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Aliases for CHN1 Gene

Aliases for CHN1 Gene

  • Chimerin 1 2 3 5
  • Rho GTPase-Activating Protein 2 3 4
  • Chimerin (Chimaerin) 1 2 3
  • Alpha-Chimerin 3 4
  • Chimaerin 1 2 3
  • A-Chimaerin 3 4
  • N-Chimerin 3 4
  • ARHGAP2 3 4
  • CHN 3 4
  • NC 3 4
  • Chimerin 1 (GTPase-Activating Protein, Rho, 2) 2
  • Duane Retraction Syndrome 2 2
  • A2-Chimaerin 3
  • N-Chimaerin 3
  • RHOGAP2 3
  • DURS2 3

External Ids for CHN1 Gene

Previous HGNC Symbols for CHN1 Gene

  • CHN
  • DURS2

Previous GeneCards Identifiers for CHN1 Gene

  • GC02M173716
  • GC02M174325
  • GC02M175628
  • GC02M175866
  • GC02M175489
  • GC02M175372
  • GC02M175664
  • GC02M167544

Summaries for CHN1 Gene

Entrez Gene Summary for CHN1 Gene

  • This gene encodes GTPase-activating protein for ras-related p21-rac and a phorbol ester receptor. It is predominantly expressed in neurons, and plays an important role in neuronal signal-transduction mechanisms. Mutations in this gene are associated with Duane's retraction syndrome 2 (DURS2). Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been described for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Apr 2011]

GeneCards Summary for CHN1 Gene

CHN1 (Chimerin 1) is a Protein Coding gene. Diseases associated with CHN1 include Duane Retraction Syndrome 2 and Duane Syndrome Type 2. Among its related pathways are p75 NTR receptor-mediated signalling and Signaling by Rho GTPases. Gene Ontology (GO) annotations related to this gene include GTPase activator activity and ephrin receptor binding. An important paralog of this gene is ENSG00000285162.

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for CHN1 Gene

  • GTPase-activating protein for p21-rac and a phorbol ester receptor. Involved in the assembly of neuronal locomotor circuits as a direct effector of EPHA4 in axon guidance.

Additional gene information for CHN1 Gene

No data available for CIViC summary , Tocris Summary , Gene Wiki entry , PharmGKB "VIP" Summary , fRNAdb sequence ontologies and piRNA Summary for CHN1 Gene

Genomics for CHN1 Gene

GeneHancer (GH) Regulatory Elements for CHN1 Gene

Promoters and enhancers for CHN1 Gene
GeneHancer (GH) Identifier GH Type GH
GH Sources Gene Association Score Total Score TSS distance (kb) Number of Genes Away Size (kb) Transcription Factor
Binding Sites
Gene Targets
GH02J174843 Promoter/Enhancer 2.4 EPDnew FANTOM5 Ensembl ENCODE dbSUPER 663.5 +159.4 159414 4.6 PKNOX1 ZNF362 JUN HLF CEBPB ZNF384 SP1 ZNF335 JUND ZNF316 CHN1 CHRNA1 GC02P174978
GH02J175003 Promoter/Enhancer 2.1 EPDnew Ensembl ENCODE dbSUPER 664.6 +0.4 355 2.4 ARID4B SIN3A FEZF1 ZNF2 ZNF48 YY1 GLIS2 MXD4 SREBF1 CBX8 CHN1 GC02P175005 GC02P174978
GH02J175093 Promoter 0.5 EPDnew 650.2 -87.7 -87700 0.1 ENSG00000277948 CHN1 MIR933 ENSG00000229750 ATF2 RNU6-763P GC02P175143
GH02J175027 Enhancer 1 Ensembl ENCODE 36.7 -22.9 -22920 1.6 ELF3 FOXA2 ARID4B DMAP1 RARA NFKBIZ KLF11 SP5 MXD4 PPARG GC02P175030 RNU6-1290P CHN1 GC02P175023
GH02J174965 Enhancer 1.2 FANTOM5 Ensembl ENCODE dbSUPER 24.9 +39.1 39105 1.9 SCRT1 ZNF202 ZNF316 SCRT2 MAFG NFE2 MAFK CHN1 RNU6-763P GC02P174978 CHRNA1
- Elite GeneHancer and/or Elite GeneHancer-gene association Download GeneHancer data from 2017 publication | Request up-to-date GeneHancer data (full dataset)

