The protein encoded by this gene belongs to the sulfotransferase 2 family. It is localized to the golgi membrane, and catalyzes the transfer of sulfate to position 4 of non-reducing N-acetylgalactosamine (GalNAc) residues in both N-glycans and O-glycans. Sulfate groups on carbohydrates confer highly specific functions to glycoproteins, glycolipids, and proteoglycans, and are cr... See more...

Aliases for CHST9 Gene

Aliases for CHST9 Gene

  • Carbohydrate Sulfotransferase 9 2 3 4 5
  • Carbohydrate (N-Acetylgalactosamine 4-0) Sulfotransferase 9 2 3
  • GalNAc-4-O-Sulfotransferase 2 3 4
  • N-Acetylgalactosamine 4-O-Sulfotransferase 2 3
  • N-Acetylgalactosamine-4-O-Sulfotransferase 2 4
  • GalNAc-4-Sulfotransferase 2 3
  • GalNAc-4-ST2 4
  • GALNAC4ST-2 3
  • GalNAc4ST-2 4
  • GalNAc4ST2 3
  • EC 2.8.2.- 4

External Ids for CHST9 Gene

Previous GeneCards Identifiers for CHST9 Gene

  • GC18M024226
  • GC18M024383
  • GC18M022747
  • GC18M022749
  • GC18M024486
  • GC18M021345
  • GC18M024495

Summaries for CHST9 Gene

Entrez Gene Summary for CHST9 Gene

  • The protein encoded by this gene belongs to the sulfotransferase 2 family. It is localized to the golgi membrane, and catalyzes the transfer of sulfate to position 4 of non-reducing N-acetylgalactosamine (GalNAc) residues in both N-glycans and O-glycans. Sulfate groups on carbohydrates confer highly specific functions to glycoproteins, glycolipids, and proteoglycans, and are critical for cell-cell interaction, signal transduction, and embryonic development. Alternatively spliced transcript variants have been described for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Aug 2011]

GeneCards Summary for CHST9 Gene

CHST9 (Carbohydrate Sulfotransferase 9) is a Protein Coding gene. Among its related pathways are Metabolism and Glycosaminoglycan metabolism. Gene Ontology (GO) annotations related to this gene include sulfotransferase activity and N-acetylgalactosamine 4-O-sulfotransferase activity. An important paralog of this gene is CHST8.

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Summary for CHST9 Gene

  • Catalyzes the transfer of sulfate to position 4 of non-reducing N-acetylgalactosamine (GalNAc) residues in both N-glycans and O-glycans. Participates in biosynthesis of glycoprotein hormones lutropin and thyrotropin, by mediating sulfation of their carbohydrate structures. Has a higher activity toward carbonic anhydrase VI than toward lutropin. Only active against terminal GalNAcbeta1,GalNAcbeta. Isoform 2, but not isoform 1, is active toward chondroitin.

Additional gene information for CHST9 Gene

No data available for CIViC Summary , Tocris Summary , Gene Wiki entry , PharmGKB "VIP" Summary , Rfam classification and piRNA Summary for CHST9 Gene

Genomics for CHST9 Gene

GeneHancer (GH) Regulatory Elements for CHST9 Gene

Promoters and enhancers for CHST9 Gene
GeneHancer (GH) Identifier GH Type GH
Score
GH Sources Gene Association Score Total Score TSS distance (kb) Number of Genes Away Size (kb) Transcription Factor
Binding Sites
Gene Targets
GH18J027184 Promoter/Enhancer 1.6 EPDnew Ensembl ENCODE CraniofacialAtlas 500.7 +0.3 337 2 ZBTB26 ZNF341 POLR2A ZBTB17 HIC1 RAD21 MAZ TAF1 EZH2 L3MBTL2 CHST9 piR-48222-161 AQP4-AS1
GH18J027143 Promoter 1 EPDnew Ensembl 500.3 +42.6 42637 1 ZBTB40 TEAD1 ZFP36 DRAP1 BCL6 DMAP1 ZKSCAN1 SOX5 HNF1A ZNF7 CHST9 piR-41525-309 piR-61101-307 AQP4-AS1
GH18J027057 Enhancer 0.7 Ensembl ENCODE 25.8 +127.8 127837 1.4 FOXA2 POLR2A SMARCA4 HNF4A HLF CEBPG FOXA1 SP1 YY1 CHST9 piR-61101-307 piR-32214-299 AQP4-AS1
GH18J027227 Enhancer 0.6 Ensembl ENCODE 20.5 -41.9 -41896 2.5 RXRA HNF4A SP1 KDM1A piR-38135 CHST9 piR-58557-040 LINC01908
GH18J027136 Enhancer 1 Ensembl ENCODE 11.4 +49.3 49337 1.2 MYC USF1 TEAD4 TGIF2 TEAD1 CEBPB KAT7 TFDP1 SAP130 TCF12 CHST9 piR-41525-309 piR-61101-307 AQP4-AS1
- Elite GeneHancer and/or Elite GeneHancer-gene association Download GeneHancer data from 2017 publication | Request up-to-date GeneHancer data (full dataset)

