The four human glycoprotein hormones chorionic gonadotropin (CG), luteinizing hormone (LH), follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), and thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) are dimers consisting of alpha and beta subunits that are associated noncovalently. The alpha subunits of these hormones are identical, however, their beta chains are unique and confer biological specificity. The p... See more...

Aliases for CGA Gene

Aliases for CGA Gene

  • Glycoprotein Hormones, Alpha Polypeptide 2 3 5
  • Thyroid-Stimulating Hormone Alpha Chain 2 3 4
  • Glycoprotein Hormones Alpha Chain 2 3 4
  • Luteinizing Hormone Alpha Chain 2 3 4
  • Lutropin Alpha Chain 2 3 4
  • Anterior Pituitary Glycoprotein Hormones Common Subunit Alpha 3 4
  • Follicle-Stimulating Hormone Alpha Subunit 2 3
  • Chorionic Gonadotropin, Alpha Polypeptide 2 3
  • Follicle-Stimulating Hormone Alpha Chain 3 4
  • Chorionic Gonadotrophin Subunit Alpha 3 4
  • Choriogonadotropin Alpha Chain 3 4
  • Follitropin Alpha Chain 3 4
  • Thyrotropin Alpha Chain 3 4
  • FSH-Alpha 3 4
  • LSH-Alpha 3 4
  • TSH-Alpha 3 4
  • GPHA1 2 3
  • FSHA 2 3
  • GPA1 2 3
  • GPHa 2 3
  • TSHA 2 3
  • HCG 2 3
  • LHA 2 3
  • CG-ALPHA 3
  • CG-Alpha 4
  • CGA 5

External Ids for CGA Gene

Previous GeneCards Identifiers for CGA Gene

  • GC06M087741
  • GC06M087790
  • GC06M087851
  • GC06M087795
  • GC06M085012

Summaries for CGA Gene

Entrez Gene Summary for CGA Gene

  • The four human glycoprotein hormones chorionic gonadotropin (CG), luteinizing hormone (LH), follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), and thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) are dimers consisting of alpha and beta subunits that are associated noncovalently. The alpha subunits of these hormones are identical, however, their beta chains are unique and confer biological specificity. The protein encoded by this gene is the alpha subunit and belongs to the glycoprotein hormones alpha chain family. Two transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Nov 2011]

GeneCards Summary for CGA Gene

CGA (Glycoprotein Hormones, Alpha Polypeptide) is a Protein Coding gene. Diseases associated with CGA include Ectopic Pregnancy and Ovarian Hyperstimulation Syndrome. Among its related pathways are Integrin Pathway and Signaling by GPCR. Gene Ontology (GO) annotations related to this gene include hormone activity.

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Summary for CGA Gene

  • Shared alpha chain of the active heterodimeric glycoprotein hormones thyrotropin/thyroid stimulating hormone/TSH, lutropin/luteinizing hormone/LH, follitropin/follicle stimulating hormone/FSH and choriogonadotropin/CG. These hormones bind specific receptors on target cells that in turn activate downstream signaling pathways.

Gene Wiki entry for CGA Gene

No data available for CIViC Summary , Tocris Summary , PharmGKB "VIP" Summary , Rfam classification and piRNA Summary for CGA Gene

