Free for academic non-profit institutions. Other users need a Commercial license

Aliases for CRH Gene

Aliases for CRH Gene

  • Corticotropin Releasing Hormone 2 3 5
  • Corticotropin-Releasing Factor 2 3 4
  • Corticoliberin 2 3
  • CRF 3 4
  • Corticotropin-Releasing Hormone 4
  • CRH1 3

External Ids for CRH Gene

Previous GeneCards Identifiers for CRH Gene

  • GC08M067028
  • GC08M066811
  • GC08M067138
  • GC08M067251
  • GC08M062579
  • GC08M067088

Summaries for CRH Gene

Entrez Gene Summary for CRH Gene

  • This gene encodes a member of the corticotropin-releasing factor family. The encoded preproprotein is proteolytically processed to generate the mature neuropeptide hormone. In response to stress, this hormone is secreted by the paraventricular nucleus (PVN) of the hypothalamus, binds to corticotropin releasing hormone receptors and stimulates the release of adrenocorticotropic hormone from the pituitary gland. Marked reduction in this protein has been observed in association with Alzheimer's disease. Autosomal recessive hypothalamic corticotropin deficiency has multiple and potentially fatal metabolic consequences including hypoglycemia and hepatitis. In addition to production in the hypothalamus, this protein is also synthesized in peripheral tissues, such as T lymphocytes, and is highly expressed in the placenta. In the placenta it is a marker that determines the length of gestation and the timing of parturition and delivery. A rapid increase in circulating levels of the hormone occurs at the onset of parturition, suggesting that, in addition to its metabolic functions, this protein may act as a trigger for parturition. [provided by RefSeq, Nov 2015]

GeneCards Summary for CRH Gene

CRH (Corticotropin Releasing Hormone) is a Protein Coding gene. Diseases associated with CRH include Autosomal Dominant Nocturnal Frontal Lobe Epilepsy and Postpartum Depression. Among its related pathways are Presynaptic function of Kainate receptors and G-Beta Gamma Signaling. Gene Ontology (GO) annotations related to this gene include signaling receptor binding and neuropeptide hormone activity.

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for CRH Gene

  • Hormone regulating the release of corticotropin from pituitary gland (By similarity). Induces NLRP6 in intestinal epithelial cells, hence may influence gut microbiota profile (By similarity).

Tocris Summary for CRH Gene

  • Corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF), also known as corticotropin-releasing hormone, is a major regulator of homeostasis, mediating the autonomic, behavioral and neuroendocrine responses to stress. CRF has also been suggested to play a role in cell growth and survival. To date, two types of CRF receptors have been cloned from several mammals: CRF1 and CRF2 receptors. Two splice variants of the CRF2 receptor have been identified in rodents; CRF2a and CRF2b.

Gene Wiki entry for CRH Gene

Additional gene information for CRH Gene

No data available for CIViC summary , PharmGKB "VIP" Summary , fRNAdb sequence ontologies and piRNA Summary for CRH Gene

Genomics for CRH Gene

GeneHancer (GH) Regulatory Elements for CRH Gene

Promoters and enhancers for CRH Gene
GeneHancer (GH) Identifier GH Type GH
GH Sources Gene Association Score Total Score TSS distance (kb) Number of Genes Away Size (kb) Transcription Factor
Binding Sites
Gene Targets
GH08J066176 Enhancer 1.4 Ensembl ENCODE dbSUPER 650.7 +1.5 1524 1.7 ARID4B SIN3A GLI4 ZNF2 YY1 SLC30A9 ZNF766 GLIS2 ZNF213 ZNF143 CRH GC08P066170 GC08P066013
GH08J066178 Promoter 0.6 EPDnew 650.7 +0.2 242 0.1 ATF2 CRH GC08P066170 GC08P066013
GH08J066118 Promoter/Enhancer 2.2 EPDnew FANTOM5 Ensembl ENCODE dbSUPER 11.2 +53.8 53807 13 PKNOX1 FOXA2 NEUROD1 SIN3A FEZF1 IRF4 YY1 FOS JUNB REST TRIM55 CRH GC08P066148 GC08P066152 PIR59286 GC08P066170 GC08P066013
GH08J066131 Enhancer 1.2 FANTOM5 Ensembl ENCODE dbSUPER 11.2 +45.7 45659 2.2 CTCF CEBPB CEBPG IRF9 ATF4 ATF7 TRIM24 ZSCAN29 CREM RUNX3 CRH PIR59286 GC08P066152 GC08P066148 TRIM55 GC08P066170 GC08P066013
GH08J066141 Enhancer 1.2 FANTOM5 Ensembl ENCODE dbSUPER 11 +36.2 36234 2.2 MEF2D CTCF CTBP1 CREB1 BACH1 SPI1 TRY-GTA5-1 CRH RRS1 RRS1-AS1 ADHFE1 LINC00967 GC08P066148 GC08P066170 TRIM55 PIR59286
- Elite GeneHancer and/or Elite GeneHancer-gene association Download GeneHancer data from 2017 publication | Request up-to-date GeneHancer data (full dataset)

