Aliases for CASTOR2 Gene

Aliases for CASTOR2 Gene

  • Cytosolic Arginine Sensor For MTORC1 Subunit 2 2 3 4 5
  • Cellular Arginine Sensor For MTORC1 Protein 2 3 4
  • GATS Protein-Like 1 2 3
  • GATS Protein Like 2 2 3
  • GATS-Like Protein 2 3 4
  • GATSL1 3 4
  • GATSL2 3 4
  • Cytosolic Arginine Sensor For MTORC1 Subunit 1 3
  • GATS-Like Protein 1 3
  • CASTOR2 5

External Ids for CASTOR2 Gene

Previous HGNC Symbols for CASTOR2 Gene

  • GATSL1
  • GATSL2

Summaries for CASTOR2 Gene

GeneCards Summary for CASTOR2 Gene

CASTOR2 (Cytosolic Arginine Sensor For MTORC1 Subunit 2) is a Protein Coding gene. Diseases associated with CASTOR2 include Spinal Cord Glioma and Spinal Cancer. Among its related pathways are mTOR signaling pathway (KEGG). An important paralog of this gene is CASTOR1.

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Summary for CASTOR2 Gene

  • Functions as a negative regulator of the TORC1 signaling pathway through the GATOR complex. As part of homodimers or heterodimers with CASTOR1, directly binds and inhibits the GATOR subcomplex GATOR2 and thereby mTORC1. Does not directly bind arginine, but binding of arginine to CASTOR1 disrupts the interaction of CASTOR2-containing heterodimers with GATOR2 which can in turn activate mTORC1 and the TORC1 signaling pathway.

Additional gene information for CASTOR2 Gene

No data available for Entrez Gene Summary , CIViC Summary , Tocris Summary , Gene Wiki entry , PharmGKB "VIP" Summary , Rfam classification and piRNA Summary for CASTOR2 Gene

Genomics for CASTOR2 Gene

GeneHancer (GH) Regulatory Elements Pubs

Promoters and enhancers for CASTOR2 Gene
- Elite GeneHancer and/or Elite GeneHancer-gene association Download GeneHancer data from 2017 publication | Request up-to-date GeneHancer data (full dataset)

GeneHancers around CASTOR2 on the GeneHancer Hub at the UCSC Golden Path

Cistromic (ChIP-Seq) regulation report from SPP (The Signaling Pathways Project) for CASTOR2

Genomic Locations for CASTOR2 Gene

Genomic Locations for CASTOR2 Gene
chr7:74,964,693-75,031,531
(GRCh38/hg38)
Size:
66,839 bases
Orientation:
Plus strand
chr7:74,379,083-74,438,803
(GRCh37/hg19)
Size:
59,721 bases
Orientation:
Plus strand

Genomic View for CASTOR2 Gene

Genes around CASTOR2 on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Cytogenetic band:
CASTOR2 Gene in genomic location: bands according to Ensembl, locations according to GeneLoc (and/or Entrez Gene and/or Ensembl if different)
Genomic Location for CASTOR2 Gene
GeneLoc Logo Genomic Neighborhood Exon StructureGene Density

RefSeq DNA sequence for CASTOR2 Gene

Proteins for CASTOR2 Gene

  • Protein details for CASTOR2 Gene (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)

    Protein Symbol:
    A6NHX0-CAST2_HUMAN
    Recommended name:
    Cytosolic arginine sensor for mTORC1 subunit 2
    Protein Accession:
    A6NHX0
    Secondary Accessions:
    • A6NNH0
    • B9EJH9

    Protein attributes for CASTOR2 Gene

    Size:
    329 amino acids
    Molecular mass:
    36056 Da
    Quaternary structure:
    • Forms homodimers and heterodimers with CASTOR1 (PubMed:26972053). Interacts with the GATOR2 complex which is composed of MIOS, SEC13, SEH1L, WDR24 and WDR59; the interaction is not regulated by arginine (PubMed:26972053).