Genomics for CGA Gene

GeneHancer (GH) Regulatory Elements Pubs

Promoters and enhancers for CGA Gene
GeneHancer (GH) Identifier GH Type GH
Score
GH Sources Gene Association Score Total Score TSS distance (kb) Number of Genes Away Size (kb) Transcription Factor
Binding Sites
Gene Targets
GH06J087095 Promoter 0.9 EPDnew 600.7 +0.3 280 0.1 CREB1 ATF7 ZNF629 SCRT2 ZNF792 SP2 ZNF10 ZXDB BRCA1 ZEB1 CGA HSALNG0051755 LINC01590 LOC112267964
GH06J087093 Enhancer 0.8 Ensembl ENCODE 600.7 +1.3 1346 1.4 ZXDB OSR2 ZNF580 WT1 ZNF610 ZNF843 FEZF1 BCL11B JUN GLIS1 CGA HSALNG0051755 SLC35A1 HSALNG0051754 LOC112267964
GH06J087151 Promoter/Enhancer 2.4 EPDnew Ensembl ENCODE CraniofacialAtlas dbSUPER 10.4 -59.5 -59495 7.4 ZNF221 RNF2 CREB1 GATAD2A TEAD4 PRDM10 ZNF629 TFE3 LEF1 SOX13 ZNF292 ENSG00000272008 RARS2 SLC35A1 SMIM8 LINC01590 ORC3 CGA C6orf163
GH06J087213 Promoter/Enhancer 1.1 Ensembl ENCODE 10.6 -118.6 -118637 2 CREB1 TFE3 LEF1 IKZF1 JUND PRDM1 MTA2 MTA1 DPF2 HDAC1 HSALNG0051757 SMIM8 LINC01590 CGA SLC35A1 ORC3 piR-56451-090 ZNF292
GH06J087139 Enhancer 0.9 Ensembl ENCODE 11.1 -44.0 -44048 0.4 CTCF PRDM1 ZNF143 REST RAD21 ZNF501 TRIM22 SCRT2 ZNF316 BCLAF1 SLC35A1 CGA piR-48627 ZNF292 piR-41306-232
- Elite GeneHancer and/or Elite GeneHancer-gene association Download GeneHancer data from 2017 publication | Request up-to-date GeneHancer data (full dataset)

GeneHancers around CGA on the GeneHancer Hub at the UCSC Golden Path

Cistromic (ChIP-Seq) regulation report from SPP (The Signaling Pathways Project) for CGA

Top Transcription factor binding sites by QIAGEN in the CGA gene promoter:
  • AML1a
  • CREB
  • deltaCREB
  • En-1

Genomic Locations for CGA Gene

Genomic Locations for CGA Gene
chr6:87,085,498-87,095,406
(GRCh38/hg38)
Size:
9,909 bases
Orientation:
Minus strand
chr6:87,795,216-87,804,824
(GRCh37/hg19)
Size:
9,609 bases
Orientation:
Minus strand

Genomic View for CGA Gene

Genes around CGA on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Cytogenetic band:
CGA Gene in genomic location: bands according to Ensembl, locations according to GeneLoc (and/or Entrez Gene and/or Ensembl if different)
Genomic Location for CGA Gene
GeneLoc Logo Genomic Neighborhood Exon StructureGene Density

RefSeq DNA sequence for CGA Gene

Proteins for CGA Gene

  • Protein details for CGA Gene (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)

    Protein Symbol:
    P01215-GLHA_HUMAN
    Recommended name:
    Glycoprotein hormones alpha chain
    Protein Accession:
    P01215

    Protein attributes for CGA Gene

    Size:
    116 amino acids
    Molecular mass:
    13075 Da
    Quaternary structure:
    • Heterodimer. The active hormones thyrotropin, lutropin, follitropin and choriogonadotropin are heterodimers composed of CGA, a common alpha chain described here and a unique beta chain which confers their biological specificity to the hormones: TSHB for thyrotropin, LHB for lutropin, FSHB for follitropin and choriogonadotropin subunit beta/CGB for choriogonadotropin.

    Three dimensional structures from OCA and Proteopedia for CGA Gene

neXtProt entry for CGA Gene

Post-translational modifications for CGA Gene

  • Glycosylation at Asn76 and Asn102
  • Modification sites at PhosphoSitePlus
  • Glycosylation from GlyConnect

Other Protein References for CGA Gene

No data available for DME Specific Peptides for CGA Gene

Domains & Families for CGA Gene

Gene Families for CGA Gene

HGNC:
Human Protein Atlas (HPA):
  • Cancer-related genes
  • Plasma proteins
  • Predicted secreted proteins

Protein Domains for CGA Gene

InterPro:
Blocks:
  • Growth factor cystine knot superfamily signature
  • Glycoprotein hormones alpha chain
ProtoNet:

Suggested Antigen Peptide Sequences for CGA Gene

GenScript: Design optimal peptide antigens:
  • Follicle-stimulating hormone alpha subunit (C0KRQ8_HUMAN)
  • Thyrotropin alpha chain (GLHA_HUMAN)
  • cDNA, FLJ92245, Homo sapiens glycoprotein hormones, alpha polypeptide (CGA), mRNA (Q6I9S8_HUMAN)
  • Glycoprotein hormones, alpha polypeptide (Q96QJ4_HUMAN)

Graphical View of Domain Structure for InterPro Entry

P01215

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot:

GLHA_HUMAN :
  • Belongs to the glycoprotein hormones subunit alpha family.
Family:
  • Belongs to the glycoprotein hormones subunit alpha family.
genes like me logo Genes that share domains with CGA: view

