Aliases for CNR1 Gene
External Ids for CNR1 Gene
Previous HGNC Symbols for CNR1 Gene
Previous GeneCards Identifiers for CNR1 Gene
This gene encodes one of two cannabinoid receptors. The cannabinoids, principally delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol and synthetic analogs, are psychoactive ingredients of marijuana. The cannabinoid receptors are members of the guanine-nucleotide-binding protein (G-protein) coupled receptor family, which inhibit adenylate cyclase activity in a dose-dependent, stereoselective and pertussis toxin-sensitive manner. The two receptors have been found to be involved in the cannabinoid-induced CNS effects (including alterations in mood and cognition) experienced by users of marijuana. Multiple transcript variants encoding two different protein isoforms have been described for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, May 2009]
GeneCards Summary for CNR1 Gene
CNR1 (Cannabinoid Receptor 1) is a Protein Coding gene. Diseases associated with CNR1 include Cannabis Dependence and Chronic Pain. Among its related pathways are GPCRs, Other and Reelin Pathway (Cajal-Retzius cells). Gene Ontology (GO) annotations related to this gene include G-protein coupled receptor activity and cannabinoid receptor activity. An important paralog of this gene is CNR2.
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for CNR1 Gene
G-protein coupled receptor for endogenous cannabinoids (eCBs), including N-arachidonoylethanolamide (also called anandamide or AEA) and 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG), as well as phytocannabinoids, such as delta(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) (PubMed:15620723, PubMed:27768894, PubMed:27851727). Mediates many cannabinoid-induced effects, acting, among others, on food intake, memory loss, gastrointestinal motility, catalepsy, ambulatory activity, anxiety, chronic pain. Signaling typically involves reduction in cyclic AMP (PubMed:1718258, PubMed:21895628, PubMed:27768894). In the hypothalamus, may have a dual effect on mitochondrial respiration depending upon the agonist dose and possibly upon the cell type. Increases respiration at low doses, while decreases respiration at high doses. At high doses, CNR1 signal transduction involves G-protein alpha-i protein activation and subsequent inhibition of mitochondrial soluble adenylate cyclase, decrease in cyclic AMP concentration, inhibition of protein kinase A (PKA)-dependent phosphorylation of specific subunits of the mitochondrial electron transport system, including NDUFS2. In the hypothalamus, inhibits leptin-induced reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation and mediates cannabinoid-induced increase in SREBF1 and FASN gene expression. In response to cannabinoids, drives the release of orexigenic beta-endorphin, but not that of melanocyte-stimulating hormone alpha/alpha-MSH, from hypothalamic POMC neurons, hence promoting food intake. In the hippocampus, regulates cellular respiration and energy production in response to cannabinoids. Involved in cannabinoid-dependent depolarization-induced suppression of inhibition (DSI), a process in which depolarization of CA1 postsynaptic pyramidal neurons mobilizes eCBs, which retrogradely activate presynaptic CB1 receptors, transiently decreasing GABAergic inhibitory neurotransmission. Also reduces excitatory synaptic transmission (By similarity). In superior cervical ganglions and cerebral vascular smooth muscle cells, inhibits voltage-gated Ca(2+) channels in a constitutive, as well as agonist-dependent manner (PubMed:17895407). In cerebral vascular smooth muscle cells, cannabinoid-induced inhibition of voltage-gated Ca(2+) channels leads to vasodilation and decreased vascular tone (By similarity). Induces leptin production in adipocytes and reduces LRP2-mediated leptin clearance in the kidney, hence participating in hyperleptinemia. In adipose tissue, CNR1 signaling leads to increased expression of SREBF1, ACACA and FASN genes (By similarity). In the liver, activation by endocannabinoids leads to increased de novo lipogenesis and reduced fatty acid catabolism, associated with increased expression of SREBF1/SREBP-1, GCK, ACACA, ACACB and FASN genes. May also affect de novo cholesterol synthesis and HDL-cholesteryl ether uptake. Peripherally modulates energy metabolism (By similarity). In high carbohydrate diet-induced obesity, may decrease the expression of mitochondrial dihydrolipoyl dehydrogenase/DLD in striated muscles, as well as that of selected glucose/ pyruvate metabolic enzymes, hence affecting energy expenditure through mitochondrial metabolism (By similarity). In response to cannabinoid anandamide, elicits a proinflammatory response in macrophages, which involves NLRP3 inflammasome activation and IL1B and IL18 secretion (By similarity). In macrophages infiltrating pancreatic islets, this process may participate in the progression of type-2 diabetes and associated loss of pancreatic beta-cells (PubMed:23955712).
Isoform 1: Binds both 2-AG and anandamide.
Isoform 2: Only binds 2-AG with high affinity. Contrary to its effect on isoform 1, 2-AG behaves as an inverse agonist on isoform 2 in assays measuring GTP binding to membranes.
Isoform 3: Only binds 2-AG with high affinity. Contrary to its effect on isoform 1, 2-AG behaves as an inverse agonist on isoform 3 in assays measuring GTP binding to membranes.
The CB1 receptor, also known as the central cannabinoid receptor, is a member of the cannabinoid receptor group of G-protein-coupled receptors that also includes CB2 and GPR55. CB1 receptors are found mainly in the terminals of central and peripheral neurons.