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Aliases for CES2 Gene

Aliases for CES2 Gene

  • Carboxylesterase 2 2 3 4 5
  • Methylumbelliferyl-Acetate Deacetylase 2 3 4
  • Carboxylesterase 2 (Intestine, Liver) 2 3
  • EC 4 56
  • HCE-2 3 4
  • CE-2 3 4
  • ICE 3 4
  • Intestinal Carboxylesterase; Liver Carboxylesterase-2 3
  • Cocaine Esterase 3
  • EC 4
  • EC 4
  • EC 3.1.1 56
  • CES2A1 3
  • PCE-2 3

External Ids for CES2 Gene

Previous GeneCards Identifiers for CES2 Gene

  • GC16P057662
  • GC16P067346
  • GC16P066703
  • GC16P066744
  • GC16P065525
  • GC16P066969
  • GC16P052842

Summaries for CES2 Gene

Entrez Gene Summary for CES2 Gene

  • This gene encodes a member of the carboxylesterase large family. The family members are responsible for the hydrolysis or transesterification of various xenobiotics, such as cocaine and heroin, and endogenous substrates with ester, thioester, or amide bonds. They may participate in fatty acyl and cholesterol ester metabolism, and may play a role in the blood-brain barrier system. The protein encoded by this gene is the major intestinal enzyme and functions in intestine drug clearance. Alternatively spliced transcript variants have been found for this gene.[provided by RefSeq, Oct 2010]

GeneCards Summary for CES2 Gene

CES2 (Carboxylesterase 2) is a Protein Coding gene. Diseases associated with CES2 include Fiedler's Myocarditis and Sparganosis. Among its related pathways are the visual cycle I (vertebrates) and E2F transcription factor network. Gene Ontology (GO) annotations related to this gene include hydrolase activity and methylumbelliferyl-acetate deacetylase activity. An important paralog of this gene is CES3.

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for CES2 Gene

  • Involved in the detoxification of xenobiotics and in the activation of ester and amide prodrugs. Shows high catalytic efficiency for hydrolysis of cocaine, 4-methylumbelliferyl acetate, heroin and 6-monoacetylmorphine.

Gene Wiki entry for CES2 Gene

Additional gene information for CES2 Gene

No data available for CIViC summary , Tocris Summary , PharmGKB "VIP" Summary , fRNAdb sequence ontologies and piRNA Summary for CES2 Gene

Genomics for CES2 Gene

GeneHancer (GH) Regulatory Elements for CES2 Gene

Promoters and enhancers for CES2 Gene
GeneHancer (GH) Identifier GH Type GH
GH Sources Gene Association Score Total Score TSS distance (kb) Number of Genes Away Size (kb) Transcription Factor
Binding Sites
Gene Targets
GH16I066932 Promoter/Enhancer 2.3 EPDnew Ensembl ENCODE dbSUPER 560.5 +0.9 857 5 FOXA2 MLX ARID4B SIN3A DMAP1 ZNF2 YY1 SLC30A9 POLR2B ZNF302 CES2 FAM96B NAE1 CES3 ENSG00000265408
GH16I066879 Promoter/Enhancer 2.1 EPDnew Ensembl ENCODE 24.2 -53.7 -53672 2 PKNOX1 CLOCK SMAD1 MLX ARNT ZFP64 ARID4B SIN3A DMAP1 SLC30A9 PDP2 CES2 EDC4 CTCF ENSG00000260465 CDH16 RRAD NAE1 ZDHHC1 FAM96B
GH16I066871 Promoter/Enhancer 1.9 FANTOM5 Ensembl ENCODE 24.7 -60.6 -60604 5.1 HDGF PKNOX1 ARNT ARID4B SIN3A FEZF1 DMAP1 ZNF2 IRF4 ZNF213 NAE1 CES2 E2F4 CA7 PLEKHG4 ZDHHC1 ENSG00000260465 FAM96B FBXL8 CTCF
GH16I066899 Enhancer 1.4 Ensembl ENCODE dbSUPER 25.8 -33.7 -33717 3.4 HDGF SMAD1 FOXA2 ARNT POLR2B ZNF766 REST ZNF592 KAT8 MEF2D CES2 CTCF E2F4 FBXL8 TRADD ZDHHC1 ENSG00000260465 RRAD FAM96B ENKD1
- Elite GeneHancer and/or Elite GeneHancer-gene association Download GeneHancer data dump