neXtProt entry for CASTOR2 Gene

Post-translational modifications for CASTOR2 Gene

  • Modification sites at PhosphoSitePlus
  • Modification sites at neXtProt

Other Protein References for CASTOR2 Gene

ENSEMBL proteins:
REFSEQ proteins:

No data available for DME Specific Peptides for CASTOR2 Gene

Domains & Families for CASTOR2 Gene

Gene Families for CASTOR2 Gene

Human Protein Atlas (HPA):
  • Predicted intracellular proteins

Protein Domains for CASTOR2 Gene

Suggested Antigen Peptide Sequences for CASTOR2 Gene

GenScript: Design optimal peptide antigens:
  • GATS-like protein 1 (GATL1_HUMAN)
  • GATS-like protein 2 (GATL2_HUMAN)

Graphical View of Domain Structure for InterPro Entry

A6NHX0

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot:

CAST2_HUMAN :
  • Belongs to the GATS family.
Family:
  • Belongs to the GATS family.
genes like me logo Genes that share domains with CASTOR2: view

Function for CASTOR2 Gene

Molecular function for CASTOR2 Gene

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Function:
Functions as a negative regulator of the TORC1 signaling pathway through the GATOR complex. As part of homodimers or heterodimers with CASTOR1, directly binds and inhibits the GATOR subcomplex GATOR2 and thereby mTORC1. Does not directly bind arginine, but binding of arginine to CASTOR1 disrupts the interaction of CASTOR2-containing heterodimers with GATOR2 which can in turn activate mTORC1 and the TORC1 signaling pathway.

Phenotypes From GWAS Catalog for CASTOR2 Gene

Gene Ontology (GO) - Molecular Function for CASTOR2 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0005515 protein binding IPI 26972053
GO:0034618 NOT arginine binding IDA 26972053
GO:0042802 identical protein binding IDA 26972053
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with CASTOR2: view

Phenotypes for CASTOR2 Gene

genes like me logo Genes that share phenotypes with CASTOR2: view

miRNA for CASTOR2 Gene

miRTarBase miRNAs that target CASTOR2

No data available for Enzyme Numbers (IUBMB) , Human Phenotype Ontology , Animal Models , Transcription Factor Targets and HOMER Transcription for CASTOR2 Gene

Localization for CASTOR2 Gene

Subcellular locations from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for CASTOR2 Gene

Cytoplasm, cytosol.

Subcellular locations from

COMPARTMENTS
Extracellular space Cytosol Plasma membrane Cytoskeleton Lysosome Endosome Peroxisome ER Golgi Apparatus Nucleus Mitochondrion 0 1 2 3 4 5 Confidence
COMPARTMENTS Subcellular localization image for CASTOR2 gene
Compartment Confidence
cytosol 5
endosome 1
lysosome 1

Gene Ontology (GO) - Cellular Components for CASTOR2 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0005737 cytoplasm IEA --
GO:0005829 cytosol IBA,IDA 26972053
GO:0061700 colocalizes_with GATOR2 complex IDA 26972053
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with CASTOR2: view

No data available for Subcellular locations from the Human Protein Atlas (HPA) for CASTOR2 Gene

Pathways & Interactions for CASTOR2 Gene

PathCards logo

SuperPathways for CASTOR2 Gene

SuperPathway Contained pathways
1 mTOR signaling pathway (KEGG)
genes like me logo Genes that share pathways with CASTOR2: view

Pathways by source for CASTOR2 Gene

1 KEGG pathway for CASTOR2 Gene

Gene Ontology (GO) - Biological Process for CASTOR2 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:1902531 regulation of intracellular signal transduction IBA 21873635
GO:1903577 cellular response to L-arginine IBA 21873635
GO:1904262 negative regulation of TORC1 signaling IBA,IMP 26972053
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with CASTOR2: view

No data available for SIGNOR curated interactions for CASTOR2 Gene

Drugs & Compounds for CASTOR2 Gene

No Compound Related Data Available

Transcripts for CASTOR2 Gene

mRNA/cDNA for CASTOR2 Gene

1 REFSEQ mRNAs :
11 NCBI additional mRNA sequence :
2 Ensembl transcripts including schematic representations, and UCSC links to gene/alias where relevant :

