonanoate)-coenzyme A
Caproic acid
  • 1-Hexanoic acid
  • 1-Pentanecarboxylic acid
  • 6:0
  • Butylacetic acid
  • C6:0
Ceramide (d18:1/20:0)
  • Cer(D18:1/20:0)
  • N-(Eicosanoyl)ceramide
  • N-(Eicosanoyl)sphing-4-enine
  • N-(Icosanoyl)ceramide
  • N-(Icosanoyl)sphing-4-enine
  • L-Octanoyl-L-carnitine
  • O-Octanoyl-(R)-carnitine
  • O-Octanoyl-R-carnitine
  • (-)-Octanoylcarnitine
  • L-Carnitine octanoyl ester
genes like me logo Genes that share compounds with CROT: view

Transcripts for CROT Gene

Unigene Clusters for CROT Gene

Carnitine O-octanoyltransferase:
Representative Sequences:

Clone Products

Alternative Splicing Database (ASD) splice patterns (SP) for CROT Gene

No ASD Table

Relevant External Links for CROT Gene

GeneLoc Exon Structure for
ECgene alternative splicing isoforms for

Expression for CROT Gene

mRNA expression in normal human tissues from GTEx, Illumina, BioGPS, and CGAP SAGE for CROT Gene

mRNA expression in embryonic tissues and stem cells from LifeMap Discovery

Protein differential expression in normal tissues from HIPED for CROT Gene

This gene is overexpressed in Cervix (19.7), Fetal Liver (17.0), Liver (7.9), and Urine (6.9).

Integrated Proteomics: protein expression in normal tissues and cell lines from ProteomicsDB, MaxQB, and MOPED for CROT Gene

NURSA nuclear receptor signaling pathways regulating expression of CROT Gene:


SOURCE GeneReport for Unigene cluster for CROT Gene:


Evidence on tissue expression from TISSUES for CROT Gene

  • Nervous system(4.5)
  • Skin(4.3)
  • Liver(2.4)
genes like me logo Genes that share expression patterns with CROT: view

No data available for mRNA differential expression in normal tissues , Protein tissue co-expression partners , mRNA Expression by UniProt/SwissProt and Phenotype-based relationships between genes and organs from Gene ORGANizer for CROT Gene

Orthologs for CROT Gene

This gene was present in the common ancestor of animals.

Orthologs for CROT Gene

Organism Taxonomy Gene Similarity Type Details
(Pan troglodytes)
Mammalia CROT 34 33
  • 99.74 (n)
(Canis familiaris)
Mammalia CROT 34 33
  • 87.8 (n)
(Bos Taurus)
Mammalia CROT 34 33
  • 87.47 (n)
(Mus musculus)
Mammalia Crot 16 34 33
  • 85.29 (n)
(Rattus norvegicus)
Mammalia Crot 33
  • 83.66 (n)
(Monodelphis domestica)
Mammalia CROT 34
  • 80 (a)
(Ornithorhynchus anatinus)
Mammalia CROT 34
  • 74 (a)
(Gallus gallus)
Aves CROT 34 33
  • 69.83 (n)
(Anolis carolinensis)
Reptilia CROT 34
  • 67 (a)
tropical clawed frog
(Silurana tropicalis)
Amphibia crot 33
  • 67.58 (n)
African clawed frog
(Xenopus laevis)
Amphibia Xl.15914 33
(Danio rerio)
Actinopterygii crot 34 33
  • 63.18 (n)
rainbow trout
(Oncorhynchus mykiss)
Actinopterygii Omy.7341 33
African malaria mosquito
(Anopheles gambiae)
Insecta AgaP_AGAP002329 33
  • 45.43 (n)
fruit fly
(Drosophila melanogaster)
Insecta CG12428 34 35 33
  • 42.79 (n)
(Caenorhabditis elegans)
Secernentea CELE_T20B3.1 33
  • 45.18 (n)
T20B3.1 34 35
  • 31 (a)
F41E7.6 34 35
  • 31 (a)
sea squirt
(Ciona savignyi)
Ascidiacea -- 34
  • 44 (a)
Species where no ortholog for CROT was found in the sources mined by GeneCards:
  • A. gosspyii yeast (Ashbya gossypii)
  • Actinobacteria (Mycobacterium tuberculosis)
  • Alicante grape (Vitis vinifera)
  • alpha proteobacteria (Wolbachia pipientis)
  • amoeba (Dictyostelium discoideum)
  • Archea (Pyrococcus horikoshii)
  • baker's yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae)
  • barley (Hordeum vulgare)
  • beta proteobacteria (Neisseria meningitidis)
  • bread mold (Neurospora crassa)
  • Chromalveolata (Phytophthora infestans)
  • common water flea (Daphnia pulex)
  • corn (Zea mays)
  • E. coli (Escherichia coli)
  • filamentous fungi (Aspergillus nidulans)
  • Firmicute bacteria (Streptococcus pneumoniae)
  • fission yeast (Schizosaccharomyces pombe)
  • green algae (Chlamydomonas reinhardtii)
  • honey bee (Apis mellifera)
  • K. lactis yeast (Kluyveromyces lactis)
  • loblloly pine (Pinus taeda)
  • malaria parasite (Plasmodium falciparum)
  • medicago trunc (Medicago Truncatula)
  • moss (Physcomitrella patens)
  • orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus)
  • pig (Sus scrofa)
  • rice (Oryza sativa)
  • rice blast fungus (Magnaporthe grisea)
  • schistosome parasite (Schistosoma mansoni)
  • sea anemone (Nematostella vectensis)
  • sea urchin (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus)
  • sorghum (Sorghum bicolor)
  • soybean (Glycine max)
  • stem rust fungus (Puccinia graminis)
  • sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum)
  • thale cress (Arabidopsis thaliana)
  • tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum)
  • toxoplasmosis (Toxoplasma gondii)
  • Trichoplax (Trichoplax adhaerens)
  • wheat (Triticum aestivum)

