The protein encoded by this gene is a mitogen that is secreted by vascular endothelial cells. The encoded protein plays a role in chondrocyte proliferation and differentiation, cell adhesion in many cell types, and is related to platelet-derived growth factor. Certain polymorphisms in this gene have been linked with a higher incidence of systemic sclerosis. [provided by RefSeq,... See more...

Aliases for CCN2 Gene

Aliases for CCN2 Gene

  • Cellular Communication Network Factor 2 2 3 4 5
  • Connective Tissue Growth Factor 2 3 4
  • Hypertrophic Chondrocyte-Specific Protein 24 3 4
  • Insulin-Like Growth Factor-Binding Protein 8 3 4
  • IGF-Binding Protein 8 3 4
  • CCN Family Member 2 3 4
  • IGFBP-8 3 4
  • IGFBP8 3 4
  • HCS24 3 4
  • IBP-8 3 4
  • CTGF 3 4
  • NOV2 3

External Ids for CCN2 Gene

Previous HGNC Symbols for CCN2 Gene

  • CTGF

Summaries for CCN2 Gene

Entrez Gene Summary for CCN2 Gene

  • The protein encoded by this gene is a mitogen that is secreted by vascular endothelial cells. The encoded protein plays a role in chondrocyte proliferation and differentiation, cell adhesion in many cell types, and is related to platelet-derived growth factor. Certain polymorphisms in this gene have been linked with a higher incidence of systemic sclerosis. [provided by RefSeq, Nov 2009]

GeneCards Summary for CCN2 Gene

CCN2 (Cellular Communication Network Factor 2) is a Protein Coding gene. Diseases associated with CCN2 include Limited Scleroderma and Systemic Scleroderma. Among its related pathways are Regulation of lipid metabolism by Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPARalpha) and p70S6K Signaling. An important paralog of this gene is CCN3.

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Summary for CCN2 Gene

  • Major connective tissue mitoattractant secreted by vascular endothelial cells. Promotes proliferation and differentiation of chondrocytes. Mediates heparin- and divalent cation-dependent cell adhesion in many cell types including fibroblasts, myofibroblasts, endothelial and epithelial cells. Enhances fibroblast growth factor-induced DNA synthesis.

Gene Wiki entry for CCN2 Gene

Additional gene information for CCN2 Gene

No data available for CIViC Summary , Tocris Summary , PharmGKB "VIP" Summary , Rfam classification and piRNA Summary for CCN2 Gene

Genomics for CCN2 Gene

GeneHancer (GH) Regulatory Elements for CCN2 Gene

Promoters and enhancers for CCN2 Gene
GeneHancer (GH) Identifier GH Type GH
Score
GH Sources Gene Association Score Total Score TSS distance (kb) Number of Genes Away Size (kb) Transcription Factor
Binding Sites
Gene Targets
GH06J131946 Promoter/Enhancer 2.5 VISTA EPDnew Ensembl ENCODE CraniofacialAtlas dbSUPER 750.6 +0.3 310 10.9 CTCF MLX RBPJ POLR2A NR2F1 NR2F6 CREB1 MIXL1 ZNF362 NFYC ENSG00000227220 CCN2 MED23 SNORA33 LINC01013 lnc-ENPP1-5
GH06J132812 Promoter/Enhancer 2.5 EPDnew FANTOM5 Ensembl ENCODE CraniofacialAtlas 10.2 -863.5 -863498 5.5 E2F8 ZNF785 ZBTB40 SP1 LCORL ZBTB6 MLX FOXA1 RBPJ POLR2A RPS12 SLC18B1 SNORD100 SNORD101 lnc-SLC18B1-1 piR-33748 piR-58029-006 SNORA33 LOC100421775 CCN2
GH06J131976 Enhancer 1.1 Ensembl ENCODE 12 -25.6 -25557 0.7 FOXA1 MLX RBPJ NR2F1 NR2F6 MIXL1 NFYC RERE ELF3 SP1 CCN2 ENSG00000227220 LINC01013 piR-30853-065
GH06J132146 Enhancer 0.9 FANTOM5 Ensembl ENCODE dbSUPER 3.8 -196.4 -196402 2 ATF7 ATF2 CCN2 TAAR2 lnc-MOXD1-1 LINC01013 lnc-ENPP1-7
GH06J131988 Enhancer 0.2 Ensembl 12.4 -38.2 -38223 1.6 ENSG00000227220 CCN2 LINC01013 piR-30853-065
- Elite GeneHancer and/or Elite GeneHancer-gene association Download GeneHancer data from 2017 publication | Request up-to-date GeneHancer data (full dataset)

