In eukaryotic cells, protein transport between the endoplasmic reticulum and Golgi compartments is mediated in part by non-clathrin-coated vesicular coat proteins (COPs). Seven coat proteins have been identified, and they represent subunits of a complex known as coatomer. The subunits are designated alpha-COP, beta-COP, beta-prime-COP, gamma-COP, delta-COP, epsilon-COP, and zet... See more...

Aliases for COPA Gene

Aliases for COPA Gene

  • COPI Coat Complex Subunit Alpha 2 3 5
  • HEP-COP 2 3 4
  • Coatomer Subunit Alpha 3 4
  • Alpha-COP 3 4
  • Proxenin 2 3
  • Xenin 2 3
  • Coatomer Protein Complex, Subunit Alpha 2
  • Coatomer Protein Complex Subunit Alpha 3
  • Alpha Coat Protein 3
  • Alpha-Coat Protein 4
  • HEPCOP 4
  • AILJK 3
  • COPA 5

External Ids for COPA Gene

Previous GeneCards Identifiers for COPA Gene

  • GC01M158051
  • GC01M155991
  • GC01M157036
  • GC01M157475
  • GC01M157072
  • GC01M158525
  • GC01M160258
  • GC01M131615

Summaries for COPA Gene

Entrez Gene Summary for COPA Gene

  • In eukaryotic cells, protein transport between the endoplasmic reticulum and Golgi compartments is mediated in part by non-clathrin-coated vesicular coat proteins (COPs). Seven coat proteins have been identified, and they represent subunits of a complex known as coatomer. The subunits are designated alpha-COP, beta-COP, beta-prime-COP, gamma-COP, delta-COP, epsilon-COP, and zeta-COP. The alpha-COP, encoded by COPA, shares high sequence similarity with RET1P, the alpha subunit of the coatomer complex in yeast. Also, the N-terminal 25 amino acids of alpha-COP encode the bioactive peptide, xenin, which stimulates exocrine pancreatic secretion and may act as a gastrointestinal hormone. Alternative splicing results in multiple splice forms encoding distinct isoforms. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

GeneCards Summary for COPA Gene

COPA (COPI Coat Complex Subunit Alpha) is a Protein Coding gene. Diseases associated with COPA include Autoimmune Interstitial Lung, Joint, And Kidney Disease and Lipid Pneumonia. Among its related pathways are Golgi-to-ER retrograde transport and Delta508-CFTR traffic / ER-to-Golgi in CF. Gene Ontology (GO) annotations related to this gene include structural molecule activity and hormone activity. An important paralog of this gene is COPB2.

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Summary for COPA Gene

  • The coatomer is a cytosolic protein complex that binds to dilysine motifs and reversibly associates with Golgi non-clathrin-coated vesicles, which further mediate biosynthetic protein transport from the ER, via the Golgi up to the trans Golgi network. Coatomer complex is required for budding from Golgi membranes, and is essential for the retrograde Golgi-to-ER transport of dilysine-tagged proteins. In mammals, the coatomer can only be recruited by membranes associated to ADP-ribosylation factors (ARFs), which are small GTP-binding proteins; the complex also influences the Golgi structural integrity, as well as the processing, activity, and endocytic recycling of LDL receptors (By similarity).
  • Xenin stimulates exocrine pancreatic secretion. It inhibits pentagastrin-stimulated secretion of acid, to induce exocrine pancreatic secretion and to affect small and large intestinal motility. In the gut, xenin interacts with the neurotensin receptor.

Gene Wiki entry for COPA Gene

No data available for CIViC Summary , Tocris Summary , PharmGKB "VIP" Summary , Rfam classification and piRNA Summary for COPA Gene

Genomics for COPA Gene

GeneHancer (GH) Regulatory Elements Pubs

Promoters and enhancers for COPA Gene
- Elite GeneHancer and/or Elite GeneHancer-gene association Download GeneHancer data from 2017 publication | Request up-to-date GeneHancer data (full dataset)

GeneHancers around COPA on the GeneHancer Hub at the UCSC Golden Path

Cistromic (ChIP-Seq) regulation report from SPP (The Signaling Pathways Project) for COPA