GeneHancers around CES2 on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Top Transcription factor binding sites by QIAGEN in the CES2 gene promoter:

Genomic Locations for CES2 Gene

Genomic Locations for CES2 Gene
10,653 bases
Plus strand

Genomic View for CES2 Gene

Genes around CES2 on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Cytogenetic band:
CES2 Gene in genomic location: bands according to Ensembl, locations according to GeneLoc (and/or Entrez Gene and/or Ensembl if different)
Genomic Location for CES2 Gene
GeneLoc Logo Genomic Neighborhood Exon StructureGene Density

RefSeq DNA sequence for CES2 Gene

Proteins for CES2 Gene

  • Protein details for CES2 Gene (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)

    Protein Symbol:
    Recommended name:
    Cocaine esterase
    Protein Accession:
    Secondary Accessions:
    • A8K367
    • Q16859
    • Q5MAB8
    • Q7Z366
    • Q8IUP4
    • Q8TCP8

    Protein attributes for CES2 Gene

    559 amino acids
    Molecular mass:
    61807 Da
    Quaternary structure:
    • Monomer.
    • Sequence=AAH32095.1; Type=Erroneous initiation; Note=Translation N-terminally shortened.; Evidence={ECO:0000305}; Sequence=AAW29943.1; Type=Erroneous initiation; Note=Translation N-terminally shortened.; Evidence={ECO:0000305}; Sequence=CAD28531.1; Type=Erroneous initiation; Note=Translation N-terminally shortened.; Evidence={ECO:0000305}; Sequence=CAD98009.1; Type=Erroneous initiation; Note=Translation N-terminally shortened.; Evidence={ECO:0000305};

    Alternative splice isoforms for CES2 Gene


neXtProt entry for CES2 Gene

Selected DME Specific Peptides for CES2 Gene


Post-translational modifications for CES2 Gene

Antibody Products

  • R&D Systems Antibodies for CES2 (Carboxylesterase 2/CES2)
  • Abcam antibodies for CES2
  • Santa Cruz Biotechnology (SCBT) Antibodies for CES2

Domains & Families for CES2 Gene

Gene Families for CES2 Gene

Human Protein Atlas (HPA):
  • Enzymes
  • Predicted intracellular proteins
  • Predicted membrane proteins

Protein Domains for CES2 Gene

Suggested Antigen Peptide Sequences for CES2 Gene

Graphical View of Domain Structure for InterPro Entry



  • Belongs to the type-B carboxylesterase/lipase family.
  • Belongs to the type-B carboxylesterase/lipase family.
genes like me logo Genes that share domains with CES2: view

Function for CES2 Gene

Molecular function for CES2 Gene

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot BiophysicochemicalProperties:
Kinetic parameters: KM=0.39 mM for cocaine {ECO:0000269 PubMed:9169443}; KM=0.15 mM for 4-methylumbelliferyl acetate {ECO:0000269 PubMed:9169443}; KM=6.8 mM for heroin {ECO:0000269 PubMed:9169443}; KM=0.13 mM for 6-monoacetylmorphine {ECO:0000269 PubMed:9169443};
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot CatalyticActivity:
Cocaine + H(2)O = ecgonine methyl ester + benzoate.
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot CatalyticActivity:
A carboxylic ester + H(2)O = an alcohol + a carboxylate.
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot CatalyticActivity:
4-methylumbelliferyl acetate + H(2)O = 4-methylumbelliferone + acetate.
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Function:
Involved in the detoxification of xenobiotics and in the activation of ester and amide prodrugs. Shows high catalytic efficiency for hydrolysis of cocaine, 4-methylumbelliferyl acetate, heroin and 6-monoacetylmorphine.