GeneHancers around CCN2 on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Genomic Locations for CCN2 Gene

Genomic Locations for CCN2 Gene
chr6:131,948,176-131,951,378
(GRCh38/hg38)
Size:
3,203 bases
Orientation:
Minus strand
chr6:132,269,316-132,272,518
(GRCh37/hg19)
Size:
3,203 bases
Orientation:
Minus strand

Genomic View for CCN2 Gene

Genes around CCN2 on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Cytogenetic band:
CCN2 Gene in genomic location: bands according to Ensembl, locations according to GeneLoc (and/or Entrez Gene and/or Ensembl if different)
Genomic Location for CCN2 Gene
GeneLoc Logo Genomic Neighborhood Exon StructureGene Density

RefSeq DNA sequence for CCN2 Gene

Proteins for CCN2 Gene

  • Protein details for CCN2 Gene (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)

    Protein Symbol:
    P29279-CCN2_HUMAN
    Recommended name:
    CCN family member 2
    Protein Accession:
    P29279
    Secondary Accessions:
    • E1P578
    • Q6LCY0
    • Q96A79
    • Q96QX2
    • Q9UDL6

    Protein attributes for CCN2 Gene

    Size:
    349 amino acids
    Molecular mass:
    38091 Da
    Quaternary structure:
    • Monomer.

    Alternative splice isoforms for CCN2 Gene

    UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot:

neXtProt entry for CCN2 Gene

Post-translational modifications for CCN2 Gene

  • Glycosylation at Asn28, Thr193, and Asn225
  • Modification sites at PhosphoSitePlus

Other Protein References for CCN2 Gene

ENSEMBL proteins:
REFSEQ proteins:

Antibody Products

  • Abcam antibodies for CCN2
  • Boster Bio Antibodies for CCN2

No data available for DME Specific Peptides for CCN2 Gene

Domains & Families for CCN2 Gene

Gene Families for CCN2 Gene

HGNC:
Human Protein Atlas (HPA):
  • Cancer-related genes
  • Plasma proteins
  • Predicted secreted proteins

Suggested Antigen Peptide Sequences for CCN2 Gene

GenScript: Design optimal peptide antigens:
  • Insulin-like growth factor-binding protein 8 (CTGF_HUMAN)
  • cDNA FLJ77666, highly similar to Homo sapiens connective tissue growth factor (CTGF), mRNA (Q5M8T4_HUMAN)
  • CTGF protein (Q6FHL8_HUMAN)

Graphical View of Domain Structure for InterPro Entry

P29279

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot:

CCN2_HUMAN :
  • Belongs to the CCN family.
Family:
  • Belongs to the CCN family.
genes like me logo Genes that share domains with CCN2: view

Function for CCN2 Gene

Molecular function for CCN2 Gene

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Function:
Major connective tissue mitoattractant secreted by vascular endothelial cells. Promotes proliferation and differentiation of chondrocytes. Mediates heparin- and divalent cation-dependent cell adhesion in many cell types including fibroblasts, myofibroblasts, endothelial and epithelial cells. Enhances fibroblast growth factor-induced DNA synthesis.

Phenotypes From GWAS Catalog for CCN2 Gene

Gene Ontology (GO) - Molecular Function for CCN2 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0001968 fibronectin binding IEA --
GO:0005178 integrin binding IEA,IBA 21873635
GO:0005515 protein binding IPI 16457822
GO:0005520 insulin-like growth factor binding TAS,IEA --
GO:0008022 protein C-terminus binding IPI 9927660
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with CCN2: view
genes like me logo Genes that share phenotypes with CCN2: view

Human Phenotype Ontology for CCN2 Gene

HPO Id HPO Name Alternative Ids Definition Synonyms

Animal Models for CCN2 Gene

MGI Knock Outs for CCN2:

Animal Model Products

CRISPR Products

Clone Products

  • Addgene plasmids for CCN2

Cell Line Products

No data available for Enzyme Numbers (IUBMB) , Transcription Factor Targets and HOMER Transcription for CCN2 Gene

Localization for CCN2 Gene

Subcellular locations from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for CCN2 Gene

Secreted, extracellular space, extracellular matrix. Secreted.