GeneHancers around CRH on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Top Transcription factor binding sites by QIAGEN in the CRH gene promoter:
  • NRSF form 1
  • NRSF form 2
  • CREB
  • c-Jun
  • ATF-2
  • deltaCREB
  • AP-1
  • NF-kappaB

Genomic Locations for CRH Gene

Genomic Locations for CRH Gene
2,349 bases
Minus strand
2,349 bases
Minus strand

Genomic View for CRH Gene

Genes around CRH on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Cytogenetic band:
CRH Gene in genomic location: bands according to Ensembl, locations according to GeneLoc (and/or Entrez Gene and/or Ensembl if different)
Genomic Location for CRH Gene
GeneLoc Logo Genomic Neighborhood Exon StructureGene Density

RefSeq DNA sequence for CRH Gene

Proteins for CRH Gene

  • Protein details for CRH Gene (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)

    Protein Symbol:
    Recommended name:
    Protein Accession:
    Secondary Accessions:
    • B3KQS4

    Protein attributes for CRH Gene

    196 amino acids
    Molecular mass:
    21422 Da
    Quaternary structure:
    • Interacts (via C-terminus) with CRFR1 (via N-terminal extracellular domain).

    Three dimensional structures from OCA and Proteopedia for CRH Gene

neXtProt entry for CRH Gene

Post-translational modifications for CRH Gene

  • Modification sites at PhosphoSitePlus
  • Modification sites at neXtProt

Other Protein References for CRH Gene

ENSEMBL proteins:
REFSEQ proteins:

No data available for DME Specific Peptides for CRH Gene

Domains & Families for CRH Gene

Gene Families for CRH Gene

Human Protein Atlas (HPA):
  • Plasma proteins
  • Predicted secreted proteins

Protein Domains for CRH Gene

Suggested Antigen Peptide Sequences for CRH Gene

GenScript: Design optimal peptide antigens:

Graphical View of Domain Structure for InterPro Entry



  • Belongs to the sauvagine/corticotropin-releasing factor/urotensin I family.
  • Belongs to the sauvagine/corticotropin-releasing factor/urotensin I family.
genes like me logo Genes that share domains with CRH: view

Function for CRH Gene

Molecular function for CRH Gene

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Function:
Hormone regulating the release of corticotropin from pituitary gland (By similarity). Induces NLRP6 in intestinal epithelial cells, hence may influence gut microbiota profile (By similarity).
GENATLAS Biochemistry:
corticotropin releasing hormone

Gene Ontology (GO) - Molecular Function for CRH Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0005102 signaling receptor binding TAS 7477348
GO:0005179 hormone activity TAS 7585095
GO:0005184 neuropeptide hormone activity TAS 7867564
GO:0005515 protein binding IPI 18234674
GO:0017045 corticotropin-releasing hormone activity IBA --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with CRH: view
genes like me logo Genes that share phenotypes with CRH: view

Animal Models for CRH Gene

MGI Knock Outs for CRH:
  • Crh Crh<tm1Maj>
  • Crh Crh<tm2.2Maj>

Animal Model Products

miRNA for CRH Gene

miRTarBase miRNAs that target CRH

Clone Products

  • Addgene plasmids for CRH

No data available for Enzyme Numbers (IUBMB) , Phenotypes From GWAS Catalog , Human Phenotype Ontology , Transcription Factor Targets and HOMER Transcription for CRH Gene

Localization for CRH Gene

Subcellular locations from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for CRH Gene


Subcellular locations from

Extracellular space Cytosol Plasma membrane Cytoskeleton Lysosome Endosome Peroxisome ER Golgi Apparatus Nucleus Mitochondrion 0 1 2 3 4 5 Confidence
COMPARTMENTS Subcellular localization image for CRH gene
Compartment Confidence
extracellular 5
plasma membrane 3
nucleus 3
mitochondrion 2
cytosol 2
cytoskeleton 1
endoplasmic reticulum 1
lysosome 1
golgi apparatus 1