Enzyme Numbers (IUBMB) for CES2 Gene

Phenotypes From GWAS Catalog for CES2 Gene

Gene Ontology (GO) - Molecular Function for CES2 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0016787 hydrolase activity IEA --
GO:0047374 methylumbelliferyl-acetate deacetylase activity IEA --
GO:0052689 carboxylic ester hydrolase activity TAS --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with CES2: view
genes like me logo Genes that share phenotypes with CES2: view

Animal Model Products

CRISPR Products

miRNA for CES2 Gene

miRTarBase miRNAs that target CES2

Inhibitory RNA Products

No data available for Human Phenotype Ontology , Animal Models , Transcription Factor Targets and HOMER Transcription for CES2 Gene

Localization for CES2 Gene

Subcellular locations from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for CES2 Gene

Endoplasmic reticulum lumen.

Subcellular locations from

Extracellular space Cytosol Plasma membrane Cytoskeleton Lysosome Endosome Peroxisome ER Golgi Apparatus Nucleus Mitochondrion 0 1 2 3 4 5 Confidence
COMPARTMENTS Subcellular localization image for CES2 gene
Compartment Confidence
endoplasmic reticulum 5
plasma membrane 3
cytosol 3
golgi apparatus 2
nucleus 1

Subcellular locations from the

Human Protein Atlas (HPA)
  • Cytosol (2)
  • Golgi apparatus (2)
See all subcellular structures

Gene Ontology (GO) - Cellular Components for CES2 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0005783 endoplasmic reticulum TAS 9144407
GO:0005788 endoplasmic reticulum lumen TAS --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with CES2: view

Pathways & Interactions for CES2 Gene

genes like me logo Genes that share pathways with CES2: view

Gene Ontology (GO) - Biological Process for CES2 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0006693 prostaglandin metabolic process IDA 21049984
GO:0006805 xenobiotic metabolic process TAS --
GO:0009056 catabolic process TAS 9169443
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with CES2: view

No data available for SIGNOR curated interactions for CES2 Gene

Drugs & Compounds for CES2 Gene

(22) Drugs for CES2 Gene - From: DrugBank, FDA Approved Drugs, HMDB, and Novoseek

Name Status Disease Links Group Role Mechanism of Action Clinical Trials
Irinotecan Approved, Investigational Pharma Enzyme, substrate Topoisomerase I inhibitor, TOPO I inhibitor, Topoisomerase 1 Inhibitors 1181
Cocaine Approved, Illicit Pharma 533
Dabigatran etexilate Approved Pharma Enzyme, substrate 0
Mycophenolate mofetil Approved, Investigational Pharma Enzyme IMPDH inhibitor 987
Prasugrel Approved Pharma Enzyme, substrate ADP receptor inhibitor 0

(13) Additional Compounds for CES2 Gene - From: HMDB and Novoseek

Name Synonyms Role CAS Number PubChem IDs PubMed IDs
4-Methylumbelliferyl acetate
  • 4-Methyl-7-acetyloxy coumarin
  • 4-Methylumbelliferyl acetate
  • 7-(Acetyloxy)-4-methyl-2-benzopyrone
  • 7-Acetoxy-4-methyl-2H-1-benzopyran-2-one
  • 7-Acetoxy-4-methylcoumarin
1,4'-Bipiperidine-1'-carboxylic acid
  • 1-Pentanol
  • 1-Pentol
  • 1-Pentyl alcohol
  • Alcool amylique
  • Alcool amylique (french)
4-Amino-1-piperidinecarboxylic acid
genes like me logo Genes that share compounds with CES2: view

