The protein encoded by this gene is a mitogen that is secreted by vascular endothelial cells. The encoded protein plays a role in chondrocyte proliferation and differentiation, cell adhesion in many cell types, and is related to platelet-derived growth factor. Certain polymorphisms in this gene have been linked with a higher incidence of systemic sclerosis. [provided by RefSeq,... See more...

Aliases for CCN2 Gene

Aliases for CCN2 Gene

  • Cellular Communication Network Factor 2 2 3 4 5
  • Connective Tissue Growth Factor 2 3 4
  • IGFBP8 2 3 4
  • Hypertrophic Chondrocyte-Specific Protein 24 3 4
  • Insulin-Like Growth Factor-Binding Protein 8 3 4
  • IGF-Binding Protein 8 3 4
  • CCN Family Member 2 3 4
  • IGFBP-8 3 4
  • HCS24 3 4
  • IBP-8 3 4
  • CTGF 3 4
  • NOV2 3
  • CCN2 5

External Ids for CCN2 Gene

Previous HGNC Symbols for CCN2 Gene

  • CTGF

Summaries for CCN2 Gene

Entrez Gene Summary for CCN2 Gene

  • The protein encoded by this gene is a mitogen that is secreted by vascular endothelial cells. The encoded protein plays a role in chondrocyte proliferation and differentiation, cell adhesion in many cell types, and is related to platelet-derived growth factor. Certain polymorphisms in this gene have been linked with a higher incidence of systemic sclerosis. [provided by RefSeq, Nov 2009]

CIViC Summary for CCN2 Gene

GeneCards Summary for CCN2 Gene

CCN2 (Cellular Communication Network Factor 2) is a Protein Coding gene. Diseases associated with CCN2 include Renal Fibrosis and Systemic Scleroderma. Among its related pathways are NF-KappaB Family Pathway and amb2 Integrin signaling. An important paralog of this gene is CCN3.

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Summary for CCN2 Gene

  • Major connective tissue mitoattractant secreted by vascular endothelial cells. Promotes proliferation and differentiation of chondrocytes. Mediates heparin- and divalent cation-dependent cell adhesion in many cell types including fibroblasts, myofibroblasts, endothelial and epithelial cells. Enhances fibroblast growth factor-induced DNA synthesis.

Gene Wiki entry for CCN2 Gene

No data available for Tocris Summary , PharmGKB "VIP" Summary , Rfam classification and piRNA Summary for CCN2 Gene

Genomics for CCN2 Gene

GeneHancer (GH) Regulatory Elements Pubs

Promoters and enhancers for CCN2 Gene
GeneHancer (GH) Identifier GH Type GH
Score
GH Sources Gene Association Score Total Score TSS distance (kb) Number of Genes Away Size (kb) Transcription Factor
Binding Sites
Gene Targets
GH06J131946 Promoter/Enhancer 2.5 VISTA EPDnew Ensembl ENCODE CraniofacialAtlas dbSUPER 600.7 +0.3 304 10.9 HNRNPL CREB1 GATAD2A CTCF ATF7 TEAD4 PRDM10 ZNF629 REST TFE3 ENSG00000227220 CCN2 MED23 SNORA33 LINC01013 lnc-ENPP1-5 ENPP1
GH06J131976 Enhancer 1.1 Ensembl ENCODE 12 -25.6 -25563 0.7 GATAD2A TFE3 SOX13 NFKBIZ RCOR2 RXRB IRF2 CEBPA KMT2B ETS1 CCN2 ENSG00000227220 LINC01013 piR-30853-065 MOXD1
GH06J132146 Enhancer 1 FANTOM5 Ensembl ENCODE dbSUPER 3.8 -196.4 -196408 2 ATF7 JUND ATF2 CCN2 TAAR2 lnc-MOXD1-1 LINC01013 lnc-ENPP1-7 MOXD1
GH06J131987 Enhancer 0.2 Ensembl 12.4 -36.3 -36329 0.2 ENSG00000227220 CCN2 piR-30853-065 MOXD1
GH06J131988 Enhancer 0.2 Ensembl 12.4 -38.2 -38229 1.6 ENSG00000227220 CCN2 LINC01013 piR-30853-065 MOXD1
- Elite GeneHancer and/or Elite GeneHancer-gene association Download GeneHancer data from 2017 publication | Request up-to-date GeneHancer data (full dataset)

GeneHancers around CCN2 on the GeneHancer Hub at the UCSC Golden Path

Cistromic (ChIP-Seq) regulation report from SPP (The Signaling Pathways Project) for CCN2