Top Transcription factor binding sites by QIAGEN in the COPA gene promoter:
  • C/EBPalpha
  • CUTL1
  • Evi-1
  • GATA-2
  • Meis-1
  • Meis-1a
  • Meis-1b
  • Pax-4a
  • RSRFC4
  • TGIF

Genomic Locations for COPA Gene

Latest Assembly
chr1:160,288,594-160,343,273
(GRCh38/hg38)
Size:
54,680 bases
Orientation:
Minus strand

Previous Assembly
chr1:160,258,384-160,313,040
(GRCh37/hg19 by Entrez Gene)
Size:
54,657 bases
Orientation:
Minus strand

chr1:160,259,063-160,313,190
(GRCh37/hg19 by Ensembl)
Size:
54,128 bases
Orientation:
Minus strand

Genomic View for COPA Gene

Genes around COPA on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Cytogenetic band:
COPA Gene in genomic location: bands according to Ensembl, locations according to GeneLoc (and/or Entrez Gene and/or Ensembl if different)
Genomic Location for COPA Gene
GeneLoc Logo Genomic Neighborhood Exon StructureGene Density

RefSeq DNA sequence for COPA Gene

Proteins for COPA Gene

  • Protein details for COPA Gene (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)

    Protein Symbol:
    P53621-COPA_HUMAN
    Recommended name:
    Coatomer subunit alpha
    Protein Accession:
    P53621
    Secondary Accessions:
    • Q5T201
    • Q8IXZ9

    Protein attributes for COPA Gene

    Size:
    1224 amino acids
    Molecular mass:
    138346 Da
    Quaternary structure:
    • Oligomeric complex that consists of at least the alpha, beta, beta', gamma, delta, epsilon and zeta subunits (By similarity). Probably interacts with PEX11A (By similarity). Interacts with SCYL1 (By similarity). Interacts with JAGN1 (PubMed:25129144). Interacts with TMEM41B (PubMed:30352685).

    Three dimensional structures from OCA and Proteopedia for COPA Gene

    Alternative splice isoforms for COPA Gene

    UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot:

neXtProt entry for COPA Gene

Post-translational modifications for COPA Gene

  • Ubiquitination at Lys61, Lys81, Lys170, Lys238, Lys271, Lys337, Lys350, Lys362, Lys411, Lys441, Lys447, Lys480, Lys598, Lys600, Lys727, Lys825, and Lys1028
  • Modification sites at PhosphoSitePlus

No data available for DME Specific Peptides for COPA Gene

Domains & Families for COPA Gene

Gene Families for COPA Gene

HGNC:
Human Protein Atlas (HPA):
  • Disease related genes
  • Plasma proteins
  • Predicted intracellular proteins
  • Predicted secreted proteins

Protein Domains for COPA Gene

InterPro:
Blocks:
  • G-protein beta WD-40 repeat signature
  • Coatomer WD associated region
  • Coatomer alpha subunit, C-terminal

Suggested Antigen Peptide Sequences for COPA Gene

GenScript: Design optimal peptide antigens:
  • HEP-COP (COPA_HUMAN)
genes like me logo Genes that share domains with COPA: view

No data available for Graphical View of Domain Structure and UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for COPA Gene

Function for COPA Gene

Molecular function for COPA Gene

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Function:
The coatomer is a cytosolic protein complex that binds to dilysine motifs and reversibly associates with Golgi non-clathrin-coated vesicles, which further mediate biosynthetic protein transport from the ER, via the Golgi up to the trans Golgi network. Coatomer complex is required for budding from Golgi membranes, and is essential for the retrograde Golgi-to-ER transport of dilysine-tagged proteins. In mammals, the coatomer can only be recruited by membranes associated to ADP-ribosylation factors (ARFs), which are small GTP-binding proteins; the complex also influences the Golgi structural integrity, as well as the processing, activity, and endocytic recycling of LDL receptors (By similarity).
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Function:
Xenin stimulates exocrine pancreatic secretion. It inhibits pentagastrin-stimulated secretion of acid, to induce exocrine pancreatic secretion and to affect small and large intestinal motility. In the gut, xenin interacts with the neurotensin receptor.
GENATLAS Biochemistry:
Golgi coatomer complex alpha subunit,component of the coat of the non-clathrin-coated vesicles,expressed in a wide range of fetal and adult tissues,homolog to the alpha subunit of S cerevisiae coatomer protein complex,involved in the transport between the endoplasmic reticulum and Golgi