Gene Ontology (GO) - Cellular Components for CRH Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0005576 extracellular region TAS --
GO:0005615 extracellular space IEA,IDA 18559919
GO:0005737 cytoplasm IEA --
GO:0043025 neuronal cell body IEA --
GO:0043196 varicosity IEA --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with CRH: view

No data available for Subcellular locations from the Human Protein Atlas (HPA) for CRH Gene

Pathways & Interactions for CRH Gene

genes like me logo Genes that share pathways with CRH: view

SIGNOR curated interactions for CRH Gene


Gene Ontology (GO) - Biological Process for CRH Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0001934 positive regulation of protein phosphorylation IEA --
GO:0001963 synaptic transmission, dopaminergic IDA 12895416
GO:0003085 negative regulation of systemic arterial blood pressure IEA --
GO:0006704 glucocorticoid biosynthetic process IEA --
GO:0006954 inflammatory response IEA,IDA 18559919
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with CRH: view

Drugs & Compounds for CRH Gene

(123) Drugs for CRH Gene - From: DrugBank, PharmGKB, ClinicalTrials, Tocris, and Novoseek

Name Status Disease Links Group Role Mechanism of Action Clinical Trials
Cocaine Approved, Illicit Pharma 533
Dopamine Approved Pharma Full agonist, Agonist 4008
Hydrocortisone Approved, Vet_approved Pharma Agonist 713
Mifepristone Approved, Investigational Pharma Agonist, Antagonist, Mixed Progesterone receptor antagonist, Progesterone and glucocorticoid receptor antagonist 167
Corticotropin Approved, Investigational, Vet_approved Pharma Target, agonist 0

(39) Additional Compounds for CRH Gene - From: Novoseek and Tocris

Name Synonyms Role CAS Number PubChem IDs PubMed IDs
alpha-helical CRF 9-41

(5) Tocris Compounds for CRH Gene

Compound Action Cas Number
alpha-helical CRF 9-41 CRF receptor antagonist 90880-23-2
CRF (human, rat) Stimulates ACTH release 86784-80-7
Sauvagine CRF agonist 74434-59-6
Urocortin (human) Endogenous CRF agonist 176591-49-4
Urocortin (rat) Endogenous CRF agonist 171543-83-2
genes like me logo Genes that share compounds with CRH: view

Drug Products

Transcripts for CRH Gene

mRNA/cDNA for CRH Gene

(1) REFSEQ mRNAs :
(4) Additional mRNA sequences :
(118) Selected AceView cDNA sequences:
(1) Ensembl transcripts including schematic representations, and UCSC links where relevant :

Unigene Clusters for CRH Gene

Corticotropin releasing hormone:
Representative Sequences:

Clone Products

  • Addgene plasmids for CRH

Alternative Splicing Database (ASD) splice patterns (SP) for CRH Gene

No ASD Table

Relevant External Links for CRH Gene

GeneLoc Exon Structure for
ECgene alternative splicing isoforms for

Expression for CRH Gene

mRNA expression in normal human tissues from GTEx, Illumina, BioGPS, and CGAP SAGE for CRH Gene

mRNA expression in embryonic tissues and stem cells from LifeMap Discovery

mRNA differential expression in normal tissues according to GTEx for CRH Gene

This gene is overexpressed in Brain - Hypothalamus (x24.8), Brain - Anterior cingulate cortex (BA24) (x6.0), Brain - Frontal Cortex (BA9) (x5.0), and Brain - Cortex (x4.6).

Protein differential expression in normal tissues from HIPED for CRH Gene

This gene is overexpressed in Placenta (63.9).

Integrated Proteomics: protein expression in normal tissues and cell lines from ProteomicsDB and MOPED for CRH Gene

Protein tissue co-expression partners for CRH Gene

- Elite partner

NURSA nuclear receptor signaling pathways regulating expression of CRH Gene:


SOURCE GeneReport for Unigene cluster for CRH Gene:


mRNA Expression by UniProt/SwissProt for CRH Gene:

Tissue specificity: Produced by the hypothalamus and placenta.