GeneHancers around CHN1 on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Top Transcription factor binding sites by QIAGEN in the CHN1 gene promoter:
  • POU3F2
  • POU6F1 (c2)
  • AML1a
  • c-Myb
  • POU2F1a
  • POU2F1
  • CUTL1
  • Hlf
  • NF-AT
  • NF-AT1

Genomic Locations for CHN1 Gene

Genomic Locations for CHN1 Gene
206,066 bases
Minus strand
206,066 bases
Minus strand

Genomic View for CHN1 Gene

Genes around CHN1 on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Cytogenetic band:
CHN1 Gene in genomic location: bands according to Ensembl, locations according to GeneLoc (and/or Entrez Gene and/or Ensembl if different)
Genomic Location for CHN1 Gene
GeneLoc Logo Genomic Neighborhood Exon StructureGene Density

RefSeq DNA sequence for CHN1 Gene

Proteins for CHN1 Gene

  • Protein details for CHN1 Gene (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)

    Protein Symbol:
    Recommended name:
    Protein Accession:
    Secondary Accessions:
    • A8K1M6
    • B3KNU6
    • B4DV19
    • Q53SD6
    • Q53SH5
    • Q96FB0

    Protein attributes for CHN1 Gene

    459 amino acids
    Molecular mass:
    53172 Da
    Quaternary structure:
    • Interacts with EPHA4; effector of EPHA4 in axon guidance linking EPHA4 activation to RAC1 regulation.
    • Sequence=CAA35769.1; Type=Erroneous initiation; Note=Translation N-terminally extended.; Evidence={ECO:0000305};

    Three dimensional structures from OCA and Proteopedia for CHN1 Gene

    Alternative splice isoforms for CHN1 Gene


neXtProt entry for CHN1 Gene

Post-translational modifications for CHN1 Gene

  • Phosphorylated. Phosphorylation is EPHA4 kinase activity-dependent (By similarity).
  • Modification sites at PhosphoSitePlus
  • Modification sites at neXtProt

No data available for DME Specific Peptides for CHN1 Gene

Domains & Families for CHN1 Gene

Gene Families for CHN1 Gene

Human Protein Atlas (HPA):
  • Disease related genes
  • Plasma proteins
  • Predicted intracellular proteins
  • Predicted secreted proteins

Suggested Antigen Peptide Sequences for CHN1 Gene

Graphical View of Domain Structure for InterPro Entry

genes like me logo Genes that share domains with CHN1: view

No data available for UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for CHN1 Gene

Function for CHN1 Gene

Molecular function for CHN1 Gene

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Function:
GTPase-activating protein for p21-rac and a phorbol ester receptor. Involved in the assembly of neuronal locomotor circuits as a direct effector of EPHA4 in axon guidance.
GENATLAS Biochemistry:
n-chimerin,brain GTPase activating protein for the ras-related p21rac,with two alternatively spliced isoforms,alpha 1,alpha 2,45kDa,expressed in cerebellum

Phenotypes From GWAS Catalog for CHN1 Gene

Gene Ontology (GO) - Molecular Function for CHN1 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0005070 SH3/SH2 adaptor activity TAS 8336731
GO:0005096 GTPase activator activity TAS --
GO:0005515 protein binding IPI 15013773
GO:0046872 metal ion binding IEA --
GO:0046875 ephrin receptor binding IEA --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with CHN1: view
genes like me logo Genes that share phenotypes with CHN1: view

Human Phenotype Ontology for CHN1 Gene

HPO Id HPO Name Alternative Ids Definition Synonyms

Animal Models for CHN1 Gene

MGI Knock Outs for CHN1:
  • Chn1 Chn1<tm1.1(KOMP)Vlcg>
  • Chn1 Chn1<tm1.1Abet>
  • Chn1 Chn1<tm1.1Ito>