GeneHancers around CHST9 on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Cistromic (ChIP-Seq) regulation report from SPP (The Signaling Pathways Project) for CHST9

Top Transcription factor binding sites by QIAGEN in the CHST9 gene promoter:
  • aMEF-2
  • CUTL1
  • GATA-1
  • Lhx3a
  • LHX3b
  • MEF-2A
  • Nkx2-5

Genomic Locations for CHST9 Gene

Genomic Locations for CHST9 Gene
chr18:26,906,481-27,185,338
(GRCh38/hg38)
Size:
278,858 bases
Orientation:
Minus strand
chr18:24,495,595-24,765,289
(GRCh37/hg19)
Size:
269,695 bases
Orientation:
Minus strand

Genomic View for CHST9 Gene

Genes around CHST9 on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Cytogenetic band:
CHST9 Gene in genomic location: bands according to Ensembl, locations according to GeneLoc (and/or Entrez Gene and/or Ensembl if different)
Genomic Location for CHST9 Gene
GeneLoc Logo Genomic Neighborhood Exon StructureGene Density

RefSeq DNA sequence for CHST9 Gene

Proteins for CHST9 Gene

  • Protein details for CHST9 Gene (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)

    Protein Symbol:
    Q7L1S5-CHST9_HUMAN
    Recommended name:
    Carbohydrate sulfotransferase 9
    Protein Accession:
    Q7L1S5
    Secondary Accessions:
    • Q6UX69
    • Q9BXH3
    • Q9BXH4
    • Q9BZW9

    Protein attributes for CHST9 Gene

    Size:
    443 amino acids
    Molecular mass:
    52055 Da
    Quaternary structure:
    No Data Available
    SequenceCaution:
    • Sequence=AAH25764.2; Type=Erroneous initiation; Note=Truncated N-terminus.; Evidence={ECO:0000305}; Sequence=AAK01862.1; Type=Erroneous initiation; Note=Truncated N-terminus.; Evidence={ECO:0000305}; Sequence=AAK30370.1; Type=Erroneous translation; Note=Wrong choice of CDS.; Evidence={ECO:0000305};

    Alternative splice isoforms for CHST9 Gene

    UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot:

neXtProt entry for CHST9 Gene

Post-translational modifications for CHST9 Gene

  • Glycosylation at Thr52, Asn159, Asn243, Asn324, and Asn437
  • Modification sites at PhosphoSitePlus

Other Protein References for CHST9 Gene

No data available for DME Specific Peptides for CHST9 Gene

Domains & Families for CHST9 Gene

Gene Families for CHST9 Gene

HGNC:
Human Protein Atlas (HPA):
  • Predicted intracellular proteins
  • Predicted membrane proteins

Protein Domains for CHST9 Gene

Suggested Antigen Peptide Sequences for CHST9 Gene

GenScript: Design optimal peptide antigens:
  • N-acetylgalactosamine-4-O-sulfotransferase 2 (CHST9_HUMAN)

Graphical View of Domain Structure for InterPro Entry

Q7L1S5

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot:

CHST9_HUMAN :
  • Belongs to the sulfotransferase 2 family.
Family:
  • Belongs to the sulfotransferase 2 family.
genes like me logo Genes that share domains with CHST9: view

Function for CHST9 Gene

Molecular function for CHST9 Gene

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Function:
Catalyzes the transfer of sulfate to position 4 of non-reducing N-acetylgalactosamine (GalNAc) residues in both N-glycans and O-glycans. Participates in biosynthesis of glycoprotein hormones lutropin and thyrotropin, by mediating sulfation of their carbohydrate structures. Has a higher activity toward carbonic anhydrase VI than toward lutropin. Only active against terminal GalNAcbeta1,GalNAcbeta. Isoform 2, but not isoform 1, is active toward chondroitin.