Evidence on tissue expression from TISSUES for CRH Gene

  • Nervous system(4.8)
  • Adrenal gland(4)
  • Blood(2.9)
  • Heart(2.4)
  • Muscle(2.4)
  • Thyroid gland(2.4)
  • Intestine(2.1)
  • Skin(2)

Phenotype-based relationships between genes and organs from Gene ORGANizer for CRH Gene

Germ Layers:
  • ectoderm
  • endoderm
  • mesoderm
  • cardiovascular
  • digestive
  • endocrine
  • immune
  • integumentary
  • lymphatic
  • nervous
  • reproductive
  • skeletal muscle
  • skeleton
Head and neck:
  • brain
  • ear
  • face
  • head
  • jaw
  • mandible
  • maxilla
  • mouth
  • neck
  • pituitary gland
  • skull
  • chest wall
  • clavicle
  • esophagus
  • heart
  • rib
  • rib cage
  • scapula
  • sternum
  • adrenal gland
  • intestine
  • large intestine
  • small intestine
  • spleen
  • stomach
  • ovary
  • pelvis
  • penis
  • testicle
  • uterus
  • ankle
  • arm
  • digit
  • elbow
  • femur
  • fibula
  • finger
  • foot
  • forearm
  • hand
  • hip
  • humerus
  • knee
  • lower limb
  • radius
  • shin
  • shoulder
  • thigh
  • tibia
  • toe
  • ulna
  • upper limb
  • wrist
  • blood
  • blood vessel
  • lymph node
  • peripheral nerve
  • peripheral nervous system
  • skin
  • spinal column
  • sweat gland
  • vertebrae
  • white blood cell
genes like me logo Genes that share expression patterns with CRH: view

Orthologs for CRH Gene

This gene was present in the common ancestor of chordates.

Orthologs for CRH Gene

Organism Taxonomy Gene Similarity Type Details
(Pan troglodytes)
Mammalia CRH 34 33
  • 99.66 (n)
(Canis familiaris)
Mammalia CRH 34 33
  • 87.76 (n)
(Mus musculus)
Mammalia Crh 16 34 33
  • 81.82 (n)
(Rattus norvegicus)
Mammalia Crh 33
  • 81.64 (n)
(Bos Taurus)
Mammalia CRH 34
  • 75 (a)
(Monodelphis domestica)
Mammalia CRH 34
  • 65 (a)
(Ornithorhynchus anatinus)
Mammalia CRH 34
  • 63 (a)
(Gallus gallus)
Aves CRH 34 33
  • 70.06 (n)
(Anolis carolinensis)
Reptilia CRH 34
  • 55 (a)
tropical clawed frog
(Silurana tropicalis)
Amphibia LOC100485597 33
  • 62.05 (n)
(Danio rerio)
Actinopterygii crhb 34 33
  • 62.33 (n)
crha 34
  • 39 (a)
Dr.29164 33
Species where no ortholog for CRH was found in the sources mined by GeneCards:
  • A. gosspyii yeast (Ashbya gossypii)
  • Actinobacteria (Mycobacterium tuberculosis)
  • African clawed frog (Xenopus laevis)
  • African malaria mosquito (Anopheles gambiae)
  • Alicante grape (Vitis vinifera)
  • alpha proteobacteria (Wolbachia pipientis)
  • amoeba (Dictyostelium discoideum)
  • Archea (Pyrococcus horikoshii)
  • baker's yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae)
  • barley (Hordeum vulgare)
  • beta proteobacteria (Neisseria meningitidis)
  • bread mold (Neurospora crassa)
  • Chromalveolata (Phytophthora infestans)
  • common water flea (Daphnia pulex)
  • corn (Zea mays)
  • E. coli (Escherichia coli)
  • filamentous fungi (Aspergillus nidulans)
  • Firmicute bacteria (Streptococcus pneumoniae)
  • fission yeast (Schizosaccharomyces pombe)
  • fruit fly (Drosophila melanogaster)
  • green algae (Chlamydomonas reinhardtii)
  • honey bee (Apis mellifera)
  • K. lactis yeast (Kluyveromyces lactis)
  • loblloly pine (Pinus taeda)
  • malaria parasite (Plasmodium falciparum)
  • medicago trunc (Medicago Truncatula)
  • moss (Physcomitrella patens)
  • orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus)
  • pig (Sus scrofa)
  • rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)
  • rice (Oryza sativa)
  • rice blast fungus (Magnaporthe grisea)
  • schistosome parasite (Schistosoma mansoni)
  • sea anemone (Nematostella vectensis)
  • sea squirt (Ciona intestinalis)
  • sea squirt (Ciona savignyi)
  • sea urchin (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus)
  • sorghum (Sorghum bicolor)
  • soybean (Glycine max)
  • stem rust fungus (Puccinia graminis)
  • sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum)
  • thale cress (Arabidopsis thaliana)
  • tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum)
  • toxoplasmosis (Toxoplasma gondii)
  • Trichoplax (Trichoplax adhaerens)
  • wheat (Triticum aestivum)
  • worm (Caenorhabditis elegans)