Animal Model Products

CRISPR Products

miRNA for CHN1 Gene

miRTarBase miRNAs that target CHN1

Inhibitory RNA Products

  • Search GeneCopoeia for shRNA, lentivirus and/or AAV clone products for CHN1

No data available for Enzyme Numbers (IUBMB) , Transcription Factor Targets and HOMER Transcription for CHN1 Gene

Localization for CHN1 Gene

Subcellular locations from

Extracellular space Cytosol Plasma membrane Cytoskeleton Lysosome Endosome Peroxisome ER Golgi Apparatus Nucleus Mitochondrion 0 1 2 3 4 5 Confidence
COMPARTMENTS Subcellular localization image for CHN1 gene
Compartment Confidence
cytosol 5
peroxisome 2
nucleus 2
plasma membrane 1
cytoskeleton 1

Subcellular locations from the

Human Protein Atlas (HPA)

Gene Ontology (GO) - Cellular Components for CHN1 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0005622 intracellular IEA --
GO:0005737 cytoplasm IBA --
GO:0005829 cytosol TAS --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with CHN1: view

No data available for Subcellular locations from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for CHN1 Gene

Pathways & Interactions for CHN1 Gene

genes like me logo Genes that share pathways with CHN1: view

Pathways by source for CHN1 Gene

1 BioSystems pathway for CHN1 Gene

SIGNOR curated interactions for CHN1 Gene


Gene Ontology (GO) - Biological Process for CHN1 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0007165 signal transduction IEA --
GO:0007399 nervous system development IEA --
GO:0008045 motor neuron axon guidance ISS --
GO:0009967 positive regulation of signal transduction IEA --
GO:0035556 intracellular signal transduction IEA --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with CHN1: view

Drugs & Compounds for CHN1 Gene

(3) Drugs for CHN1 Gene - From: Novoseek

Name Status Disease Links Group Role Mechanism of Action Clinical Trials

(6) Additional Compounds for CHN1 Gene - From: HMDB and Novoseek

Name Synonyms Role CAS Number PubChem IDs PubMed IDs
Diglycerides Group A
  • 1-Myristoyl-2-eicosadienoyl-sn-glycerol
  • DAG(14:0/20:2)
  • DAG(14:0/20:2N6)
  • DAG(14:0/20:2W6)
  • DAG(34:2)
Diglycerides Group B
  • 1-(9Z-Octadecenoyl)-2-hexadecanoyl-sn-glycerol
  • 1-O-Oleoyl-2-O-palmitoyl-sn-glycerol
  • DG (18:1(9Z)/16:0/0:0)
  • DG(18:1/16:0)
  • Diglyceride
Diglycerides Group D
  • 1,2-Di-(4Z,7Z,10Z,13Z,16Z,19Z-docosahexaenoyl)-sn-glycerol
  • 1,2-Didocosahexaenoyl-sn-glycerol
  • DAG(22:6/22:6)
  • DAG(22:6N3/22:6N3)
  • DAG(22:6OMEGA3/22:6OMEGA3)
genes like me logo Genes that share compounds with CHN1: view

Transcripts for CHN1 Gene

mRNA/cDNA for CHN1 Gene

Unigene Clusters for CHN1 Gene

Chimerin 1:
Representative Sequences:

CRISPR Products

Inhibitory RNA Products

  • Search GeneCopoeia for shRNA, lentivirus and/or AAV clone products for CHN1

Alternative Splicing Database (ASD) splice patterns (SP) for CHN1 Gene

ExUns: 1 ^ 2 ^ 3 ^ 4 ^ 5 ^ 6a · 6b ^ 7 ^ 8a · 8b ^ 9a · 9b · 9c ^ 10 ^ 11a · 11b · 11c ^ 12 ^ 13a · 13b ^ 14 ^ 15a · 15b ^ 16 ^ 17a · 17b ^
SP1: - - - - - - - - - - - - -
SP2: - - - - - - - - - -
SP3: - - -
SP4: - -
SP5: - - - - -
SP6: - -
SP7: - - - - - -
SP8: - - -
SP9: - - - - - - -
SP10: -
SP11: - - - - - -
SP14: - - - - - - - - - - -

