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Aliases for CHRM1 Gene

Aliases for CHRM1 Gene

  • Cholinergic Receptor Muscarinic 1 2 3 5
  • Acetylcholine Receptor, Muscarinic 1 2 3
  • Muscarinic Acetylcholine Receptor M1 3
  • HM1 3
  • M1R 3
  • M1 3

External Ids for CHRM1 Gene

Previous GeneCards Identifiers for CHRM1 Gene

  • GC11M065188
  • GC11M064251
  • GC11M062927
  • GC11M062452
  • GC11M062453
  • GC11M062432
  • GC11M062677
  • GC11M059005
  • GC11M062692
  • GC11M062695
  • GC11M062714
  • GC11M062929

Summaries for CHRM1 Gene

Entrez Gene Summary for CHRM1 Gene

  • The muscarinic cholinergic receptors belong to a larger family of G protein-coupled receptors. The functional diversity of these receptors is defined by the binding of acetylcholine and includes cellular responses such as adenylate cyclase inhibition, phosphoinositide degeneration, and potassium channel mediation. Muscarinic receptors influence many effects of acetylcholine in the central and peripheral nervous system. The muscarinic cholinergic receptor 1 is involved in mediation of vagally-induced bronchoconstriction and in the acid secretion of the gastrointestinal tract. The gene encoding this receptor is localized to 11q13. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

GeneCards Summary for CHRM1 Gene

CHRM1 (Cholinergic Receptor Muscarinic 1) is a Protein Coding gene. Diseases associated with CHRM1 include Heart Block, Congenital and Pelizaeus-Merzbacher Disease. Among its related pathways are Monoamine GPCRs and Signaling by GPCR. Gene Ontology (GO) annotations related to this gene include G-protein coupled receptor activity and phosphatidylinositol phospholipase C activity. An important paralog of this gene is CHRM3.

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for CHRM1 Gene

  • The muscarinic acetylcholine receptor mediates various cellular responses, including inhibition of adenylate cyclase, breakdown of phosphoinositides and modulation of potassium channels through the action of G proteins. Primary transducing effect is Pi turnover.

Tocris Summary for CHRM1 Gene

  • Muscarinic receptors are widely distributed throughout the body and control distinct functions according to location and subtype (M1 - M5).They are predominantly expressed in the parasympathetic nervous system where they exert both inhibitory and excitatory effects.

Gene Wiki entry for CHRM1 Gene

Additional gene information for CHRM1 Gene

No data available for CIViC summary , PharmGKB "VIP" Summary , fRNAdb sequence ontologies and piRNA Summary for CHRM1 Gene

Genomics for CHRM1 Gene

GeneHancer (GH) Regulatory Elements for CHRM1 Gene

Promoters and enhancers for CHRM1 Gene
GeneHancer (GH) Identifier GH Type GH
GH Sources Gene Association Score Total Score TSS distance (kb) Number of Genes Away Size (kb) Transcription Factor
Binding Sites
Gene Targets
GH11J062924 Promoter/Enhancer 1.3 EPDnew ENCODE dbSUPER 650.7 +0.2 237 0.2 KLF1 SP2 ZNF398 SMARCB1 ZFHX2 EGR1 ZNF600 PRDM1 EGR2 CHRM1 LOC105369333
GH11J062921 Promoter/Enhancer 1.2 EPDnew ENCODE dbSUPER 650.7 +0.4 425 0.2 ZFHX2 PKNOX1 KLF1 SP2 ZNF398 ZNF600 PRDM1 CHRM1 LOC105369333
GH11J062922 Enhancer 0.9 ENCODE dbSUPER 650.7 -0.4 -430 0.5 PKNOX1 CLOCK MAX SIN3A ZIC2 ZEB1 ZNF335 PATZ1 SCRT2 PRDM10 CHRM1 SLC22A6 LOC105369333 GC11P062933
GH11J062926 Enhancer 0.9 ENCODE dbSUPER 650.7 -0.1 -63 0.2 KLF1 CLOCK MAX SIN3A ZIC2 ZNF335 ZFHX2 EGR1 PATZ1 SCRT2 CHRM1 LOC105369333 GC11P062933
GH11J062927 Enhancer 0.4 FANTOM5 650.7 -1.0 -987 0.1 CTCF MTA3 EBF1 CHRM1 SLC22A6 LOC105369333 GC11P062933
- Elite GeneHancer and/or Elite GeneHancer-gene association Download GeneHancer data from 2017 publication | Request up-to-date GeneHancer data (full dataset)