Transcripts for CES2 Gene

Unigene Clusters for CES2 Gene

Carboxylesterase 2:
Representative Sequences:

CRISPR Products

Inhibitory RNA Products

Alternative Splicing Database (ASD) splice patterns (SP) for CES2 Gene

ExUns: 1a · 1b ^ 2 ^ 3a · 3b · 3c · 3d · 3e ^ 4a · 4b · 4c ^ 5 ^ 6 ^ 7a · 7b ^ 8a · 8b ^ 9a · 9b ^ 10 ^ 11 ^ 12a · 12b ^ 13a · 13b · 13c ^
SP1: - - - -
SP2: - -
SP3: - - - - -
SP4: -
SP6: - - - - - -
SP8: - - - - -
SP9: -

ExUns: 14

Relevant External Links for CES2 Gene

GeneLoc Exon Structure for
ECgene alternative splicing isoforms for

Expression for CES2 Gene

mRNA expression in normal human tissues from GTEx, Illumina, BioGPS, and CGAP SAGE for CES2 Gene

mRNA differential expression in normal tissues according to GTEx for CES2 Gene

This gene is overexpressed in Liver (x5.4), Colon - Transverse (x5.2), Small Intestine - Terminal Ileum (x5.1), and Esophagus - Mucosa (x4.5).

Protein differential expression in normal tissues from HIPED for CES2 Gene

This gene is overexpressed in Liver (20.9) and Stomach (11.4).

Integrated Proteomics: protein expression in normal tissues and cell lines from ProteomicsDB, PaxDb, MaxQB, and MOPED for CES2 Gene

NURSA nuclear receptor signaling pathways regulating expression of CES2 Gene:


SOURCE GeneReport for Unigene cluster for CES2 Gene:


mRNA Expression by UniProt/SwissProt for CES2 Gene:

Tissue specificity: Preferentially expressed in intestine with moderate expression in liver. Within the intestine, highest expression is found in small intestine with lower expression in colon and rectum.

Evidence on tissue expression from TISSUES for CES2 Gene

  • Intestine(4.9)
  • Nervous system(4.9)
  • Liver(4.7)
  • Skin(4.3)
  • Kidney(3.1)
  • Lung(2.3)
genes like me logo Genes that share expression patterns with CES2: view

Primer Products

No data available for mRNA expression in embryonic tissues and stem cells from LifeMap Discovery , Protein tissue co-expression partners and Phenotype-based relationships between genes and organs from Gene ORGANizer for CES2 Gene

Orthologs for CES2 Gene

This gene was present in the common ancestor of animals.