Function for CGA Gene

Molecular function for CGA Gene

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Function:
Shared alpha chain of the active heterodimeric glycoprotein hormones thyrotropin/thyroid stimulating hormone/TSH, lutropin/luteinizing hormone/LH, follitropin/follicle stimulating hormone/FSH and choriogonadotropin/CG. These hormones bind specific receptors on target cells that in turn activate downstream signaling pathways.
GENATLAS Biochemistry:
glycoprotein hormones,alpha polypeptide,common to chorionic gonadotropin,FSH,LH,TSH

Phenotypes From GWAS Catalog for CGA Gene

Gene Ontology (GO) - Molecular Function for CGA Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0005179 hormone activity IEA,IMP 11207219
GO:0005515 protein binding IPI 11222739
GO:0016913 follicle-stimulating hormone activity IDA 2494176
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with CGA: view
genes like me logo Genes that share phenotypes with CGA: view

Animal Models for CGA Gene

MGI Knock Outs for CGA:
  • Cga Cga<tm1Sac>

miRNA for CGA Gene

miRTarBase miRNAs that target CGA

No data available for Enzyme Numbers (IUBMB) , Human Phenotype Ontology , Transcription Factor Targets and HOMER Transcription for CGA Gene

Localization for CGA Gene

Subcellular locations from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for CGA Gene

Secreted.

Subcellular locations from

COMPARTMENTS
Extracellular space Cytosol Plasma membrane Cytoskeleton Lysosome Endosome Peroxisome ER Golgi Apparatus Nucleus Mitochondrion 0 1 2 3 4 5 Confidence
COMPARTMENTS Subcellular localization image for CGA gene
Compartment Confidence
extracellular 5
golgi apparatus 4
plasma membrane 2
cytoskeleton 2
nucleus 2
mitochondrion 1
peroxisome 1
endoplasmic reticulum 1
endosome 1
cytosol 1
lysosome 1

Gene Ontology (GO) - Cellular Components for CGA Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0005576 extracellular region IEA,TAS --
GO:0005615 extracellular space IBA,IDA 2494176
GO:0005796 Golgi lumen TAS --
GO:0016914 follicle-stimulating hormone complex IDA 2494176
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with CGA: view

No data available for Subcellular locations from the Human Protein Atlas (HPA) for CGA Gene

Pathways & Interactions for CGA Gene

genes like me logo Genes that share pathways with CGA: view

Pathways by source for CGA Gene

2 GeneGo (Thomson Reuters) pathways for CGA Gene
  • Development Role of Activin A in cell differentiation and proliferation
  • Transcription_Role of VDR in regulation of genes involved in osteoporosis
1 Qiagen pathway for CGA Gene
  • GnRH Signaling

SIGNOR curated interactions for CGA Gene

Activates:
Is inactivated by:

Gene Ontology (GO) - Biological Process for CGA Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0006357 regulation of transcription by RNA polymerase II TAS --
GO:0006590 thyroid hormone generation IEA,IBA 21873635
GO:0007165 signal transduction IEA --
GO:0007186 G protein-coupled receptor signaling pathway TAS --
GO:0008284 positive regulation of cell proliferation NAS 20613903
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with CGA: view

Drugs & Compounds for CGA Gene

(111) Drugs for CGA Gene - From: ClinicalTrials, ApexBio, and Novoseek

Name Status Disease Links Group Role Mechanism of Action Clinical Trials
leucovorin Approved Pharma 3692,1548
Cetuximab Approved Pharma EGFR Inhibitors, Therapeutic Antibodies, Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) inhibitors 869
Fluorouracil Approved Pharma RNA processing inhibitor and thymidylate synthase inhibitor 2338
Levoleucovorin Approved, Investigational Pharma 948
Folic acid Approved, Vet_approved Nutra 4765

(47) Additional Compounds for CGA Gene - From: Novoseek

Name Synonyms Role CAS Number PubChem IDs PubMed IDs

(1) ApexBio Compounds for CGA Gene

genes like me logo Genes that share compounds with CGA: view

Transcripts for CGA Gene

mRNA/cDNA for CGA Gene

2 REFSEQ mRNAs :
12 NCBI additional mRNA sequence :
6 Ensembl transcripts including schematic representations, and UCSC links to gene/alias where relevant :

Alternative Splicing Database (ASD) splice patterns (SP) for CGA Gene

ExUns: 1a · 1b · 1c ^ 2 ^ 3a · 3b ^ 4 ^ 5a · 5b · 5c ^ 6a · 6b · 6c
SP1: - -
SP2: - - -
SP3: - - - -
SP4: - -
SP5: -

Relevant External Links for CGA Gene

GeneLoc Exon Structure for
CGA

Expression for CGA Gene

mRNA expression in normal human tissues from GTEx, Illumina, BioGPS, and SAGE for CGA Gene

mRNA differential expression in normal tissues according to GTEx for CGA Gene

This gene is overexpressed in Pituitary (x52.6).