GeneHancers around CHRM1 on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Top Transcription factor binding sites by QIAGEN in the CHRM1 gene promoter:
  • MyoD
  • c-Myb
  • NF-kappaB
  • NF-kappaB1
  • NRSF form 2
  • NRSF form 1

Genomic Locations for CHRM1 Gene

Genomic Locations for CHRM1 Gene
13,183 bases
Minus strand
13,129 bases
Minus strand

Genomic View for CHRM1 Gene

Genes around CHRM1 on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Cytogenetic band:
CHRM1 Gene in genomic location: bands according to Ensembl, locations according to GeneLoc (and/or Entrez Gene and/or Ensembl if different)
Genomic Location for CHRM1 Gene
GeneLoc Logo Genomic Neighborhood Exon StructureGene Density

RefSeq DNA sequence for CHRM1 Gene

Proteins for CHRM1 Gene

  • Protein details for CHRM1 Gene (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)

    Protein Symbol:
    Recommended name:
    Muscarinic acetylcholine receptor M1
    Protein Accession:
    Secondary Accessions:
    • Q96RH1

    Protein attributes for CHRM1 Gene

    460 amino acids
    Molecular mass:
    51421 Da
    Quaternary structure:
    • Interacts with GPRASP2.

    Three dimensional structures from OCA and Proteopedia for CHRM1 Gene

    Alternative splice isoforms for CHRM1 Gene


neXtProt entry for CHRM1 Gene

Post-translational modifications for CHRM1 Gene

  • Glycosylation at Asn12 and Asn2
  • Modification sites at PhosphoSitePlus

Other Protein References for CHRM1 Gene

No data available for DME Specific Peptides for CHRM1 Gene

Domains & Families for CHRM1 Gene

Gene Families for CHRM1 Gene

Human Protein Atlas (HPA):
  • FDA approved drug targets
  • G-protein coupled receptors
  • Predicted membrane proteins

Graphical View of Domain Structure for InterPro Entry



  • Belongs to the G-protein coupled receptor 1 family. Muscarinic acetylcholine receptor subfamily. CHRM1 sub-subfamily.
  • Belongs to the G-protein coupled receptor 1 family. Muscarinic acetylcholine receptor subfamily. CHRM1 sub-subfamily.
genes like me logo Genes that share domains with CHRM1: view

Function for CHRM1 Gene

Molecular function for CHRM1 Gene

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Function:
The muscarinic acetylcholine receptor mediates various cellular responses, including inhibition of adenylate cyclase, breakdown of phosphoinositides and modulation of potassium channels through the action of G proteins. Primary transducing effect is Pi turnover.
GENATLAS Biochemistry:
cholinergic receptor,muscarinic 1,G protein coupled receptor superfamily

Gene Ontology (GO) - Molecular Function for CHRM1 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0004435 phosphatidylinositol phospholipase C activity TAS 9614217
GO:0004871 obsolete signal transducer activity IEA --
GO:0004930 G-protein coupled receptor activity IEA --
GO:0008144 drug binding IEA --
GO:0016907 G-protein coupled acetylcholine receptor activity IEA,IBA --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with CHRM1: view
genes like me logo Genes that share phenotypes with CHRM1: view

Animal Models for CHRM1 Gene

MGI Knock Outs for CHRM1:

Animal Model Products

miRNA for CHRM1 Gene

miRTarBase miRNAs that target CHRM1

Clone Products

  • Addgene plasmids for CHRM1

No data available for Enzyme Numbers (IUBMB) , Phenotypes From GWAS Catalog , Human Phenotype Ontology , Transcription Factor Targets and HOMER Transcription for CHRM1 Gene

Localization for CHRM1 Gene

Subcellular locations from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for CHRM1 Gene

Cell membrane; Multi-pass membrane protein. Cell junction, synapse, postsynaptic cell membrane; Multi-pass membrane protein.