Enzyme Numbers (IUBMB) for CHST9 Gene

Phenotypes From GWAS Catalog for CHST9 Gene

Gene Ontology (GO) - Molecular Function for CHST9 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0001537 N-acetylgalactosamine 4-O-sulfotransferase activity ISS --
GO:0008146 sulfotransferase activity IBA 21873635
GO:0016740 transferase activity IEA --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with CHST9: view
genes like me logo Genes that share phenotypes with CHST9: view

Animal Model Products

CRISPR Products

miRNA for CHST9 Gene

miRTarBase miRNAs that target CHST9

Inhibitory RNA Products

  • Search GeneCopoeia for shRNA, lentivirus and/or AAV clone products for CHST9

No data available for Human Phenotype Ontology , Animal Models , Transcription Factor Targets and HOMER Transcription for CHST9 Gene

Localization for CHST9 Gene

Subcellular locations from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for CHST9 Gene

[Isoform 1]: Golgi apparatus membrane; Single-pass type II membrane protein.
[Isoform 2]: Secreted.

Subcellular locations from

COMPARTMENTS
Extracellular space Cytosol Plasma membrane Cytoskeleton Lysosome Endosome Peroxisome ER Golgi Apparatus Nucleus Mitochondrion 0 1 2 3 4 5 Confidence
COMPARTMENTS Subcellular localization image for CHST9 gene
Compartment Confidence
golgi apparatus 4
extracellular 3
endoplasmic reticulum 2
mitochondrion 0
peroxisome 0

Gene Ontology (GO) - Cellular Components for CHST9 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0000139 Golgi membrane TAS --
GO:0005576 extracellular region IEA --
GO:0005794 Golgi apparatus IEA --
GO:0016020 membrane IEA --
GO:0016021 integral component of membrane NAS 11139592
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with CHST9: view

No data available for Subcellular locations from the Human Protein Atlas (HPA) for CHST9 Gene

Pathways & Interactions for CHST9 Gene

genes like me logo Genes that share pathways with CHST9: view

Gene Ontology (GO) - Biological Process for CHST9 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0005975 carbohydrate metabolic process IEA --
GO:0006790 sulfur compound metabolic process IDA 11445554
GO:0016051 carbohydrate biosynthetic process IEA --
GO:0030166 proteoglycan biosynthetic process ISS --
GO:0030203 glycosaminoglycan metabolic process NAS 11139592
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with CHST9: view

No data available for SIGNOR curated interactions for CHST9 Gene

Drugs & Compounds for CHST9 Gene

No Compound Related Data Available

Transcripts for CHST9 Gene

mRNA/cDNA for CHST9 Gene

3 REFSEQ mRNAs :
14 NCBI additional mRNA sequence :
3 Ensembl transcripts including schematic representations, and UCSC links to gene/alias where relevant :

CRISPR Products

Inhibitory RNA Products

  • Search GeneCopoeia for shRNA, lentivirus and/or AAV clone products for CHST9

Alternative Splicing Database (ASD) splice patterns (SP) for CHST9 Gene

No ASD Table

Relevant External Links for CHST9 Gene

GeneLoc Exon Structure for
CHST9

Expression for CHST9 Gene

mRNA expression in normal human tissues from GTEx, Illumina, BioGPS, and SAGE for CHST9 Gene

mRNA expression in embryonic tissues and stem cells from LifeMap Discovery

mRNA differential expression in normal tissues according to GTEx for CHST9 Gene

This gene is overexpressed in Minor Salivary Gland (x10.5).

Protein differential expression in normal tissues from HIPED for CHST9 Gene

This gene is overexpressed in Gallbladder (69.0).

Integrated Proteomics: protein expression in normal tissues and cell lines from ProteomicsDB and MOPED for CHST9 Gene



Protein tissue co-expression partners for CHST9 Gene

Transcriptomic regulation report from SPP (The Signaling Pathways Project) for CHST9

SOURCE GeneReport for Unigene cluster for CHST9 Gene:

Hs.44584

mRNA Expression by UniProt/SwissProt for CHST9 Gene:

Q7L1S5-CHST9_HUMAN
Tissue specificity: Highly expressed in trachea. Also expressed in fetal lung, adult pancreas, testis and salivary gland. Expressed at low level in pituitary gland, apex of the heart, adult lung, prostate and mammary gland. Weakly or not expressed in heart, liver and spinal cord.