Alternative Splicing Database (ASD) splice patterns (SP) for CASTOR2 Gene

No ASD Table

Relevant External Links for CASTOR2 Gene

GeneLoc Exon Structure for
CASTOR2

Expression for CASTOR2 Gene

mRNA expression in embryonic tissues and stem cells from LifeMap Discovery

Transcriptomic regulation report from SPP (The Signaling Pathways Project) for CASTOR2

mRNA Expression by UniProt/SwissProt for CASTOR2 Gene:

A6NHX0-CAST2_HUMAN
Tissue specificity: Widely expressed.
genes like me logo Genes that share expression patterns with CASTOR2: view

Primer Products

No data available for mRNA expression in normal human tissues , mRNA differential expression in normal tissues , Protein differential expression in normal tissues , Protein expression , Protein tissue co-expression partners , Evidence on tissue expression from TISSUES and Phenotype-based relationships between genes and organs from Gene ORGANizer for CASTOR2 Gene

Orthologs for CASTOR2 Gene

This gene was present in the common ancestor of chordates.

Orthologs for CASTOR2 Gene

Organism Taxonomy Gene Similarity Type Details
Chimpanzee
(Pan troglodytes)
Mammalia GATSL2 30
  • 99.9 (n)
Cow
(Bos Taurus)
Mammalia GATSL2 30
  • 91.69 (n)
Mouse
(Mus musculus)
Mammalia Gatsl2 30
  • 88.86 (n)
Castor2 17
Dog
(Canis familiaris)
Mammalia GATSL2 30
  • 88.78 (n)
Rat
(Rattus norvegicus)
Mammalia Gatsl2 30
  • 87.84 (n)
Chicken
(Gallus gallus)
Aves GATSL2 30
  • 81.07 (n)
Tropical Clawed Frog
(Silurana tropicalis)
Amphibia gatsl1 30
  • 79.23 (n)
Zebrafish
(Danio rerio)
Actinopterygii gatsl2 30
  • 75.36 (n)
Species where no ortholog for CASTOR2 was found in the sources mined by GeneCards:
  • A. gosspyii yeast (Eremothecium gossypii)
  • Actinobacteria (Mycobacterium tuberculosis)
  • African clawed frog (Xenopus laevis)
  • African malaria mosquito (Anopheles gambiae)
  • Alicante grape (Vitis vinifera)
  • Alpha proteobacteria (Wolbachia pipientis)
  • Amoeba (Dictyostelium discoideum)
  • Archea (Pyrococcus horikoshii)
  • Baker's yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae)
  • Barley (Hordeum vulgare)
  • Beta proteobacteria (Neisseria meningitidis)
  • Bread mold (Neurospora crassa)
  • Chromalveolata (Phytophthora infestans)
  • Common water flea (Daphnia pulex)
  • Corn (Zea mays)
  • E. coli (Escherichia coli)
  • Filamentous fungi (Aspergillus nidulans)
  • Firmicute Bacteria (Streptococcus pneumoniae)
  • Fission Yeast (Schizosaccharomyces pombe)
  • Fruit Fly (Drosophila melanogaster)
  • Green Algae (Chlamydomonas reinhardtii)
  • Honey Bee (Apis mellifera)
  • K. Lactis Yeast (Kluyveromyces lactis)
  • Lizard (Anolis carolinensis)
  • Loblloly Pine (Pinus taeda)
  • Malaria Parasite (Plasmodium falciparum)
  • Medicago Trunc (Medicago Truncatula)
  • Moss (Physcomitrella patens)
  • Oppossum (Monodelphis domestica)
  • Orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus)
  • Pig (Sus scrofa)
  • Platypus (Ornithorhynchus anatinus)
  • Rainbow Trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)
  • Rice (Oryza sativa)
  • Rice Blast Fungus (Magnaporthe grisea)
  • Schistosome Parasite (Schistosoma mansoni)
  • Sea Anemone (Nematostella vectensis)
  • Sea Vase (Ciona intestinalis)
  • Sea Squirt (Ciona savignyi)
  • Sea Urchin (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus)
  • Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor)
  • Soybean (Glycine max)
  • Stem Rust Fungus (Puccinia graminis)
  • Sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum)
  • Thale Cress (Arabidopsis thaliana)
  • Tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum)
  • Toxoplasmosis (Toxoplasma gondii)
  • Trichoplax (Trichoplax adhaerens)
  • Wheat (Triticum aestivum)
  • Worm (Caenorhabditis elegans)