Subcellular locations from

Extracellular space Cytosol Plasma membrane Cytoskeleton Lysosome Endosome Peroxisome ER Golgi Apparatus Nucleus Mitochondrion 0 1 2 3 4 5 Confidence
COMPARTMENTS Subcellular localization image for CHRM1 gene
Compartment Confidence
plasma membrane 5
nucleus 2
cytosol 2

Subcellular locations from the

Human Protein Atlas (HPA)
  • Cytosol (2)
  • Nucleus (2)
See all subcellular structures

Gene Ontology (GO) - Cellular Components for CHRM1 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0005886 plasma membrane IEA,TAS --
GO:0005887 integral component of plasma membrane IEA --
GO:0014069 postsynaptic density IEA --
GO:0016020 membrane IEA,TAS 7925360
GO:0016021 integral component of membrane IEA --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with CHRM1: view

Pathways & Interactions for CHRM1 Gene

genes like me logo Genes that share pathways with CHRM1: view

Gene Ontology (GO) - Biological Process for CHRM1 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0003056 regulation of vascular smooth muscle contraction IBA --
GO:0006464 cellular protein modification process TAS 1411529
GO:0007165 signal transduction TAS,IEA 3443095
GO:0007186 G-protein coupled receptor signaling pathway TAS,IEA --
GO:0007197 adenylate cyclase-inhibiting G-protein coupled acetylcholine receptor signaling pathway IBA --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with CHRM1: view

No data available for SIGNOR curated interactions for CHRM1 Gene

Drugs & Compounds for CHRM1 Gene

(252) Drugs for CHRM1 Gene - From: DrugBank, DGIdb, FDA Approved Drugs, IUPHAR, HMDB, Tocris, and Novoseek

Name Status Disease Links Group Role Mechanism of Action Clinical Trials
Atropine Approved, Vet_approved Pharma Antagonist, antagonist, Target MAChRs antagonist 153
Carbachol Approved Pharma Full agonist, Agonist, antagonist, Target, agonist 3
Darifenacin Approved, Investigational Pharma Antagonist, Inverse agonist, antagonist, Target M3 receptor antagonist and antimuscarinic agents 22
Ipratropium Approved Pharma Antagonist, antagonist, Target 146
Pilocarpine Approved, Investigational Pharma Partial agonist, Agonist, agonist, Target 27

(19) Additional Compounds for CHRM1 Gene - From: HMDB, IUPHAR, Novoseek, and Tocris

Name Synonyms Role CAS Number PubChem IDs PubMed IDs
Partial agonist, Agonist
Partial agonist, Agonist
Full agonist, Agonist
Partial agonist, Agonist
Gouml 7874
Neutral, Allosteric regulator, Negative

(5) Tocris Compounds for CHRM1 Gene

Compound Action Cas Number
Cevimeline hydrochloride Selective M1 agonist 107220-28-0
McN-A 343 Selective M1 muscarinic agonist 55-45-8
Nitrocaramiphen hydrochloride Muscarinic antagonist, M1 > M2 98636-73-8
Pirenzepine dihydrochloride Selective M1 muscarinic antagonist 29868-97-1
Xanomeline oxalate Functionally selective M1 agonist 141064-23-5
genes like me logo Genes that share compounds with CHRM1: view

Transcripts for CHRM1 Gene

mRNA/cDNA for CHRM1 Gene

Unigene Clusters for CHRM1 Gene

Cholinergic receptor, muscarinic 1:
Representative Sequences:

Clone Products

  • Addgene plasmids for CHRM1

Alternative Splicing Database (ASD) splice patterns (SP) for CHRM1 Gene

No ASD Table

Relevant External Links for CHRM1 Gene

GeneLoc Exon Structure for
ECgene alternative splicing isoforms for

Expression for CHRM1 Gene

mRNA expression in normal human tissues from GTEx, Illumina, BioGPS, and CGAP SAGE for CHRM1 Gene

mRNA differential expression in normal tissues according to GTEx for CHRM1 Gene

This gene is overexpressed in Brain - Cortex (x8.8), Brain - Frontal Cortex (BA9) (x7.2), Brain - Nucleus accumbens (basal ganglia) (x5.7), Brain - Anterior cingulate cortex (BA24) (x5.6), Brain - Putamen (basal ganglia) (x5.3), Brain - Hippocampus (x4.4), and Brain - Caudate (basal ganglia) (x4.2).