Genomic Locations for CCN2 Gene

Genomic Locations for CCN2 Gene
chr6:131,948,176-131,951,372
(GRCh38/hg38)
Size:
3,197 bases
Orientation:
Minus strand
chr6:132,269,316-132,272,518
(GRCh37/hg19)
Size:
3,203 bases
Orientation:
Minus strand

Genomic View for CCN2 Gene

Genes around CCN2 on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Cytogenetic band:
CCN2 Gene in genomic location: bands according to Ensembl, locations according to GeneLoc (and/or Entrez Gene and/or Ensembl if different)
Genomic Location for CCN2 Gene
GeneLoc Logo Genomic Neighborhood Exon StructureGene Density

RefSeq DNA sequence for CCN2 Gene

Proteins for CCN2 Gene

  • Protein details for CCN2 Gene (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)

    Protein Symbol:
    P29279-CCN2_HUMAN
    Recommended name:
    CCN family member 2
    Protein Accession:
    P29279
    Secondary Accessions:
    • E1P578
    • Q6LCY0
    • Q96A79
    • Q96QX2
    • Q9UDL6

    Protein attributes for CCN2 Gene

    Size:
    349 amino acids
    Molecular mass:
    38091 Da
    Quaternary structure:
    • Monomer.

    Alternative splice isoforms for CCN2 Gene

    UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot:

neXtProt entry for CCN2 Gene

Post-translational modifications for CCN2 Gene

  • Glycosylation at Asn28, Thr193, and Asn225
  • Modification sites at PhosphoSitePlus

Other Protein References for CCN2 Gene

ENSEMBL proteins:
REFSEQ proteins:

Antibody Products

  • Abcam antibodies for CCN2
  • Boster Bio Antibodies for CCN2

No data available for DME Specific Peptides for CCN2 Gene

Domains & Families for CCN2 Gene

Gene Families for CCN2 Gene

HGNC:
Human Protein Atlas (HPA):
  • Cancer-related genes
  • Plasma proteins
  • Predicted secreted proteins

Protein Domains for CCN2 Gene

InterPro:
Blocks:
  • Thrombospondin, type I
  • von Willebrand factor, type C
  • Insulin-like growth factor-binding protein, IGFBP
  • Cystine knot, C-terminal
  • Cystine knot domain
ProtoNet:

Suggested Antigen Peptide Sequences for CCN2 Gene

GenScript: Design optimal peptide antigens:
  • Insulin-like growth factor-binding protein 8 (CTGF_HUMAN)
  • cDNA FLJ77666, highly similar to Homo sapiens connective tissue growth factor (CTGF), mRNA (Q5M8T4_HUMAN)
  • CTGF protein (Q6FHL8_HUMAN)

Graphical View of Domain Structure for InterPro Entry

P29279

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot:

CCN2_HUMAN :
  • Belongs to the CCN family.
Family:
  • Belongs to the CCN family.
genes like me logo Genes that share domains with CCN2: view

Function for CCN2 Gene

Molecular function for CCN2 Gene

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Function:
Major connective tissue mitoattractant secreted by vascular endothelial cells. Promotes proliferation and differentiation of chondrocytes. Mediates heparin- and divalent cation-dependent cell adhesion in many cell types including fibroblasts, myofibroblasts, endothelial and epithelial cells. Enhances fibroblast growth factor-induced DNA synthesis.

Phenotypes From GWAS Catalog for CCN2 Gene

Gene Ontology (GO) - Molecular Function for CCN2 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0001968 fibronectin binding IEA --
GO:0005178 integrin binding IEA,IBA 21873635
GO:0005515 protein binding IPI 16457822
GO:0005520 insulin-like growth factor binding TAS,IEA --
GO:0008022 protein C-terminus binding IPI 9927660
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with CCN2: view
genes like me logo Genes that share phenotypes with CCN2: view

Human Phenotype Ontology for CCN2 Gene

HPO Id HPO Name Alternative Ids Definition Synonyms

Animal Models for CCN2 Gene

MGI Knock Outs for CCN2:

CRISPR Products

Inhibitory RNA Products

  • Search GeneCopoeia for shRNA, lentivirus and/or AAV clone products for CCN2

No data available for Enzyme Numbers (IUBMB) , Transcription Factor Targets and HOMER Transcription for CCN2 Gene

Localization for CCN2 Gene

Subcellular locations from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for CCN2 Gene

Secreted, extracellular space, extracellular matrix. Secreted.