Phenotypes From GWAS Catalog for COPA Gene

Gene Ontology (GO) - Molecular Function for COPA Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0005179 hormone activity IEA --
GO:0005198 structural molecule activity IEA --
GO:0005515 protein binding IEA,IPI 30352685
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with COPA: view

Phenotypes for COPA Gene

genes like me logo Genes that share phenotypes with COPA: view

Human Phenotype Ontology for COPA Gene

HPO Id HPO Name Alternative Ids Definition Synonyms

Inhibitory RNAs for research

  • Search GeneCopoeia for shRNA, lentivirus and/or AAV clone products for COPA

No data available for Enzyme Numbers (IUBMB) , Animal Models , Transcription Factor Targets and HOMER Transcription for COPA Gene

Localization for COPA Gene

Subcellular locations from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for COPA Gene

Cytoplasm. Golgi apparatus membrane. Peripheral membrane protein. Cytoplasmic side. Cytoplasmic vesicle, COPI-coated vesicle membrane. Peripheral membrane protein. Cytoplasmic side. Note=The coatomer is cytoplasmic or polymerized on the cytoplasmic side of the Golgi, as well as on the vesicles/buds originating from it. {ECO:0000250}.
[Xenin]: Secreted.

Subcellular locations from

COMPARTMENTS
Extracellular space Cytosol Plasma membrane Cytoskeleton Lysosome Endosome Peroxisome ER Golgi Apparatus Nucleus Mitochondrion 0 1 2 3 4 5 Confidence
COMPARTMENTS Subcellular localization image for COPA gene
Compartment Confidence
extracellular 5
cytosol 5
golgi apparatus 5
nucleus 3
cytoskeleton 2
plasma membrane 1
mitochondrion 1
endoplasmic reticulum 1
endosome 1

Subcellular locations from the

Human Protein Atlas (HPA)
  • Cytosol (2)
  • Golgi apparatus (2)
  • Nucleoplasm (2)
See all subcellular structures

Gene Ontology (GO) - Cellular Components for COPA Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0000139 Golgi membrane IEA,TAS --
GO:0005576 extracellular region IEA --
GO:0005615 extracellular space IDA 1429581
GO:0005737 cytoplasm IEA,IDA 9115636
GO:0005789 endoplasmic reticulum membrane TAS --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with COPA: view

Pathways & Interactions for COPA Gene

genes like me logo Genes that share pathways with COPA: view

Pathways by source for COPA Gene

5 GeneGo (Thomson Reuters) pathways for COPA Gene
  • Cholesterol and Sphingolipids transport / Transport from Golgi and ER to the apical membrane (normal and CF)
  • Delta508-CFTR traffic / ER-to-Golgi in CF
  • Normal wtCFTR traffic / ER-to-Golgi
  • Transport Clathrin-coated vesicle cycle
  • wtCFTR and delta508-CFTR traffic / Generic schema (norm and CF)

Gene Ontology (GO) - Biological Process for COPA Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0006886 intracellular protein transport IEA,IBA 21873635
GO:0006888 ER to Golgi vesicle-mediated transport TAS --
GO:0006890 retrograde vesicle-mediated transport, Golgi to ER IBA,TAS --
GO:0006891 intra-Golgi vesicle-mediated transport IBA 21873635
GO:0007165 signal transduction IEA --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with COPA: view

No data available for SIGNOR curated interactions for COPA Gene

Drugs & Compounds for COPA Gene

(3) Drugs for COPA Gene - From: HMDB and Novoseek

Name Status Disease Links Group Role Mechanism of Action Clinical Trials
Guanosine triphosphate Experimental Pharma 0
genes like me logo Genes that share compounds with COPA: view

Transcripts for COPA Gene

mRNA/cDNA for COPA Gene

2 REFSEQ mRNAs :
6 NCBI additional mRNA sequence :
20 Ensembl transcripts including schematic representations, and UCSC links to gene/alias where relevant :