Protein differential expression in normal tissues from HIPED for CHRM1 Gene

This gene is overexpressed in Ovary (50.2) and Liver (17.3).

Integrated Proteomics: protein expression in normal tissues and cell lines from ProteomicsDB and MOPED for CHRM1 Gene

Protein tissue co-expression partners for CHRM1 Gene

- Elite partner

NURSA nuclear receptor signaling pathways regulating expression of CHRM1 Gene:


SOURCE GeneReport for Unigene cluster for CHRM1 Gene:


Evidence on tissue expression from TISSUES for CHRM1 Gene

  • Nervous system(4.9)
  • Muscle(2.4)
genes like me logo Genes that share expression patterns with CHRM1: view

No data available for mRNA Expression by UniProt/SwissProt and Phenotype-based relationships between genes and organs from Gene ORGANizer for CHRM1 Gene

Orthologs for CHRM1 Gene

This gene was present in the common ancestor of animals.

Orthologs for CHRM1 Gene

Organism Taxonomy Gene Similarity Type Details
(Pan troglodytes)
Mammalia CHRM1 34 33
  • 99.86 (n)
(Bos Taurus)
Mammalia CHRM1 34 33
  • 93.04 (n)
(Canis familiaris)
Mammalia CHRM1 34 33
  • 92.39 (n)
(Rattus norvegicus)
Mammalia Chrm1 33
  • 91.59 (n)
(Mus musculus)
Mammalia Chrm1 16 34 33
  • 91.38 (n)
(Monodelphis domestica)
Mammalia CHRM1 34
  • 89 (a)
(Anolis carolinensis)
Reptilia CHRM1 34
  • 62 (a)
tropical clawed frog
(Silurana tropicalis)
Amphibia LOC100490434 33
  • 62.54 (n)
(Danio rerio)
Actinopterygii CU019640.1 34
  • 49 (a)
CHRM1 (1 of 2) 34
  • 45 (a)
fruit fly
(Drosophila melanogaster)
Insecta mAcR-60C 34 35 33
  • 63.75 (n)
CG7918 35
  • 37 (a)
African malaria mosquito
(Anopheles gambiae)
Insecta GPRMAC1 33
  • 59.98 (n)
(Caenorhabditis elegans)
Secernentea gar-3 34 33
  • 50.95 (n)
sea squirt
(Ciona savignyi)
Ascidiacea -- 34
  • 36 (a)
Species where no ortholog for CHRM1 was found in the sources mined by GeneCards:
  • A. gosspyii yeast (Ashbya gossypii)
  • Actinobacteria (Mycobacterium tuberculosis)
  • African clawed frog (Xenopus laevis)
  • Alicante grape (Vitis vinifera)
  • alpha proteobacteria (Wolbachia pipientis)
  • amoeba (Dictyostelium discoideum)
  • Archea (Pyrococcus horikoshii)
  • baker's yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae)
  • barley (Hordeum vulgare)
  • beta proteobacteria (Neisseria meningitidis)
  • bread mold (Neurospora crassa)
  • chicken (Gallus gallus)
  • Chromalveolata (Phytophthora infestans)
  • common water flea (Daphnia pulex)
  • corn (Zea mays)
  • E. coli (Escherichia coli)
  • filamentous fungi (Aspergillus nidulans)
  • Firmicute bacteria (Streptococcus pneumoniae)
  • fission yeast (Schizosaccharomyces pombe)
  • green algae (Chlamydomonas reinhardtii)
  • honey bee (Apis mellifera)
  • K. lactis yeast (Kluyveromyces lactis)
  • loblloly pine (Pinus taeda)
  • malaria parasite (Plasmodium falciparum)
  • medicago trunc (Medicago Truncatula)
  • moss (Physcomitrella patens)
  • orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus)
  • pig (Sus scrofa)
  • platypus (Ornithorhynchus anatinus)
  • rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)
  • rice (Oryza sativa)
  • rice blast fungus (Magnaporthe grisea)
  • schistosome parasite (Schistosoma mansoni)
  • sea anemone (Nematostella vectensis)
  • sea urchin (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus)
  • sorghum (Sorghum bicolor)
  • soybean (Glycine max)
  • stem rust fungus (Puccinia graminis)
  • sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum)
  • thale cress (Arabidopsis thaliana)
  • tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum)
  • toxoplasmosis (Toxoplasma gondii)
  • Trichoplax (Trichoplax adhaerens)
  • wheat (Triticum aestivum)