Subcellular locations from

COMPARTMENTS
Extracellular space Cytosol Plasma membrane Cytoskeleton Lysosome Endosome Peroxisome ER Golgi Apparatus Nucleus Mitochondrion 0 1 2 3 4 5 Confidence
COMPARTMENTS Subcellular localization image for CCN2 gene
Compartment Confidence
plasma membrane 5
extracellular 5
golgi apparatus 4
cytoskeleton 3
nucleus 3
cytosol 3
mitochondrion 2
peroxisome 2
endoplasmic reticulum 2
endosome 2
lysosome 2

Subcellular locations from the

Human Protein Atlas (HPA)
  • Golgi apparatus (2)
  • Vesicles (2)
See all subcellular structures

Gene Ontology (GO) - Cellular Components for CCN2 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0005576 extracellular region TAS --
GO:0005615 extracellular space IEA --
GO:0005801 cis-Golgi network IEA --
GO:0005829 cytosol IEA --
GO:0005886 plasma membrane TAS 10809757
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with CCN2: view

Pathways & Interactions for CCN2 Gene

PathCards logo

SuperPathways for CCN2 Gene

SuperPathway Contained pathways
1 Apoptotic Pathways in Synovial Fibroblasts
.85
.85
.84
.84
.74
.72
.66
.65
.64
.62
.61
.60
.57
.57
2 GPCR Pathway
.73
.73
.62
.59
.58
.58
.55
3 ERK Signaling
.61
.61
.58
.51
.49
4 Nanog in Mammalian ESC Pluripotency
.62
.62
.59
.48
5 CREB Pathway
.68
.68
.63
.50
genes like me logo Genes that share pathways with CCN2: view

Pathways by source for CCN2 Gene

54 Qiagen pathways for CCN2 Gene
  • 14-3-3 Induced Intracellular Signaling
  • Actin-Based Motility by Rho Family GTPases
  • Activation of cAMP-Dependent PKA
  • Activation of PKA through GPCR
  • Activation of PKC through GPCR
2 Cell Signaling Technology pathways for CCN2 Gene

SIGNOR curated interactions for CCN2 Gene

Activates:
Is activated by:
Is inactivated by:

Gene Ontology (GO) - Biological Process for CCN2 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0001502 cartilage condensation IEA --
GO:0001503 ossification IEA --
GO:0001525 angiogenesis IEA --
GO:0001894 tissue homeostasis IEA --
GO:0001934 positive regulation of protein phosphorylation IEA --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with CCN2: view

Drugs & Compounds for CCN2 Gene

(40) Drugs for CCN2 Gene - From: DGIdb, HMDB, and Novoseek

Name Status Disease Links Group Role Mechanism of Action Clinical Trials
Aldosterone Experimental, Investigational Pharma Agonist 0
FG-3019 Pharma inhibitor 0

(34) Additional Compounds for CCN2 Gene - From: Novoseek

Name Synonyms Role CAS Number PubChem IDs PubMed IDs
genes like me logo Genes that share compounds with CCN2: view

Transcripts for CCN2 Gene

mRNA/cDNA for CCN2 Gene

1 REFSEQ mRNAs :
16 NCBI additional mRNA sequence :
1 Ensembl transcripts including schematic representations, and UCSC links to gene/alias where relevant :

CRISPR Products

Inhibitory RNA Products

  • Search GeneCopoeia for shRNA, lentivirus and/or AAV clone products for CCN2

Alternative Splicing Database (ASD) splice patterns (SP) for CCN2 Gene

No ASD Table

Relevant External Links for CCN2 Gene

GeneLoc Exon Structure for
CCN2

Expression for CCN2 Gene

mRNA expression in embryonic tissues and stem cells from LifeMap Discovery

Transcriptomic regulation report from SPP (The Signaling Pathways Project) for CCN2

SOURCE GeneReport for Unigene cluster for CCN2 Gene:

Hs.410037

mRNA Expression by UniProt/SwissProt for CCN2 Gene:

P29279-CCN2_HUMAN
Tissue specificity: Expressed in bone marrow and thymic cells. Also expressed one of two Wilms tumors tested.

Evidence on tissue expression from TISSUES for CCN2 Gene

  • Heart(4.8)
  • Liver(4.7)
  • Kidney(4.7)
  • Nervous system(4.7)
  • Bone(4.6)
  • Skin(4.5)
  • Lung(4.3)
  • Eye(4.2)
  • Pancreas(4.1)
  • Intestine(4.1)
  • Muscle(3.8)
  • Stomach(3.8)
  • Spleen(3.5)
  • Blood(3.3)
  • Thyroid gland(3.2)
  • Lymph node(3)
  • Gall bladder(2.9)
  • Adrenal gland(2.8)
  • Bone marrow(2.5)
  • Urine(2.2)

Phenotype-based relationships between genes and organs from Gene ORGANizer for CCN2 Gene