Subcellular locations from

COMPARTMENTS
Extracellular space Cytosol Plasma membrane Cytoskeleton Lysosome Endosome Peroxisome ER Golgi Apparatus Nucleus Mitochondrion 0 1 2 3 4 5 Confidence
COMPARTMENTS Subcellular localization image for CCN2 gene
Compartment Confidence
extracellular 5
plasma membrane 4
cytosol 3
golgi apparatus 3
cytoskeleton 2
nucleus 2
mitochondrion 1
peroxisome 1
endoplasmic reticulum 1

Gene Ontology (GO) - Cellular Components for CCN2 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0005576 extracellular region TAS --
GO:0005615 extracellular space IEA --
GO:0005801 cis-Golgi network IEA --
GO:0005829 cytosol IEA --
GO:0005886 plasma membrane TAS 10809757
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with CCN2: view

No data available for Subcellular locations from the Human Protein Atlas (HPA) for CCN2 Gene

Pathways & Interactions for CCN2 Gene

PathCards logo

SuperPathways for CCN2 Gene

SuperPathway Contained pathways
1 Apoptotic Pathways in Synovial Fibroblasts
.85
.85
.84
.84
.74
.72
.66
.65
.64
.62
.61
.60
.57
.57
2 GPCR Pathway
.73
.73
.62
.59
.58
.58
.55
3 ERK Signaling
.61
.61
.58
.51
.49
4 Nanog in Mammalian ESC Pluripotency
.61
.61
.59
.48
5 CREB Pathway
.68
.68
.63
.50
genes like me logo Genes that share pathways with CCN2: view

Pathways by source for CCN2 Gene

54 Qiagen pathways for CCN2 Gene
  • 14-3-3 Induced Intracellular Signaling
  • Actin-Based Motility by Rho Family GTPases
  • Activation of cAMP-Dependent PKA
  • Activation of PKA through GPCR
  • Activation of PKC through GPCR
2 Cell Signaling Technology pathways for CCN2 Gene

SIGNOR curated interactions for CCN2 Gene

Activates:
Is activated by:
Is inactivated by:

Gene Ontology (GO) - Biological Process for CCN2 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0001502 cartilage condensation IEA --
GO:0001503 ossification IEA --
GO:0001525 angiogenesis IEA --
GO:0001894 tissue homeostasis IEA --
GO:0001934 positive regulation of protein phosphorylation IEA --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with CCN2: view

Drugs & Compounds for CCN2 Gene

(40) Drugs for CCN2 Gene - From: DGIdb, HMDB, and Novoseek

Name Status Disease Links Group Role Mechanism of Action Clinical Trials
Aldosterone Experimental, Investigational Pharma Agonist 0
FG-3019 Pharma inhibitor 0

(34) Additional Compounds for CCN2 Gene - From: Novoseek

Name Synonyms Role CAS Number PubChem IDs PubMed IDs
genes like me logo Genes that share compounds with CCN2: view

Transcripts for CCN2 Gene

mRNA/cDNA for CCN2 Gene

(1) REFSEQ mRNAs :
(16) Additional mRNA sequences :
(962) Selected AceView cDNA sequences:
(1) Ensembl transcripts including schematic representations, and UCSC links to gene/alias where relevant :

CRISPR Products

Clone Products

  • Addgene plasmids for CCN2

Alternative Splicing Database (ASD) splice patterns (SP) for CCN2 Gene

No ASD Table

Relevant External Links for CCN2 Gene

GeneLoc Exon Structure for
CCN2
ECgene alternative splicing isoforms for
CCN2

Expression for CCN2 Gene

mRNA expression in embryonic tissues and stem cells from LifeMap Discovery

NURSA nuclear receptor signaling pathways regulating expression of CCN2 Gene:

CCN2

SOURCE GeneReport for Unigene cluster for CCN2 Gene:

Hs.410037

mRNA Expression by UniProt/SwissProt for CCN2 Gene:

P29279-CCN2_HUMAN
Tissue specificity: Expressed in bone marrow and thymic cells. Also expressed one of two Wilms tumors tested.