Inhibitory RNAs for research

  • Search GeneCopoeia for shRNA, lentivirus and/or AAV clone products for COPA

Alternative Splicing Database (ASD) splice patterns (SP) for COPA Gene

ExUns: 1a · 1b ^ 2a · 2b ^ 3a · 3b · 3c ^ 4 ^ 5 ^ 6 ^ 7 ^ 8a · 8b ^ 9a · 9b ^ 10a · 10b ^ 11a · 11b ^ 12a · 12b ^ 13a · 13b ^ 14a · 14b · 14c ^
SP1: -
SP2:
SP3: -
SP4:
SP5: -
SP6: -
SP7: - - - -
SP8:
SP9: -
SP10:
SP11:
SP12: -

ExUns: 15a · 15b ^ 16 ^ 17 ^ 18a · 18b ^ 19 ^ 20 ^ 21 ^ 22a · 22b ^ 23 ^ 24
SP1:
SP2:
SP3:
SP4:
SP5:
SP6:
SP7:
SP8:
SP9:
SP10:
SP11:
SP12:

Relevant External Links for COPA Gene

GeneLoc Exon Structure for
COPA

Expression for COPA Gene

mRNA expression in normal human tissues from GTEx, Illumina, BioGPS, and SAGE for COPA Gene

Protein differential expression in normal tissues from HIPED for COPA Gene

This gene is overexpressed in Breast (6.2).

Integrated Proteomics: protein expression in normal tissues and cell lines from ProteomicsDB, MaxQB, and MOPED for COPA Gene



Protein tissue co-expression partners for COPA Gene

Transcriptomic regulation report from SPP (The Signaling Pathways Project) for COPA

SOURCE GeneReport for Unigene cluster for COPA Gene:

Hs.162121

mRNA Expression by UniProt/SwissProt for COPA Gene:

P53621-COPA_HUMAN
Tissue specificity: Uniformly expressed in a wide range of adult and fetal tissues. Xenin is found in gastric, duodenal and jejunal mucosa. Circulates in the blood. Seems to be confined to specific endocrine cells.

Evidence on tissue expression from TISSUES for COPA Gene

  • Nervous system(4.9)
  • Liver(4.8)
  • Stomach(4.5)
  • Pancreas(3.8)
  • Heart(3.4)
  • Intestine(3.4)
  • Skin(3.3)
  • Lung(3.3)
  • Adrenal gland(3.2)
  • Blood(3)
  • Eye(2.7)
  • Kidney(2.6)
  • Gall bladder(2.5)
  • Muscle(2.1)
genes like me logo Genes that share expression patterns with COPA: view

Primer products for research

No data available for mRNA expression in embryonic tissues and stem cells from LifeMap Discovery , mRNA differential expression in normal tissues and Phenotype-based relationships between genes and organs from Gene ORGANizer for COPA Gene

Orthologs for COPA Gene

This gene was present in the common ancestor of eukaryotes.