ExUns: 18 ^ 19 ^ 20 ^ 21 ^ 22a · 22b · 22c · 22d
SP1: - -
SP2: - -
SP3: - -
SP4: - -
SP9: - - -

Relevant External Links for CHN1 Gene

GeneLoc Exon Structure for
ECgene alternative splicing isoforms for

Expression for CHN1 Gene

mRNA expression in normal human tissues from GTEx, Illumina, BioGPS, and CGAP SAGE for CHN1 Gene

mRNA expression in embryonic tissues and stem cells from LifeMap Discovery

mRNA differential expression in normal tissues according to GTEx for CHN1 Gene

This gene is overexpressed in Brain - Frontal Cortex (BA9) (x9.8), Brain - Anterior cingulate cortex (BA24) (x7.6), Brain - Cortex (x6.8), Brain - Hippocampus (x5.0), Brain - Amygdala (x4.4), and Brain - Nucleus accumbens (basal ganglia) (x4.2).

Protein differential expression in normal tissues from HIPED for CHN1 Gene

This gene is overexpressed in Heart (35.7) and Plasma (15.3).

Integrated Proteomics: protein expression in normal tissues and cell lines from ProteomicsDB, MaxQB, and MOPED for CHN1 Gene

NURSA nuclear receptor signaling pathways regulating expression of CHN1 Gene:


SOURCE GeneReport for Unigene cluster for CHN1 Gene:


mRNA Expression by UniProt/SwissProt for CHN1 Gene:

Tissue specificity: In neurons in brain regions that are involved in learning and memory processes.

Evidence on tissue expression from TISSUES for CHN1 Gene

  • Nervous system(5)
  • Eye(4.4)
  • Intestine(4.2)
  • Kidney(3.4)
  • Muscle(2.7)

Phenotype-based relationships between genes and organs from Gene ORGANizer for CHN1 Gene

Germ Layers:
  • ectoderm
  • mesoderm
  • integumentary
  • nervous
  • skeletal muscle
  • skeleton
Head and neck:
  • brain
  • cranial nerve
  • eye
  • eyelid
  • face
  • head
  • nose
  • skull
  • peripheral nervous system
  • skin
genes like me logo Genes that share expression patterns with CHN1: view

No data available for Protein tissue co-expression partners for CHN1 Gene

Orthologs for CHN1 Gene

This gene was present in the common ancestor of animals and fungi.