Evidence on tissue expression from TISSUES for CCN2 Gene

  • Heart(4.7)
  • Kidney(4.7)
  • Liver(4.6)
  • Bone(4.5)
  • Nervous system(4.5)
  • Skin(4.4)
  • Lung(4.2)
  • Eye(4)
  • Pancreas(3.8)
  • Intestine(3.7)
  • Muscle(3.6)
  • Stomach(3.5)
  • Blood(2.7)
  • Spleen(2.6)
  • Gall bladder(2.4)
  • Thyroid gland(2.2)
  • Lymph node(2.1)

Phenotype-based relationships between genes and organs from Gene ORGANizer for CCN2 Gene

Germ Layers:
  • ectoderm
  • endoderm
  • mesoderm
Systems:
  • cardiovascular
  • digestive
  • immune
  • integumentary
  • nervous
  • respiratory
  • skeletal muscle
  • skeleton
Regions:
Head and neck:
  • brain
  • head
  • jaw
  • mandible
  • maxilla
  • mouth
  • neck
  • salivary gland
  • skull
  • tongue
  • tooth
Thorax:
  • chest wall
  • clavicle
  • esophagus
  • lung
  • rib
  • rib cage
  • scapula
  • sternum
Abdomen:
  • intestine
  • large intestine
  • small intestine
  • stomach
Pelvis:
  • pelvis
Limb:
  • ankle
  • arm
  • digit
  • elbow
  • femur
  • fibula
  • finger
  • foot
  • forearm
  • hand
  • hip
  • humerus
  • knee
  • lower limb
  • radius
  • shin
  • shoulder
  • thigh
  • tibia
  • toe
  • ulna
  • upper limb
  • wrist
General:
  • blood
  • blood vessel
  • skin
  • spinal column
  • vertebrae
  • white blood cell
genes like me logo Genes that share expression patterns with CCN2: view

No data available for mRNA expression in normal human tissues , mRNA differential expression in normal tissues , Protein differential expression in normal tissues , Protein expression and Protein tissue co-expression partners for CCN2 Gene

Orthologs for CCN2 Gene

This gene was present in the common ancestor of chordates.

Orthologs for CCN2 Gene

Organism Taxonomy Gene Similarity Type Details
chimpanzee
(Pan troglodytes)
Mammalia CTGF 33 32
  • 99.33 (n)
OneToOne
dog
(Canis familiaris)
Mammalia CTGF 33
  • 93 (a)
OneToOne
LOC476202 32
  • 91.4 (n)
cow
(Bos Taurus)
Mammalia CTGF 33 32
  • 89.37 (n)
OneToOne
rat
(Rattus norvegicus)
Mammalia Ctgf 32
  • 88.86 (n)
mouse
(Mus musculus)
Mammalia Ctgf 33 32
  • 88.6 (n)
OneToOne
Ccn2 17
oppossum
(Monodelphis domestica)
Mammalia CTGF 33
  • 88 (a)
OneToOne
platypus
(Ornithorhynchus anatinus)
Mammalia CTGF 33
  • 85 (a)
OneToOne
chicken
(Gallus gallus)
Aves CTGF 33 32
  • 83.82 (n)
OneToOne
lizard
(Anolis carolinensis)
Reptilia CTGF 33
  • 88 (a)
OneToOne
tropical clawed frog
(Silurana tropicalis)
Amphibia ctgf 32
  • 75.02 (n)
Str.15550 32
African clawed frog
(Xenopus laevis)
Amphibia LOC398003 32
zebrafish
(Danio rerio)
Actinopterygii ctgfa 33 32
  • 73.29 (n)
OneToOne
hmzeh1559 32
rainbow trout
(Oncorhynchus mykiss)
Actinopterygii Omy.13898 32
sea squirt
(Ciona savignyi)
Ascidiacea -- 33
  • 45 (a)
ManyToMany
-- 33
  • 44 (a)
ManyToMany
Species where no ortholog for CCN2 was found in the sources mined by GeneCards:
  • A. gosspyii yeast (Ashbya gossypii)
  • Actinobacteria (Mycobacterium tuberculosis)
  • African malaria mosquito (Anopheles gambiae)
  • Alicante grape (Vitis vinifera)
  • alpha proteobacteria (Wolbachia pipientis)
  • amoeba (Dictyostelium discoideum)
  • Archea (Pyrococcus horikoshii)
  • baker's yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae)
  • barley (Hordeum vulgare)
  • beta proteobacteria (Neisseria meningitidis)
  • bread mold (Neurospora crassa)
  • Chromalveolata (Phytophthora infestans)
  • common water flea (Daphnia pulex)
  • corn (Zea mays)
  • E. coli (Escherichia coli)
  • filamentous fungi (Aspergillus nidulans)
  • Firmicute bacteria (Streptococcus pneumoniae)
  • fission yeast (Schizosaccharomyces pombe)
  • fruit fly (Drosophila melanogaster)
  • green algae (Chlamydomonas reinhardtii)
  • honey bee (Apis mellifera)
  • K. lactis yeast (Kluyveromyces lactis)
  • loblloly pine (Pinus taeda)
  • malaria parasite (Plasmodium falciparum)
  • medicago trunc (Medicago Truncatula)
  • moss (Physcomitrella patens)
  • orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus)
  • pig (Sus scrofa)
  • rice (Oryza sativa)
  • rice blast fungus (Magnaporthe grisea)
  • schistosome parasite (Schistosoma mansoni)
  • sea anemone (Nematostella vectensis)
  • sea urchin (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus)
  • sorghum (Sorghum bicolor)
  • soybean (Glycine max)
  • stem rust fungus (Puccinia graminis)
  • sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum)
  • thale cress (Arabidopsis thaliana)
  • tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum)
  • toxoplasmosis (Toxoplasma gondii)
  • Trichoplax (Trichoplax adhaerens)
  • wheat (Triticum aestivum)
  • worm (Caenorhabditis elegans)