Orthologs for COPA Gene

Organism Taxonomy Gene Similarity Type Details
Chimpanzee
(Pan troglodytes)
Mammalia COPA 29 30
  • 99.78 (n)
OneToOne
Oppossum
(Monodelphis domestica)
Mammalia COPA 30
  • 98 (a)
OneToOne
Cow
(Bos Taurus)
Mammalia COPA 29 30
  • 93.27 (n)
OneToOne
Dog
(Canis familiaris)
Mammalia COPA 29 30
  • 91.93 (n)
OneToOne
Rat
(Rattus norvegicus)
Mammalia Copa 29
  • 91.23 (n)
Mouse
(Mus musculus)
Mammalia Copa 29 16 30
  • 91.07 (n)
OneToOne
Platypus
(Ornithorhynchus anatinus)
Mammalia COPA 30
  • 82 (a)
OneToOne
Chicken
(Gallus gallus)
Aves COPA 29 30
  • 82.9 (n)
OneToOne
Lizard
(Anolis carolinensis)
Reptilia -- 30
  • 97 (a)
OneToMany
-- 30
  • 80 (a)
OneToMany
Tropical Clawed Frog
(Silurana tropicalis)
Amphibia copa 29
  • 80.83 (n)
Zebrafish
(Danio rerio)
Actinopterygii copa 29 30
  • 75.36 (n)
OneToOne
Fruit Fly
(Drosophila melanogaster)
Insecta alphaCop 29 30 31
  • 66.01 (n)
OneToOne
African malaria mosquito
(Anopheles gambiae)
Insecta AgaP_AGAP010251 29
  • 65.22 (n)
Worm
(Caenorhabditis elegans)
Secernentea Y71F9AL.17 29 31
  • 60.18 (n)
copa-1 30
  • 59 (a)
OneToOne
K. Lactis Yeast
(Kluyveromyces lactis)
Saccharomycetes KLLA0F04884g 29
  • 52.22 (n)
Baker's yeast
(Saccharomyces cerevisiae)
Saccharomycetes COP1 29 30 32
  • 51.7 (n)
OneToMany
A. gosspyii yeast
(Eremothecium gossypii)
Saccharomycetes AGOS_ADR077C 29
  • 50.88 (n)
Thale Cress
(Arabidopsis thaliana)
eudicotyledons AT1G62020 29
  • 60.04 (n)
Rice
(Oryza sativa)
Liliopsida Os09g0127800 29
  • 59.47 (n)
Sea Squirt
(Ciona savignyi)
Ascidiacea CSA.184 30
  • 73 (a)
OneToOne
Bread mold
(Neurospora crassa)
Ascomycetes NCU10066 29
  • 55.83 (n)
Fission Yeast
(Schizosaccharomyces pombe)
Schizosaccharomycetes SPBPJ4664.04 29
  • 52.84 (n)
Species where no ortholog for COPA was found in the sources mined by GeneCards:
  • Actinobacteria (Mycobacterium tuberculosis)
  • African clawed frog (Xenopus laevis)
  • Alicante grape (Vitis vinifera)
  • Alpha proteobacteria (Wolbachia pipientis)
  • Amoeba (Dictyostelium discoideum)
  • Archea (Pyrococcus horikoshii)
  • Barley (Hordeum vulgare)
  • Beta proteobacteria (Neisseria meningitidis)
  • Chromalveolata (Phytophthora infestans)
  • Common water flea (Daphnia pulex)
  • Corn (Zea mays)
  • E. coli (Escherichia coli)
  • Filamentous fungi (Aspergillus nidulans)
  • Firmicute Bacteria (Streptococcus pneumoniae)
  • Green Algae (Chlamydomonas reinhardtii)
  • Honey Bee (Apis mellifera)
  • Loblloly Pine (Pinus taeda)
  • Malaria Parasite (Plasmodium falciparum)
  • Medicago Trunc (Medicago Truncatula)
  • Moss (Physcomitrella patens)
  • Orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus)
  • Pig (Sus scrofa)
  • Rainbow Trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)
  • Rice Blast Fungus (Magnaporthe grisea)
  • Schistosome Parasite (Schistosoma mansoni)
  • Sea Anemone (Nematostella vectensis)
  • Sea Vase (Ciona intestinalis)
  • Sea Urchin (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus)
  • Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor)
  • Soybean (Glycine max)
  • Stem Rust Fungus (Puccinia graminis)
  • Sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum)
  • Tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum)
  • Toxoplasmosis (Toxoplasma gondii)
  • Trichoplax (Trichoplax adhaerens)
  • Wheat (Triticum aestivum)

Evolution for COPA Gene

ENSEMBL:
Gene Tree for COPA (if available)
TreeFam:
Gene Tree for COPA (if available)
Aminode:
Evolutionary constrained regions (ECRs) for COPA: view image
Alliance of Genome Resources:
Additional Orthologs for COPA

Paralogs for COPA Gene

Paralogs for COPA Gene

genes like me logo Genes that share paralogs with COPA: view

Variants for COPA Gene

Sequence variations, with clinical significance, from ClinVar and Humsavar, with links to dbSNP for COPA Gene