Evolution for CHRM1 Gene

Gene Tree for CHRM1 (if available)
Gene Tree for CHRM1 (if available)
Evolutionary constrained regions (ECRs) for CHRM1: view image

Paralogs for CHRM1 Gene

Paralogs for CHRM1 Gene

(16) SIMAP similar genes for CHRM1 Gene using alignment to 4 proteins:

  • Q53XZ3_HUMAN
  • Q96RH1_HUMAN
genes like me logo Genes that share paralogs with CHRM1: view

Variants for CHRM1 Gene

Sequence variations from dbSNP and Humsavar for CHRM1 Gene

SNP ID Clin Chr 11 pos Variation AA Info Type
rs1000186941 -- 62,923,090(-) G/A upstream_transcript_variant
rs1000363905 -- 62,918,907(-) G/C intron_variant
rs1000740533 -- 62,916,532(-) C/G/T intron_variant
rs1000887215 -- 62,911,719(-) A/G intron_variant
rs1000889852 -- 62,923,724(-) G/T upstream_transcript_variant

Structural Variations from Database of Genomic Variants (DGV) for CHRM1 Gene

Variant ID Type Subtype PubMed ID
esv34011 CNV loss 18971310

Variation tolerance for CHRM1 Gene

Residual Variation Intolerance Score: 16.2% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)
Gene Damage Index Score: 0.44; 9.62% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)

Additional Variant Information for CHRM1 Gene

Human Gene Mutation Database (HGMD)
SNPedia medical, phenotypic, and genealogical associations of SNPs for

SNP Genotyping and Copy Number Assay Products

No data available for Polymorphic Variants from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for CHRM1 Gene

Disorders for CHRM1 Gene

MalaCards: The human disease database

(3) MalaCards diseases for CHRM1 Gene - From: HGMD, DISEASES, Novoseek, and GeneCards

Disorder Aliases PubMed IDs
heart block, congenital
  • congenital heart block
pelizaeus-merzbacher disease
  • pmd
  • sczd
- elite association - COSMIC cancer census association via MalaCards
Search CHRM1 in MalaCards View complete list of genes associated with diseases

Additional Disease Information for CHRM1

Genetic Association Database
Human Genome Epidemiology Navigator
ATLAS of Genetics and Cytogenetics in Oncology and Haematology
genes like me logo Genes that share disorders with CHRM1: view

No data available for UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot and Genatlas for CHRM1 Gene

Publications for CHRM1 Gene

  1. Muscarinic acetylcholine receptor 1 gene polymorphisms associated with high myopia. (PMID: 19753311) Lin HJ … Tsai FJ (Molecular vision 2009) 3 22 44 58
  2. Gene-based analysis suggests association of the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor beta1 subunit (CHRNB1) and M1 muscarinic acetylcholine receptor (CHRM1) with vulnerability for nicotine dependence. (PMID: 16874522) Lou XY … Li MD (Human genetics 2006) 3 22 44 58
  3. Polymorphisms in the muscarinic receptor 1 gene confer susceptibility to asthma in Japanese subjects. (PMID: 16931638) Maeda Y … Nishimura M (American journal of respiratory and critical care medicine 2006) 3 22 44 58
  4. Human variation in alcohol response is influenced by variation in neuronal signaling genes. (PMID: 20201926) Joslyn G … White RL (Alcoholism, clinical and experimental research 2010) 3 44 58
  5. Physiogenomic analysis of statin-treated patients: domain-specific counter effects within the ACACB gene on low-density lipoprotein cholesterol? (PMID: 20602615) Ruaño G … Wu AH (Pharmacogenomics 2010) 3 44 58

Products for CHRM1 Gene

Sources for CHRM1 Gene

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