Evidence on tissue expression from TISSUES for CHST9 Gene

  • Lung(4.2)
genes like me logo Genes that share expression patterns with CHST9: view

No data available for Phenotype-based relationships between genes and organs from Gene ORGANizer for CHST9 Gene

Orthologs for CHST9 Gene

This gene was present in the common ancestor of animals.

Orthologs for CHST9 Gene

Organism Taxonomy Gene Similarity Type Details
chimpanzee
(Pan troglodytes)
Mammalia CHST9 31 30
  • 99.25 (n)
OneToOne
dog
(Canis familiaris)
Mammalia CHST9 31 30
  • 89.74 (n)
OneToOne
cow
(Bos Taurus)
Mammalia CHST9 31 30
  • 86.25 (n)
OneToOne
platypus
(Ornithorhynchus anatinus)
Mammalia CHST9 31
  • 83 (a)
OneToOne
mouse
(Mus musculus)
Mammalia Chst9 17 31 30
  • 80.91 (n)
rat
(Rattus norvegicus)
Mammalia Chst9 30
  • 80.55 (n)
oppossum
(Monodelphis domestica)
Mammalia CHST9 31
  • 64 (a)
OneToOne
chicken
(Gallus gallus)
Aves CHST9 31 30
  • 67.81 (n)
OneToOne
lizard
(Anolis carolinensis)
Reptilia CHST9 31
  • 64 (a)
OneToOne
fruit fly
(Drosophila melanogaster)
Insecta CG13937 31
  • 23 (a)
ManyToMany
CG14024 31
  • 19 (a)
ManyToMany
sea squirt
(Ciona savignyi)
Ascidiacea -- 31
  • 29 (a)
ManyToMany
-- 31
  • 27 (a)
ManyToMany
-- 31
  • 26 (a)
ManyToMany
-- 31
  • 23 (a)
ManyToMany
-- 31
  • 22 (a)
ManyToMany
Species where no ortholog for CHST9 was found in the sources mined by GeneCards:
  • A. gosspyii yeast (Ashbya gossypii)
  • Actinobacteria (Mycobacterium tuberculosis)
  • African clawed frog (Xenopus laevis)
  • African malaria mosquito (Anopheles gambiae)
  • Alicante grape (Vitis vinifera)
  • alpha proteobacteria (Wolbachia pipientis)
  • amoeba (Dictyostelium discoideum)
  • Archea (Pyrococcus horikoshii)
  • baker's yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae)
  • barley (Hordeum vulgare)
  • beta proteobacteria (Neisseria meningitidis)
  • bread mold (Neurospora crassa)
  • Chromalveolata (Phytophthora infestans)
  • common water flea (Daphnia pulex)
  • corn (Zea mays)
  • E. coli (Escherichia coli)
  • filamentous fungi (Aspergillus nidulans)
  • Firmicute bacteria (Streptococcus pneumoniae)
  • fission yeast (Schizosaccharomyces pombe)
  • green algae (Chlamydomonas reinhardtii)
  • honey bee (Apis mellifera)
  • K. lactis yeast (Kluyveromyces lactis)
  • loblloly pine (Pinus taeda)
  • malaria parasite (Plasmodium falciparum)
  • medicago trunc (Medicago Truncatula)
  • moss (Physcomitrella patens)
  • orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus)
  • pig (Sus scrofa)
  • rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)
  • rice (Oryza sativa)
  • rice blast fungus (Magnaporthe grisea)
  • schistosome parasite (Schistosoma mansoni)
  • sea anemone (Nematostella vectensis)
  • sea urchin (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus)
  • sorghum (Sorghum bicolor)
  • soybean (Glycine max)
  • stem rust fungus (Puccinia graminis)
  • sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum)
  • thale cress (Arabidopsis thaliana)
  • tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum)
  • toxoplasmosis (Toxoplasma gondii)
  • Trichoplax (Trichoplax adhaerens)
  • tropical clawed frog (Silurana tropicalis)
  • wheat (Triticum aestivum)
  • worm (Caenorhabditis elegans)
  • zebrafish (Danio rerio)

Evolution for CHST9 Gene

ENSEMBL:
Gene Tree for CHST9 (if available)
TreeFam:
Gene Tree for CHST9 (if available)
Aminode:
Evolutionary constrained regions (ECRs) for CHST9: view image

Paralogs for CHST9 Gene

Paralogs for CHST9 Gene

(5) SIMAP similar genes for CHST9 Gene using alignment to 2 proteins:

  • CHST9_HUMAN
  • L8EAG4_HUMAN
genes like me logo Genes that share paralogs with CHST9: view

Variants for CHST9 Gene

Sequence variations, with clinical significance, from ClinVar and Humsavar, with links to dbSNP for CHST9 Gene

SNP ID Clinical significance and condition Chr 18 pos Variation AA Info Type
788912 Benign: not provided 26,916,412(-) G/C SYNONYMOUS_VARIANT,THREE_PRIME_UTR_VARIANT
rs17694469 - p.Ser122Asn
rs758130927 - p.Asn378Ser

Additional dbSNP identifiers (rs#s) for CHST9 Gene

Structural Variations from Database of Genomic Variants (DGV) for CHST9 Gene

Variant ID Type Subtype PubMed ID
dgv10e198 CNV loss 23635498
dgv1569n106 CNV deletion 24896259
dgv1570n106 CNV deletion 24896259
dgv5876n54 CNV loss 21841781
dgv9e198 CNV loss 23635498
esv1411247 CNV insertion 17803354
esv25443 CNV gain 19812545
esv2658895 CNV deletion 23128226
esv2668079 CNV deletion 23128226
esv2676360 CNV deletion 23128226
esv2716888 CNV deletion 23290073
esv2716889 CNV deletion 23290073
esv2761995 CNV loss 21179565
esv3134901 CNV deletion 24192839
esv3435383 CNV insertion 20981092
esv3555154 CNV deletion 23714750
esv3582991 CNV loss 25503493
esv3642029 CNV loss 21293372
esv3642030 CNV gain 21293372
esv3642031 CNV loss 21293372
esv3642032 CNV loss 21293372
esv3642033 CNV loss 21293372
esv3642035 CNV gain 21293372
esv3893079 CNV gain 25118596
nsv1116264 CNV deletion 24896259
nsv2236 CNV insertion 18451855
nsv475202 CNV novel sequence insertion 20440878
nsv512523 CNV loss 21212237
nsv528945 CNV loss 19592680
nsv576588 CNV loss 21841781
nsv820910 CNV deletion 20802225
nsv833600 CNV gain 17160897
nsv954932 CNV deletion 24416366
nsv962502 CNV duplication 23825009
nsv978623 CNV duplication 23825009

Variation tolerance for CHST9 Gene

Residual Variation Intolerance Score: 59.3% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)
Gene Damage Index Score: 2.06; 37.78% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)

Additional Variant Information for CHST9 Gene

SNPedia medical, phenotypic, and genealogical associations of SNPs for
CHST9

SNP Genotyping and Copy Number Assay Products

No data available for Polymorphic Variants from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for CHST9 Gene

Disorders for CHST9 Gene

Additional Disease Information for CHST9

Genetic Association Database
(GAD)
Human Genome Epidemiology Navigator
(HuGE)
ATLAS of Genetics and Cytogenetics in Oncology and Haematology

No disorders were found for CHST9 Gene.

No data available for MalaCards , UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot and Genatlas for CHST9 Gene

Publications for CHST9 Gene

  1. Molecular cloning and expression of an N-acetylgalactosamine-4-O-sulfotransferase that transfers sulfate to terminal and non-terminal beta 1,4-linked N-acetylgalactosamine. (PMID: 11139592) Kang HG … Schachner M (The Journal of biological chemistry 2001) 2 3 4 54
  2. Molecular cloning and expression of two distinct human N-acetylgalactosamine 4-O-sulfotransferases that transfer sulfate to GalNAc beta 1-->4GlcNAc beta 1-->R in both N- and O-glycans. (PMID: 11445554) Hiraoka N … Fukuda M (Glycobiology 2001) 2 3 4 54
  3. Examination of copy number variations of CHST9 in multiple types of hematologic malignancies. (PMID: 21156230) Zhao X … Wan J (Cancer genetics and cytogenetics 2010) 3 41 54
  4. The status, quality, and expansion of the NIH full-length cDNA project: the Mammalian Gene Collection (MGC). (PMID: 15489334) Gerhard DS … MGC Project Team (Genome research 2004) 3 4 54
  5. Complete sequencing and characterization of 21,243 full-length human cDNAs. (PMID: 14702039) Ota T … Sugano S (Nature genetics 2004) 3 4 54

Products for CHST9 Gene

Sources for CHST9 Gene