Orthologs for CHN1 Gene

Organism Taxonomy Gene Similarity Type Details
(Pan troglodytes)
Mammalia CHN1 34
  • 100 (a)
(Monodelphis domestica)
Mammalia CHN1 34
  • 97 (a)
(Ornithorhynchus anatinus)
Mammalia CHN1 34
  • 97 (a)
(Bos Taurus)
Mammalia CHN1 34 33
  • 94.05 (n)
(Mus musculus)
Mammalia Chn1 16 34 33
  • 92.16 (n)
(Rattus norvegicus)
Mammalia Chn3 33
  • 89.59 (n)
(Canis familiaris)
Mammalia CHN1 34
  • 88 (a)
(Gallus gallus)
Aves CHN1 34 33
  • 86.2 (n)
(Anolis carolinensis)
Reptilia CHN1 34
  • 82 (a)
African clawed frog
(Xenopus laevis)
Amphibia chn1-prov 33
tropical clawed frog
(Silurana tropicalis)
Amphibia Str.3519 33
(Danio rerio)
Actinopterygii CHN1 34
  • 84 (a)
chn1 33
  • 74.36 (n)
wufj59f02 33
fruit fly
(Drosophila melanogaster)
Insecta RhoGAP5A 34 35 33
  • 51.4 (n)
African malaria mosquito
(Anopheles gambiae)
Insecta AgaP_AGAP003026 33
  • 50 (n)
(Caenorhabditis elegans)
Secernentea BE0003N10.2 35
  • 46 (a)
chin-1 34
  • 39 (a)
baker's yeast
(Saccharomyces cerevisiae)
Saccharomycetes RGA2 36
sea squirt
(Ciona savignyi)
Ascidiacea -- 34
  • 47 (a)
Species where no ortholog for CHN1 was found in the sources mined by GeneCards:
  • A. gosspyii yeast (Ashbya gossypii)
  • Actinobacteria (Mycobacterium tuberculosis)
  • Alicante grape (Vitis vinifera)
  • alpha proteobacteria (Wolbachia pipientis)
  • amoeba (Dictyostelium discoideum)
  • Archea (Pyrococcus horikoshii)
  • barley (Hordeum vulgare)
  • beta proteobacteria (Neisseria meningitidis)
  • bread mold (Neurospora crassa)
  • Chromalveolata (Phytophthora infestans)
  • common water flea (Daphnia pulex)
  • corn (Zea mays)
  • E. coli (Escherichia coli)
  • filamentous fungi (Aspergillus nidulans)
  • Firmicute bacteria (Streptococcus pneumoniae)
  • fission yeast (Schizosaccharomyces pombe)
  • green algae (Chlamydomonas reinhardtii)
  • honey bee (Apis mellifera)
  • K. lactis yeast (Kluyveromyces lactis)
  • loblloly pine (Pinus taeda)
  • malaria parasite (Plasmodium falciparum)
  • medicago trunc (Medicago Truncatula)
  • moss (Physcomitrella patens)
  • orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus)
  • pig (Sus scrofa)
  • rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)
  • rice (Oryza sativa)
  • rice blast fungus (Magnaporthe grisea)
  • schistosome parasite (Schistosoma mansoni)
  • sea anemone (Nematostella vectensis)
  • sea urchin (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus)
  • sorghum (Sorghum bicolor)
  • soybean (Glycine max)
  • stem rust fungus (Puccinia graminis)
  • sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum)
  • thale cress (Arabidopsis thaliana)
  • tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum)
  • toxoplasmosis (Toxoplasma gondii)
  • Trichoplax (Trichoplax adhaerens)
  • wheat (Triticum aestivum)

Evolution for CHN1 Gene

Gene Tree for CHN1 (if available)
Gene Tree for CHN1 (if available)
Evolutionary constrained regions (ECRs) for CHN1: view image

Paralogs for CHN1 Gene

(29) SIMAP similar genes for CHN1 Gene using alignment to 11 proteins:

  • B8ZZ96_HUMAN
  • C9J1N1_HUMAN
  • C9J3G1_HUMAN
  • C9J3V9_HUMAN
  • C9JR98_HUMAN
  • F8W6K2_HUMAN
  • L0R6E9_HUMAN
  • Q6IBE0_HUMAN Pseudogenes for CHN1 Gene

genes like me logo Genes that share paralogs with CHN1: view

Variants for CHN1 Gene

Sequence variations from dbSNP and Humsavar for CHN1 Gene

SNP ID Clin Chr 02 pos Variation AA Info Type
rs117866326 likely-benign, Duane's syndrome 175,004,980(-) C/T 5_prime_UTR_variant, genic_upstream_transcript_variant, intron_variant
rs121912792 pathogenic, Duane syndrome type 2, Duane retraction syndrome 2 (DURS2) [MIM:604356] 174,944,942(-) T/A/C coding_sequence_variant, genic_upstream_transcript_variant, missense_variant, non_coding_transcript_variant, synonymous_variant
rs121912793 pathogenic, Duane syndrome type 2, Duane retraction syndrome 2 (DURS2) [MIM:604356] 174,878,011(-) A/C coding_sequence_variant, genic_upstream_transcript_variant, intron_variant, missense_variant
rs121912794 pathogenic, Duane syndrome type 2, Duane retraction syndrome 2 (DURS2) [MIM:604356] 174,877,962(-) A/G coding_sequence_variant, genic_upstream_transcript_variant, intron_variant, missense_variant
rs121912795 pathogenic, Duane syndrome type 2, Duane retraction syndrome 2 (DURS2) [MIM:604356] 174,824,478(-) G/A coding_sequence_variant, missense_variant, non_coding_transcript_variant