Orthologs for CES2 Gene

Organism Taxonomy Gene Similarity Type Details
(Pan troglodytes)
Mammalia CES2 33 34
  • 97.81 (n)
(Bos Taurus)
Mammalia CES2 33 34
  • 80.01 (n)
(Rattus norvegicus)
Mammalia Ces2h 33
  • 78.2 (n)
(Mus musculus)
Mammalia Ces2h 33 16 34
  • 77.78 (n)
Ces2b 34
  • 71 (a)
Ces2c 34
  • 71 (a)
Ces2d-ps 34
  • 71 (a)
Ces2e 34
  • 71 (a)
Ces2g 34
  • 69 (a)
Ces2a 34
  • 67 (a)
Ces2f 34
  • 64 (a)
(Canis familiaris)
Mammalia CES2 33 34
  • 71.89 (n)
(Monodelphis domestica)
Mammalia -- 34
  • 58 (a)
-- 34
  • 58 (a)
-- 34
  • 52 (a)
(Anolis carolinensis)
Reptilia -- 34
  • 50 (a)
-- 34
  • 49 (a)
-- 34
  • 48 (a)
-- 34
  • 48 (a)
-- 34
  • 42 (a)
(Danio rerio)
Actinopterygii ces3 34
  • 43 (a)
ces2 34
  • 42 (a)
si:ch211-93f2.1 34
  • 15 (a)
fruit fly
(Drosophila melanogaster)
Insecta alpha-Est4 35
  • 40 (a)
CG8424 35
  • 31 (a)
alpha-Est10 35
  • 30 (a)
alpha-Est2 35
  • 30 (a)
alpha-Est7 35
  • 30 (a)
Jhe 35
  • 30 (a)
alpha-Est1 35
  • 29 (a)
alpha-Est6 35
  • 29 (a)
alpha-Est8 35
  • 29 (a)
CG5397 35
  • 29 (a)
CG6414 35
  • 29 (a)
clt 35
  • 29 (a)
Est-P 35
  • 29 (a)
alpha-Est9 35
  • 28 (a)
CG10175 35
  • 28 (a)
CG3841 35
  • 28 (a)
CG7529 35
  • 28 (a)
CG9289 35
  • 28 (a)
Est-6 35
  • 28 (a)
CG12869 35
  • 27 (a)
Glt 35
  • 27 (a)
CG4382 35
  • 26 (a)
CG9287 35
  • 26 (a)
(Caenorhabditis elegans)
Secernentea T07H6.1a 35
  • 39 (a)
B0238.13 35
  • 36 (a)
C52A10.2 35
  • 31 (a)
F13H6.3 35
  • 31 (a)
T02B5.3 35
  • 31 (a)
R173.3 35
  • 30 (a)
F13H6.4 35
  • 29 (a)
Y71H2AM.13 35
  • 29 (a)
K07C11.4 35
  • 28 (a)
B0238.7 35
  • 28 (a)
ges-1 35
  • 27 (a)
T28C12.4a 35
  • 27 (a)
T28C12.4b 35
  • 27 (a)
F55D10.3 35
  • 26 (a)
ZC376.2 35
  • 26 (a)
T02B5.1 35
  • 25 (a)
Species where no ortholog for CES2 was found in the sources mined by GeneCards:
  • A. gosspyii yeast (Ashbya gossypii)
  • Actinobacteria (Mycobacterium tuberculosis)
  • African clawed frog (Xenopus laevis)
  • African malaria mosquito (Anopheles gambiae)
  • Alicante grape (Vitis vinifera)
  • alpha proteobacteria (Wolbachia pipientis)
  • amoeba (Dictyostelium discoideum)
  • Archea (Pyrococcus horikoshii)
  • baker's yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae)
  • barley (Hordeum vulgare)
  • beta proteobacteria (Neisseria meningitidis)
  • bread mold (Neurospora crassa)
  • chicken (Gallus gallus)
  • Chromalveolata (Phytophthora infestans)
  • common water flea (Daphnia pulex)
  • corn (Zea mays)
  • E. coli (Escherichia coli)
  • filamentous fungi (Aspergillus nidulans)
  • Firmicute bacteria (Streptococcus pneumoniae)
  • fission yeast (Schizosaccharomyces pombe)
  • green algae (Chlamydomonas reinhardtii)
  • honey bee (Apis mellifera)
  • K. lactis yeast (Kluyveromyces lactis)
  • loblloly pine (Pinus taeda)
  • malaria parasite (Plasmodium falciparum)
  • medicago trunc (Medicago Truncatula)
  • moss (Physcomitrella patens)
  • orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus)
  • pig (Sus scrofa)
  • platypus (Ornithorhynchus anatinus)
  • rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)
  • rice (Oryza sativa)
  • rice blast fungus (Magnaporthe grisea)
  • schistosome parasite (Schistosoma mansoni)
  • sea anemone (Nematostella vectensis)
  • sea squirt (Ciona intestinalis)
  • sea squirt (Ciona savignyi)
  • sea urchin (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus)
  • sorghum (Sorghum bicolor)
  • soybean (Glycine max)
  • stem rust fungus (Puccinia graminis)
  • sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum)
  • thale cress (Arabidopsis thaliana)
  • tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum)
  • toxoplasmosis (Toxoplasma gondii)
  • Trichoplax (Trichoplax adhaerens)
  • tropical clawed frog (Silurana tropicalis)
  • wheat (Triticum aestivum)