Evolution for CASTOR2 Gene

ENSEMBL:
Gene Tree for CASTOR2 (if available)
TreeFam:
Gene Tree for CASTOR2 (if available)
Aminode:
Evolutionary constrained regions (ECRs) for CASTOR2: view image

Paralogs for CASTOR2 Gene

Paralogs for CASTOR2 Gene

genes like me logo Genes that share paralogs with CASTOR2: view

Variants for CASTOR2 Gene

Additional dbSNP identifiers (rs#s) for CASTOR2 Gene

Structural Variations from Database of Genomic Variants (DGV) for CASTOR2 Gene

Variant ID Type Subtype PubMed ID
dgv11452n54 CNV loss 21841781
dgv3593n106 CNV deletion 24896259
esv1398337 CNV insertion 17803354
esv2658348 CNV deletion 23128226
nsv1032137 CNV gain 25217958
nsv1075033 CNV deletion 25765185
nsv1075972 CNV deletion 25765185
nsv1112935 CNV deletion 24896259
nsv1119128 CNV deletion 24896259
nsv1145144 CNV deletion 24896259
nsv7402 OTHER inversion 18451855
nsv8145 CNV gain 18304495
nsv950552 CNV deletion 24416366
nsv951355 CNV deletion 24416366
nsv970534 CNV duplication 23825009
nsv970537 CNV duplication 23825009
nsv970882 CNV duplication 23825009
nsv981529 CNV duplication 23825009
nsv981530 CNV duplication 23825009
nsv981533 CNV duplication 23825009
nsv981668 CNV duplication 23825009

Variation tolerance for CASTOR2 Gene

Gene Damage Index Score: 0.20; 4.51% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)

Additional Variant Information for CASTOR2 Gene

SNPedia medical, phenotypic, and genealogical associations of SNPs for
CASTOR2

No data available for Polymorphic Variants from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot and Sequence variations, with clinical significance, from ClinVar and Humsavar, with links to dbSNP for CASTOR2 Gene

Disorders for CASTOR2 Gene

MalaCards: The human disease database

(2) MalaCards diseases for CASTOR2 Gene - From: DISEASES

Disorder Aliases PubMed IDs
spinal cord glioma
  • glial neoplasm spinal cord
spinal cancer
  • spinal cord cancer
- elite association - COSMIC cancer census association via MalaCards
genes like me logo Genes that share disorders with CASTOR2: view

No data available for UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot and Genatlas for CASTOR2 Gene

Publications for CASTOR2 Gene

  1. The CASTOR Proteins Are Arginine Sensors for the mTORC1 Pathway. (PMID: 26972053) Chantranupong L … Sabatini DM (Cell 2016) 2 3 4
  2. The DNA sequence of human chromosome 7. (PMID: 12853948) Hillier LW … Wilson RK (Nature 2003) 3 4
  3. Architecture of the human interactome defines protein communities and disease networks. (PMID: 28514442) Huttlin EL … Harper JW (Nature 2017) 3
  4. The BioPlex Network: A Systematic Exploration of the Human Interactome. (PMID: 26186194) Huttlin EL … Gygi SP (Cell 2015) 3
  5. A human interactome in three quantitative dimensions organized by stoichiometries and abundances. (PMID: 26496610) Hein MY … Mann M (Cell 2015) 3

Products for CASTOR2 Gene

Sources for CASTOR2 Gene