Evolution for CROT Gene

Gene Tree for CROT (if available)
Gene Tree for CROT (if available)
Evolutionary constrained regions (ECRs) for CROT: view image

Paralogs for CROT Gene

Paralogs for CROT Gene

(4) SIMAP similar genes for CROT Gene using alignment to 2 proteins:

  • C9J3D7_HUMAN
genes like me logo Genes that share paralogs with CROT: view

Variants for CROT Gene

Sequence variations from dbSNP and Humsavar for CROT Gene

SNP ID Clin Chr 07 pos Variation AA Info Type
rs1000088915 -- 87,389,713(+) T/A genic_downstream_transcript_variant, intron_variant
rs1000158745 -- 87,358,338(+) C/T intron_variant
rs1000198256 -- 87,368,314(+) T/A genic_downstream_transcript_variant, intron_variant
rs1000198773 -- 87,377,287(+) A/G genic_downstream_transcript_variant, intron_variant
rs1000468452 -- 87,346,069(+) G/A intron_variant

Structural Variations from Database of Genomic Variants (DGV) for CROT Gene

Variant ID Type Subtype PubMed ID
dgv3872e59 CNV tandem duplication 20981092
esv3425460 CNV duplication 20981092
esv3433151 CNV insertion 20981092
esv992601 CNV insertion 20482838
nsv1114982 CNV deletion 24896259
nsv1125915 CNV tandem duplication 24896259
nsv366901 CNV insertion 16902084
nsv428177 CNV loss 18775914
nsv464622 CNV gain 19166990
nsv607725 CNV gain 21841781

Variation tolerance for CROT Gene

Residual Variation Intolerance Score: 84.7% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)
Gene Damage Index Score: 2.85; 48.06% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)

Additional Variant Information for CROT Gene

SNPedia medical, phenotypic, and genealogical associations of SNPs for

SNP Genotyping and Copy Number Assay Products

No data available for Polymorphic Variants from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for CROT Gene

Disorders for CROT Gene

Additional Disease Information for CROT

Genetic Association Database
Human Genome Epidemiology Navigator
ATLAS of Genetics and Cytogenetics in Oncology and Haematology

No disorders were found for CROT Gene.

No data available for MalaCards , UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot and Genatlas for CROT Gene

Publications for CROT Gene

  1. Molecular cloning and expression of human carnitine octanoyltransferase: evidence for its role in the peroxisomal beta-oxidation of branched-chain fatty acids. (PMID: 10486279) Ferdinandusse S … Wanders RJ (Biochemical and biophysical research communications 1999) 2 3 4 22 58
  2. Structural model of a malonyl-CoA-binding site of carnitine octanoyltransferase and carnitine palmitoyltransferase I: mutational analysis of a malonyl-CoA affinity domain. (PMID: 11790793) Morillas M … Asins G (The Journal of biological chemistry 2002) 3 4 22 58
  3. Personalized smoking cessation: interactions between nicotine dose, dependence and quit-success genotype score. (PMID: 20379614) Rose JE … Uhl GR (Molecular medicine (Cambridge, Mass.) 2010) 3 44 58
  4. Genetic variants in nuclear-encoded mitochondrial genes influence AIDS progression. (PMID: 20877624) Hendrickson SL … O'Brien SJ (PloS one 2010) 3 44 58
  5. The status, quality, and expansion of the NIH full-length cDNA project: the Mammalian Gene Collection (MGC). (PMID: 15489334) Gerhard DS … MGC Project Team (Genome research 2004) 3 4 58

Products for CROT Gene

Sources for CROT Gene

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