Evolution for CRH Gene

Gene Tree for CRH (if available)
Gene Tree for CRH (if available)
Evolutionary constrained regions (ECRs) for CRH: view image

Paralogs for CRH Gene

No data available for Paralogs for CRH Gene

Variants for CRH Gene

Sequence variations from dbSNP and Humsavar for CRH Gene

SNP ID Clin Chr 08 pos Variation AA Info Type
rs748404250 uncertain-significance, pathogenic, not provided, Autosomal dominant nocturnal frontal lobe epilepsy 66,177,389(-) G/C coding_sequence_variant, missense_variant
rs1000540886 -- 66,175,965(-) A/G downstream_transcript_variant
rs1000597555 -- 66,175,895(-) A/T downstream_transcript_variant
rs1000650130 -- 66,176,170(-) T/G downstream_transcript_variant
rs1000726446 -- 66,187,924(-) G/C upstream_transcript_variant

Variation tolerance for CRH Gene

Gene Damage Index Score: 0.75; 15.91% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)

Additional Variant Information for CRH Gene

Human Gene Mutation Database (HGMD)
SNPedia medical, phenotypic, and genealogical associations of SNPs for

SNP Genotyping and Copy Number Assay Products

No data available for Polymorphic Variants from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot and Structural Variations from Database of Genomic Variants (DGV) for CRH Gene

Disorders for CRH Gene

MalaCards: The human disease database

(68) MalaCards diseases for CRH Gene - From: HGMD, ClinVar, DISEASES, Novoseek, and GeneCards

Disorder Aliases PubMed IDs
autosomal dominant nocturnal frontal lobe epilepsy
  • epilepsy, nocturnal frontal lobe, 1
postpartum depression
  • maternity blues
adrenal carcinoma
  • adrenocortical carcinoma
post-traumatic stress disorder
  • traumatic neurosis
hypothalamic disease
  • hypothalamic dysfunction
- elite association - COSMIC cancer census association via MalaCards
Search CRH in MalaCards View complete list of genes associated with diseases

Genatlas disease for CRH Gene

congenital isolated adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) deficiency (?CRH or ? SGKL defect)

Additional Disease Information for CRH

Genetic Association Database
Human Genome Epidemiology Navigator
ATLAS of Genetics and Cytogenetics in Oncology and Haematology
genes like me logo Genes that share disorders with CRH: view

No data available for UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for CRH Gene

Publications for CRH Gene

  1. Combined effects of exonic polymorphisms in CRHR1 and AVPR1B genes in a case/control study for panic disorder. (PMID: 18384079) Keck ME … Binder EB (American journal of medical genetics. Part B, Neuropsychiatric genetics : the official publication of the International Society of Psychiatric Genetics 2008) 3 22 44 58
  2. A second corticotropin-releasing hormone gene (CRH2) is conserved across vertebrate classes and expressed in the hindbrain of a basal neopterygian fish, the spotted gar (Lepisosteus oculatus). (PMID: 25521515) Grone BP … Maruska KP (The Journal of comparative neurology 2015) 2 3 58
  3. Functional characterization of a CRH missense mutation identified in an ADNFLE family. (PMID: 23593457) Sansoni V … Combi R (PloS one 2013) 3 4 58
  4. Maternal and fetal genetic associations of PTGER3 and PON1 with preterm birth. (PMID: 20140262) Ryckman KK … Jacobsson B (PloS one 2010) 3 44 58
  5. Association study of 182 candidate genes in anorexia nervosa. (PMID: 20468064) Pinheiro AP … Woodside DB (American journal of medical genetics. Part B, Neuropsychiatric genetics : the official publication of the International Society of Psychiatric Genetics 2010) 3 44 58

Products for CRH Gene

  • Addgene plasmids for CRH

Sources for CRH Gene

Loading form....