Structural Variations from Database of Genomic Variants (DGV) for CHN1 Gene

Variant ID Type Subtype PubMed ID
esv2664753 CNV deletion 23128226
esv2760629 CNV loss 21179565
esv3422580 CNV insertion 20981092
esv3575313 CNV gain 25503493
esv3593415 CNV loss 21293372
esv3593416 CNV loss 21293372
nsv821797 CNV loss 20364138

Variation tolerance for CHN1 Gene

Residual Variation Intolerance Score: 21.9% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)
Gene Damage Index Score: 0.64; 13.77% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)

Additional Variant Information for CHN1 Gene

Human Gene Mutation Database (HGMD)
SNPedia medical, phenotypic, and genealogical associations of SNPs for

SNP Genotyping and Copy Number Assay Products

No data available for Polymorphic Variants from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for CHN1 Gene

Disorders for CHN1 Gene

MalaCards: The human disease database

(30) MalaCards diseases for CHN1 Gene - From: HGMD, OMIM, ClinVar, GTR, Orphanet, Swiss-Prot, DISEASES, and GeneCards

Disorder Aliases PubMed IDs
duane retraction syndrome 2
  • durs2
duane syndrome type 2
  • duane retraction syndrome 2
duane retraction syndrome
  • drs
marcus gunn phenomenon
  • jaw-winking
- elite association - COSMIC cancer census association via MalaCards
Search CHN1 in MalaCards View complete list of genes associated with diseases


  • Duane retraction syndrome 2 (DURS2) [MIM:604356]: A form of Duane retraction syndrome, a congenital eye movement disorder characterized by a failure of cranial nerve VI (the abducens nerve) to develop normally, resulting in restriction or absence of abduction, adduction or both, narrowing of the palpebral fissure, and retraction of the globe on attempted adduction. Undiagnosed in children, it can lead to amblyopia, a permanent uncorrectable loss of vision. {ECO:0000269 PubMed:18653847}. Note=The disease is caused by mutations affecting the gene represented in this entry.

Additional Disease Information for CHN1

Genetic Association Database
Human Genome Epidemiology Navigator
ATLAS of Genetics and Cytogenetics in Oncology and Haematology
genes like me logo Genes that share disorders with CHN1: view

No data available for Genatlas for CHN1 Gene

Publications for CHN1 Gene

  1. Novel human brain cDNA encoding a 34,000 Mr protein n-chimaerin, related to both the regulatory domain of protein kinase C and BCR, the product of the breakpoint cluster region gene. (PMID: 2299665) Hall C … Lim L (Journal of molecular biology 1990) 2 3 4 22 58
  2. Human CHN1 mutations hyperactivate alpha2-chimaerin and cause Duane's retraction syndrome. (PMID: 18653847) Miyake N … Engle EC (Science (New York, N.Y.) 2008) 2 3 4 58
  3. Alpha 2-chimerin, an SH2-containing GTPase-activating protein for the ras-related protein p21rac derived by alternate splicing of the human n-chimerin gene, is selectively expressed in brain regions and testes. (PMID: 8336731) Hall C … Jones TA (Molecular and cellular biology 1993) 3 4 22 58
  4. Developmental regulation and neuronal expression of the mRNA of rat n-chimaerin, a p21rac GAP:cDNA sequence. (PMID: 1445199) Lim HH … Hall C (The Biochemical journal 1992) 3 4 22 58
  5. Human brain n-chimaerin cDNA encodes a novel phorbol ester receptor. (PMID: 2268301) Ahmed S … Lim L (The Biochemical journal 1990) 3 4 22 58

Products for CHN1 Gene

Sources for CHN1 Gene

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