Germ Layers:
  • ectoderm
  • endoderm
  • mesoderm
Systems:
  • cardiovascular
  • digestive
  • immune
  • integumentary
  • nervous
  • respiratory
  • skeletal muscle
  • skeleton
Regions:
Head and neck:
  • brain
  • head
  • jaw
  • mandible
  • maxilla
  • mouth
  • neck
  • salivary gland
  • skull
  • tongue
  • tooth
Thorax:
  • chest wall
  • clavicle
  • esophagus
  • lung
  • rib
  • rib cage
  • scapula
  • sternum
Abdomen:
  • intestine
  • large intestine
  • small intestine
  • stomach
Pelvis:
  • pelvis
Limb:
  • ankle
  • arm
  • digit
  • elbow
  • femur
  • fibula
  • finger
  • foot
  • forearm
  • hand
  • hip
  • humerus
  • knee
  • lower limb
  • radius
  • shin
  • shoulder
  • thigh
  • tibia
  • toe
  • ulna
  • upper limb
  • wrist
General:
  • blood
  • blood vessel
  • skin
  • spinal column
  • vertebrae
  • white blood cell
genes like me logo Genes that share expression patterns with CCN2: view

Primer Products

No data available for mRNA expression in normal human tissues , mRNA differential expression in normal tissues , Protein differential expression in normal tissues , Protein expression and Protein tissue co-expression partners for CCN2 Gene

Orthologs for CCN2 Gene

This gene was present in the common ancestor of chordates.

Orthologs for CCN2 Gene

Organism Taxonomy Gene Similarity Type Details
Chimpanzee
(Pan troglodytes)
Mammalia CTGF 30 31
  • 99.33 (n)
OneToOne
Dog
(Canis familiaris)
Mammalia CTGF 31
  • 93 (a)
OneToOne
LOC476202 30
  • 91.4 (n)
Cow
(Bos Taurus)
Mammalia CTGF 30 31
  • 89.37 (n)
OneToOne
Rat
(Rattus norvegicus)
Mammalia Ctgf 30
  • 88.86 (n)
Mouse
(Mus musculus)
Mammalia Ctgf 30 31
  • 88.6 (n)
OneToOne
Ccn2 17
Oppossum
(Monodelphis domestica)
Mammalia CTGF 31
  • 88 (a)
OneToOne
Platypus
(Ornithorhynchus anatinus)
Mammalia CTGF 31
  • 85 (a)
OneToOne
Chicken
(Gallus gallus)
Aves CTGF 30 31
  • 83.82 (n)
OneToOne
Lizard
(Anolis carolinensis)
Reptilia CTGF 31
  • 88 (a)
OneToOne
Tropical Clawed Frog
(Silurana tropicalis)
Amphibia ctgf 30
  • 75.02 (n)
Str.15550 30
African clawed frog
(Xenopus laevis)
Amphibia LOC398003 30
Zebrafish
(Danio rerio)
Actinopterygii ctgfa 30 31
  • 73.29 (n)
OneToOne
hmzeh1559 30
Rainbow Trout
(Oncorhynchus mykiss)
Actinopterygii Omy.13898 30
Sea Squirt
(Ciona savignyi)
Ascidiacea -- 31
  • 45 (a)
ManyToMany
-- 31
  • 44 (a)
ManyToMany
Species where no ortholog for CCN2 was found in the sources mined by GeneCards:
  • A. gosspyii yeast (Eremothecium gossypii)
  • Actinobacteria (Mycobacterium tuberculosis)
  • African malaria mosquito (Anopheles gambiae)
  • Alicante grape (Vitis vinifera)
  • Alpha proteobacteria (Wolbachia pipientis)
  • Amoeba (Dictyostelium discoideum)
  • Archea (Pyrococcus horikoshii)
  • Baker's yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae)
  • Barley (Hordeum vulgare)
  • Beta proteobacteria (Neisseria meningitidis)
  • Bread mold (Neurospora crassa)
  • Chromalveolata (Phytophthora infestans)
  • Common water flea (Daphnia pulex)
  • Corn (Zea mays)
  • E. coli (Escherichia coli)
  • Filamentous fungi (Aspergillus nidulans)
  • Firmicute Bacteria (Streptococcus pneumoniae)
  • Fission Yeast (Schizosaccharomyces pombe)
  • Fruit Fly (Drosophila melanogaster)
  • Green Algae (Chlamydomonas reinhardtii)
  • Honey Bee (Apis mellifera)
  • K. Lactis Yeast (Kluyveromyces lactis)
  • Loblloly Pine (Pinus taeda)
  • Malaria Parasite (Plasmodium falciparum)
  • Medicago Trunc (Medicago Truncatula)
  • Moss (Physcomitrella patens)
  • Orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus)
  • Pig (Sus scrofa)
  • Rice (Oryza sativa)
  • Rice Blast Fungus (Magnaporthe grisea)
  • Schistosome Parasite (Schistosoma mansoni)
  • Sea Anemone (Nematostella vectensis)
  • Sea Vase (Ciona intestinalis)
  • Sea Urchin (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus)
  • Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor)
  • Soybean (Glycine max)
  • Stem Rust Fungus (Puccinia graminis)
  • Sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum)
  • Thale Cress (Arabidopsis thaliana)
  • Tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum)
  • Toxoplasmosis (Toxoplasma gondii)
  • Trichoplax (Trichoplax adhaerens)
  • Wheat (Triticum aestivum)
  • Worm (Caenorhabditis elegans)