Protein differential expression in normal tissues from HIPED for CGA Gene

This gene is overexpressed in Placenta (65.8).

Integrated Proteomics: protein expression in normal tissues and cell lines from ProteomicsDB and MOPED for CGA Gene



Protein tissue co-expression partners for CGA Gene

Transcriptomic regulation report from SPP (The Signaling Pathways Project) for CGA

SOURCE GeneReport for Unigene cluster for CGA Gene:

Hs.119689

Evidence on tissue expression from TISSUES for CGA Gene

  • Nervous system(4.5)
  • Stomach(2.7)
  • Skin(2.3)
  • Lung(2.3)
  • Kidney(2.1)
  • Muscle(2.1)
  • Blood(2.1)
  • Heart(2)
genes like me logo Genes that share expression patterns with CGA: view

No data available for mRNA Expression by UniProt/SwissProt and Phenotype-based relationships between genes and organs from Gene ORGANizer for CGA Gene

Orthologs for CGA Gene

This gene was present in the common ancestor of chordates.

Orthologs for CGA Gene

Organism Taxonomy Gene Similarity Type Details
Chimpanzee
(Pan troglodytes)
Mammalia CGA 30 31
  • 98.64 (n)
OneToOne
Dog
(Canis familiaris)
Mammalia CGA 30 31
  • 83.89 (n)
OneToOne
Cow
(Bos Taurus)
Mammalia CGA 30 31
  • 80 (n)
OneToOne
Mouse
(Mus musculus)
Mammalia Cga 30 17 31
  • 76.39 (n)
OneToOne
Rat
(Rattus norvegicus)
Mammalia Cga 30
  • 76.11 (n)
Oppossum
(Monodelphis domestica)
Mammalia CGA 31
  • 75 (a)
OneToOne
Platypus
(Ornithorhynchus anatinus)
Mammalia CGA 31
  • 67 (a)
OneToOne
Chicken
(Gallus gallus)
Aves CGA 30 31
  • 69.17 (n)
OneToOne
Lizard
(Anolis carolinensis)
Reptilia CGA 31
  • 72 (a)
OneToOne
Tropical Clawed Frog
(Silurana tropicalis)
Amphibia cga 30
  • 66.67 (n)
African clawed frog
(Xenopus laevis)
Amphibia tsha-A 30
Zebrafish
(Danio rerio)
Actinopterygii cga 30 31
  • 65.2 (n)
OneToOne
Dr.13896 30
Rainbow Trout
(Oncorhynchus mykiss)
Actinopterygii Omy.11927 30
Species where no ortholog for CGA was found in the sources mined by GeneCards:
  • A. gosspyii yeast (Eremothecium gossypii)
  • Actinobacteria (Mycobacterium tuberculosis)
  • African malaria mosquito (Anopheles gambiae)
  • Alicante grape (Vitis vinifera)
  • Alpha proteobacteria (Wolbachia pipientis)
  • Amoeba (Dictyostelium discoideum)
  • Archea (Pyrococcus horikoshii)
  • Baker's yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae)
  • Barley (Hordeum vulgare)
  • Beta proteobacteria (Neisseria meningitidis)
  • Bread mold (Neurospora crassa)
  • Chromalveolata (Phytophthora infestans)
  • Common water flea (Daphnia pulex)
  • Corn (Zea mays)
  • E. coli (Escherichia coli)
  • Filamentous fungi (Aspergillus nidulans)
  • Firmicute Bacteria (Streptococcus pneumoniae)
  • Fission Yeast (Schizosaccharomyces pombe)
  • Fruit Fly (Drosophila melanogaster)
  • Green Algae (Chlamydomonas reinhardtii)
  • Honey Bee (Apis mellifera)
  • K. Lactis Yeast (Kluyveromyces lactis)
  • Loblloly Pine (Pinus taeda)
  • Malaria Parasite (Plasmodium falciparum)
  • Medicago Trunc (Medicago Truncatula)
  • Moss (Physcomitrella patens)
  • Orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus)
  • Pig (Sus scrofa)
  • Rice (Oryza sativa)
  • Rice Blast Fungus (Magnaporthe grisea)
  • Schistosome Parasite (Schistosoma mansoni)
  • Sea Anemone (Nematostella vectensis)
  • Sea Vase (Ciona intestinalis)
  • Sea Squirt (Ciona savignyi)
  • Sea Urchin (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus)
  • Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor)
  • Soybean (Glycine max)
  • Stem Rust Fungus (Puccinia graminis)
  • Sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum)
  • Thale Cress (Arabidopsis thaliana)
  • Tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum)
  • Toxoplasmosis (Toxoplasma gondii)
  • Trichoplax (Trichoplax adhaerens)
  • Wheat (Triticum aestivum)
  • Worm (Caenorhabditis elegans)