Evolution for CES2 Gene

Gene Tree for CES2 (if available)
Gene Tree for CES2 (if available)

Paralogs for CES2 Gene

Paralogs for CES2 Gene Pseudogenes for CES2 Gene

genes like me logo Genes that share paralogs with CES2: view

Variants for CES2 Gene

Sequence variations from dbSNP and Humsavar for CES2 Gene

SNP ID Clin Chr 16 pos Variation AA Info Type
rs1000406021 -- 66,935,882(+) TCCTAGAA/TCCTAGAATCCTAGAA intron_variant, non_coding_transcript_variant
rs1000633117 -- 66,943,481(+) T/C intron_variant
rs1000741847 -- 66,937,157(+) A/G intron_variant
rs1000822938 -- 66,939,633(+) C/T intron_variant
rs1000967376 -- 66,933,369(+) A/C upstream_transcript_variant

Structural Variations from Database of Genomic Variants (DGV) for CES2 Gene

Variant ID Type Subtype PubMed ID
nsv827706 CNV loss 20364138
nsv572904 CNV loss 21841781
dgv526e214 CNV gain 21293372

Variation tolerance for CES2 Gene

Residual Variation Intolerance Score: 22.4% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)
Gene Damage Index Score: 1.30; 25.86% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)

Additional Variant Information for CES2 Gene

Human Gene Mutation Database (HGMD)
SNPedia medical, phenotypic, and genealogical associations of SNPs for

No data available for Polymorphic Variants from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for CES2 Gene

Disorders for CES2 Gene

MalaCards: The human disease database

(5) MalaCards diseases for CES2 Gene - From: HGMD and DISEASES

Disorder Aliases PubMed IDs
fiedler's myocarditis
  • fiedler myocarditis
  • infection by sparganum
western equine encephalitis
  • wee
cystic echinococcosis
  • echinococcus granulosus infection
parasitic helminthiasis infectious disease
  • helminth infection
- elite association - COSMIC cancer census association via MalaCards
Search CES2 in MalaCards View complete list of genes associated with diseases

Additional Disease Information for CES2

Genetic Association Database
Human Genome Epidemiology Navigator
ATLAS of Genetics and Cytogenetics in Oncology and Haematology
genes like me logo Genes that share disorders with CES2: view

No data available for UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot and Genatlas for CES2 Gene

Publications for CES2 Gene

  1. Molecular cloning and characterization of a novel putative carboxylesterase, present in human intestine and liver. (PMID: 9144407) Schwer H … Schmitz G (Biochemical and biophysical research communications 1997) 2 3 4 22 58
  2. Purification and cloning of a broad substrate specificity human liver carboxylesterase that catalyzes the hydrolysis of cocaine and heroin. (PMID: 9169443) Pindel EV … Bosron WF (The Journal of biological chemistry 1997) 2 3 4 22 58
  3. Haplotypes and a novel defective allele of CES2 found in a Japanese population. (PMID: 17640957) Kim SR … Sawada J (Drug metabolism and disposition: the biological fate of chemicals 2007) 3 22 44 58
  4. Pharmacogenetics of human carboxylesterase 2, an enzyme involved in the activation of irinotecan into SN-38. (PMID: 15592324) Charasson V … Robert J (Clinical pharmacology and therapeutics 2004) 3 22 44 58
  5. Twelve novel single nucleotide polymorphisms in the CES2 gene encoding human carboxylesterase 2 (hCE-2). (PMID: 15618752) Kim SR … Sawada J (Drug metabolism and pharmacokinetics 2003) 3 4 22 58

Products for CES2 Gene

Sources for CES2 Gene

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