SNP ID Clinical significance and condition Chr 01 pos Variation AA Info Type
1001671 Uncertain Significance: Autoimmune interstitial lung, joint, and kidney disease 160,306,496(-) G/A
NM_004371.4(COPA):c.1303-3C>T
INTRON
1002708 Uncertain Significance: Autoimmune interstitial lung, joint, and kidney disease 160,291,829(-) C/T
NM_004371.4(COPA):c.3248G>A (p.Arg1083His)
MISSENSE
1004028 Uncertain Significance: Autoimmune interstitial lung, joint, and kidney disease 160,313,136(-) C/A
NM_004371.4(COPA):c.874G>T (p.Asp292Tyr)
MISSENSE
1004092 Uncertain Significance: Autoimmune interstitial lung, joint, and kidney disease 160,292,019(-) A/G
NM_004371.4(COPA):c.3140T>C (p.Ile1047Thr)
MISSENSE
1004345 Uncertain Significance: Autoimmune interstitial lung, joint, and kidney disease 160,292,185(-) G/C
NM_004371.4(COPA):c.2974C>G (p.Leu992Val)
MISSENSE

dbSNP identifiers (rs#s) for variants without ClinVar clinical significance for COPA Gene

All consequence types are included: molecular consequences (e.g. missense, synonymous), and location-based (e.g. intron, upstream).

Structural Variations from Database of Genomic Variants (DGV) for COPA Gene

Variant ID Type Subtype PubMed ID
esv3308421 CNV mobile element insertion 20981092
esv3334227 CNV insertion 20981092
esv3361989 CNV insertion 20981092
esv3587712 CNV loss 21293372
nsv3210 CNV deletion 18451855
nsv946454 CNV duplication 23825009

Variation tolerance for COPA Gene

Residual Variation Intolerance Score: 10.8% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)
Gene Damage Index Score: 4.54; 64.85% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)

Additional Variant Information for COPA Gene

Human Gene Mutation Database (HGMD)
COPA
SNPedia medical, phenotypic, and genealogical associations of SNPs for
COPA
Leiden Open Variation Database (LOVD)
COPA

SNP Genotyping and Copy Number Assays for research

No data available for Polymorphic Variants from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for COPA Gene

Disorders for COPA Gene

MalaCards: The human disease database

(8) MalaCards diseases for COPA Gene - From: OMI, CVR, GTR, ORP, SWI, COP, and GCD

Disorder Aliases PubMed IDs
autoimmune interstitial lung, joint, and kidney disease
  • ailjk
lipid pneumonia
  • exogenous lipoid pneumonia
lung disease
  • lung diseases
kidney disease
  • impaired renal function disease
ventilation pneumonitis
  • air-conditioner and humidifier lung
- elite association - COSMIC cancer census association via MalaCards
Search COPA in MalaCards View complete list of genes associated with diseases

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot

COPA_HUMAN
  • Autoimmune interstitial lung, joint, and kidney disease (AILJK) [MIM:616414]: An autoimmune disease characterized by inflammatory arthritis, interstitial lung disease, and immune complex-mediated renal disease. {ECO:0000269 PubMed:25894502}. Note=The disease is caused by variants affecting the gene represented in this entry.

Additional Disease Information for COPA

genes like me logo Genes that share disorders with COPA: view

No data available for Genatlas for COPA Gene

Publications for COPA Gene

  1. HEP-COP, a novel human gene whose product is highly homologous to the alpha-subunit of the yeast coatomer protein complex. (PMID: 8647451) Chow VT … Quek HH (Gene 1996) 2 3 4 22
  2. COPA mutations impair ER-Golgi transport and cause hereditary autoimmune-mediated lung disease and arthritis. (PMID: 25894502) Watkin LB … Shum AK (Nature genetics 2015) 3 4 72
  3. Xenin--a review. (PMID: 9533652) Feurle GE (Peptides 1998) 3 4 22
  4. Alpha coat protein COPA (HEP-COP): presence of an Alu repeat in cDNA and identity of the amino terminus to xenin. (PMID: 9365789) Chow VT … Quek HH (Annals of human genetics 1997) 3 4 22
  5. Identification of xenin, a xenopsin-related peptide, in the human gastric mucosa and its effect on exocrine pancreatic secretion. (PMID: 1429581) Feurle GE … Metzger JW (The Journal of biological chemistry 1992) 3 4 22

Products for COPA Gene

Sources for COPA Gene