Evolution for CGA Gene

ENSEMBL:
Gene Tree for CGA (if available)
TreeFam:
Gene Tree for CGA (if available)
Aminode:
Evolutionary constrained regions (ECRs) for CGA: view image

Paralogs for CGA Gene

No data available for Paralogs for CGA Gene

Variants for CGA Gene

Sequence variations, with clinical significance, from ClinVar and Humsavar, with links to dbSNP for CGA Gene

SNP ID Clinical significance and condition Chr 06 pos Variation AA Info Type
714315 Benign: not provided 87,085,839(-) G/A INTRON_VARIANT
736145 Benign: not provided 87,086,295(-) G/A SYNONYMOUS_VARIANT
742220 Likely Benign: not provided 87,086,328(-) T/C SYNONYMOUS_VARIANT

Additional dbSNP identifiers (rs#s) for CGA Gene

Structural Variations from Database of Genomic Variants (DGV) for CGA Gene

Variant ID Type Subtype PubMed ID
esv1002835 CNV deletion 20482838
esv2763585 CNV gain 21179565
nsv5385 CNV deletion 18451855
nsv604106 CNV gain 21841781

Variation tolerance for CGA Gene

Residual Variation Intolerance Score: 43.1% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)

Additional Variant Information for CGA Gene

Human Gene Mutation Database (HGMD)
CGA
SNPedia medical, phenotypic, and genealogical associations of SNPs for
CGA

SNP Genotyping and Copy Number Assay Products

No data available for Polymorphic Variants from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for CGA Gene

Disorders for CGA Gene

MalaCards: The human disease database

(64) MalaCards diseases for CGA Gene - From: DISEASES, Novoseek, and GeneCards

Disorder Aliases PubMed IDs
ectopic pregnancy
  • eccyesis
ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome
  • ohss
ovarian disease
  • ovarian dysfunction
triploidy
  • chromosome triploidy syndrome
ovarian remnant syndrome
  • residual ovary syndrome
- elite association - COSMIC cancer census association via MalaCards
Search CGA in MalaCards View complete list of genes associated with diseases

Additional Disease Information for CGA

Genetic Association Database
(GAD)
Human Genome Epidemiology Navigator
(HuGE)
ATLAS of Genetics and Cytogenetics in Oncology and Haematology
Open Targets Platform
genes like me logo Genes that share disorders with CGA: view

No data available for UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot and Genatlas for CGA Gene

Publications for CGA Gene

  1. The gene encoding the common alpha subunit of the four human glycoprotein hormones. (PMID: 6286817) Fiddes JC … Goodman HM (Journal of molecular and applied genetics 1981) 2 3 4
  2. Evidence for Follicle-stimulating Hormone Receptor as a Functional Trimer. (PMID: 24692546) Jiang X … He X (The Journal of biological chemistry 2014) 3 4
  3. Personalized smoking cessation: interactions between nicotine dose, dependence and quit-success genotype score. (PMID: 20379614) Rose JE … Uhl GR (Molecular medicine (Cambridge, Mass.) 2010) 3 41
  4. Genetic susceptibility to distinct bladder cancer subphenotypes. (PMID: 19692168) Guey LT … EPICURO/Spanish Bladder Cancer Study investigators (European urology 2010) 3 41
  5. A large-scale candidate gene association study of age at menarche and age at natural menopause. (PMID: 20734064) He C … Hunter DJ (Human genetics 2010) 3 41

Products for CGA Gene

Sources for CGA Gene