Evolution for CCN2 Gene

ENSEMBL:
Gene Tree for CCN2 (if available)
TreeFam:
Gene Tree for CCN2 (if available)
Aminode:
Evolutionary constrained regions (ECRs) for CCN2: view image

Paralogs for CCN2 Gene

Paralogs for CCN2 Gene

genes like me logo Genes that share paralogs with CCN2: view

Variants for CCN2 Gene

Sequence variations from dbSNP and Humsavar for CCN2 Gene

SNP ID Clin Chr 06 pos Variation AA Info Type
rs1000198671 -- 131,951,420(-) C/T upstream_transcript_variant
rs1000248948 -- 131,950,303(-) G/A coding_sequence_variant, missense_variant
rs1000250802 -- 131,951,821(-) C/A/G upstream_transcript_variant
rs1000584692 -- 131,951,347(-) C/T 5_prime_UTR_variant
rs1000734182 -- 131,950,891(-) G/A coding_sequence_variant, synonymous_variant

Structural Variations from Database of Genomic Variants (DGV) for CCN2 Gene

Variant ID Type Subtype PubMed ID
nsv7968 CNV loss 18304495

Variation tolerance for CCN2 Gene

Residual Variation Intolerance Score: 45.4% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)
Gene Damage Index Score: 0.99; 20.46% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)

Additional Variant Information for CCN2 Gene

SNPedia medical, phenotypic, and genealogical associations of SNPs for
CCN2

No data available for Polymorphic Variants from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for CCN2 Gene

Disorders for CCN2 Gene

MalaCards: The human disease database

(31) MalaCards diseases for CCN2 Gene - From: Orphanet, DISEASES, Novoseek, and GeneCards

Disorder Aliases PubMed IDs
limited scleroderma
  • crest syndrome
systemic scleroderma
  • scleroderma, familial progressive
diffuse cutaneous systemic sclerosis
  • diffuse scleroderma
renal fibrosis
pulmonary fibrosis
  • fibrosis of lung
- elite association - COSMIC cancer census association via MalaCards
Search CCN2 in MalaCards View complete list of genes associated with diseases

Additional Disease Information for CCN2

genes like me logo Genes that share disorders with CCN2: view

No data available for UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot and Genatlas for CCN2 Gene

Publications for CCN2 Gene

  1. Aldosterone induces CTGF in mesangial cells by activation of the glucocorticoid receptor. (PMID: 17602195) Gauer S … Goppelt-Struebe M (Nephrology, dialysis, transplantation : official publication of the European Dialysis and Transplant Association - European Renal Association 2007) 3 23 26 56
  2. The heparin-binding 10 kDa fragment of connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) containing module 4 alone stimulates cell adhesion. (PMID: 12553878) Ball DK … Brigstock DR (The Journal of endocrinology 2003) 3 4 23 56
  3. Connective tissue growth factor: a cysteine-rich mitogen secreted by human vascular endothelial cells is related to the SRC-induced immediate early gene product CEF-10. (PMID: 1654338) Bradham DM … Grotendorst GR (The Journal of cell biology 1991) 2 3 4 56
  4. Characterization of connective tissue growth factor expression in primary cultures of human tubular epithelial cells: modulation by hypoxia. (PMID: 20032117) Kroening S … Goppelt-Struebe M (American journal of physiology. Renal physiology 2010) 3 23 56
  5. FoxO proteins mediate hypoxic induction of connective tissue growth factor in endothelial cells. (PMID: 20018872) Samarin J … Goppelt-Struebe M (The Journal of biological chemistry 2010) 3 23 56

Products for CCN2 Gene

  • Addgene plasmids for CCN2

Sources for CCN2 Gene