External Ids for CCND3 Gene
Previous GeneCards Identifiers for CCND3 Gene
The protein encoded by this gene belongs to the highly conserved cyclin family, whose members are characterized by a dramatic periodicity in protein abundance through the cell cycle. Cyclins function as regulators of CDK kinases. Different cyclins exhibit distinct expression and degradation patterns which contribute to the temporal coordination of each mitotic event. This cyclin forms a complex with and functions as a regulatory subunit of CDK4 or CDK6, whose activtiy is required for cell cycle G1/S transition. This protein has been shown to interact with and be involved in the phosphorylation of tumor suppressor protein Rb. The CDK4 activity associated with this cyclin was reported to be necessary for cell cycle progression through G2 phase into mitosis after UV radiation. Several transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Oct 2008]
Cyclin D has been shown in many cancer types to be misregulated. Well established for their oncogenic properties, the cyclins and the cyclin-dependent kinases (CDK's) they activate have been the focus of major research and development efforts over the past decade. The methods by which the cyclins are misregulated are widely variable, ranging from genomic amplification to changes in promoter methylation. Cyclin D3 loss has been reported in T-ALL, a seemingly unique trend when compared to the amplifcations and overexpressions of the other cyclin D's. In a mouse study, the targeted therapeutic palbociclib significantly increased the median survival of the cyclin D3 knockouts.
GeneCards Summary for CCND3 Gene
CCND3 (Cyclin D3) is a Protein Coding gene. Diseases associated with CCND3 include Bladder Carcinoma In Situ and Retinoblastoma. Among its related pathways are Cell cycle Cell cycle (generic schema) and Cell Cycle, Mitotic. Gene Ontology (GO) annotations related to this gene include protein kinase binding and cyclin-dependent protein serine/threonine kinase activity. An important paralog of this gene is CCND2.
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Summary for CCND3 Gene
Regulatory component of the cyclin D3-CDK4 (DC) complex that phosphorylates and inhibits members of the retinoblastoma (RB) protein family including RB1 and regulates the cell-cycle during G(1)/S transition. Phosphorylation of RB1 allows dissociation of the transcription factor E2F from the RB/E2F complex and the subsequent transcription of E2F target genes which are responsible for the progression through the G(1) phase. Hypophosphorylates RB1 in early G(1) phase. Cyclin D-CDK4 complexes are major integrators of various mitogenenic and antimitogenic signals. Also substrate for SMAD3, phosphorylating SMAD3 in a cell-cycle-dependent manner and repressing its transcriptional activity. Component of the ternary complex, cyclin D3/CDK4/CDKN1B, required for nuclear translocation and activity of the cyclin D-CDK4 complex.