Evolution for CCN2 Gene

ENSEMBL:
Gene Tree for CCN2 (if available)
TreeFam:
Gene Tree for CCN2 (if available)
Aminode:
Evolutionary constrained regions (ECRs) for CCN2: view image

Paralogs for CCN2 Gene

Paralogs for CCN2 Gene

genes like me logo Genes that share paralogs with CCN2: view

Variants for CCN2 Gene

Sequence variations, with clinical significance, from ClinVar and Humsavar, with links to dbSNP for CCN2 Gene

SNP ID Clinical significance and condition Chr 06 pos Variation AA Info Type
727929 Likely Benign: not provided 131,950,057(-) C/T MISSENSE_VARIANT
733256 Likely Benign: not provided 131,949,399(-) G/A SYNONYMOUS_VARIANT
741982 Likely Benign: not provided 131,950,529(-) G/A MISSENSE_VARIANT
756064 Likely Benign: not provided 131,950,012(-) T/A SYNONYMOUS_VARIANT
770730 Benign: not provided 131,950,549(-) G/A INTRON_VARIANT

Additional dbSNP identifiers (rs#s) for CCN2 Gene

Structural Variations from Database of Genomic Variants (DGV) for CCN2 Gene

Variant ID Type Subtype PubMed ID
nsv7968 CNV loss 18304495

Variation tolerance for CCN2 Gene

Residual Variation Intolerance Score: 45.4% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)
Gene Damage Index Score: 0.99; 20.46% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)

Additional Variant Information for CCN2 Gene

SNPedia medical, phenotypic, and genealogical associations of SNPs for
CCN2

No data available for Polymorphic Variants from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for CCN2 Gene

Disorders for CCN2 Gene

MalaCards: The human disease database

(74) MalaCards diseases for CCN2 Gene - From: Orphanet, DISEASES, Novoseek, and GeneCards

Disorder Aliases PubMed IDs
renal fibrosis
systemic scleroderma
  • scleroderma, familial progressive
limited scleroderma
  • crest syndrome
diffuse cutaneous systemic sclerosis
  • diffuse scleroderma
gingival overgrowth
  • gingival enlargement
- elite association - COSMIC cancer census association via MalaCards
Search CCN2 in MalaCards View complete list of genes associated with diseases
genes like me logo Genes that share disorders with CCN2: view

No data available for UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot and Genatlas for CCN2 Gene

Publications for CCN2 Gene

  1. Aldosterone induces CTGF in mesangial cells by activation of the glucocorticoid receptor. (PMID: 17602195) Gauer S … Goppelt-Struebe M (Nephrology, dialysis, transplantation : official publication of the European Dialysis and Transplant Association - European Renal Association 2007) 3 23 26
  2. The heparin-binding 10 kDa fragment of connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) containing module 4 alone stimulates cell adhesion. (PMID: 12553878) Ball DK … Brigstock DR (The Journal of endocrinology 2003) 3 4 23
  3. Connective tissue growth factor: a cysteine-rich mitogen secreted by human vascular endothelial cells is related to the SRC-induced immediate early gene product CEF-10. (PMID: 1654338) Bradham DM … Grotendorst GR (The Journal of cell biology 1991) 2 3 4
  4. Involvement of CYR61 and CTGF in the fascin-mediated proliferation and invasiveness of esophageal squamous cell carcinomas cells. (PMID: 20056838) Xie JJ … Li EM (The American journal of pathology 2010) 3 23
  5. Renal proximal tubular dysfunction is a major determinant of urinary connective tissue growth factor excretion. (PMID: 20237235) Gerritsen KG … Goldschmeding R (American journal of physiology. Renal physiology 2010) 3 23

Products for CCN2 Gene

  • Addgene plasmids for CCN2

Sources for CCN2 Gene