Free for academic non-profit institutions. Other users need a Commercial license

Aliases for CARS Gene

Aliases for CARS Gene

  • Cysteinyl-TRNA Synthetase 2 3 4 5
  • Cysteine TRNA Ligase 1, Cytoplasmic 2 3
  • Cysteine--TRNA Ligase, Cytoplasmic 3 4
  • EC 4 56
  • Cysteine Translase 3
  • MGC:11246 3
  • EC 6.1.1 56
  • CARS1 3
  • CYSRS 3
  • CysRS 4

External Ids for CARS Gene

Previous GeneCards Identifiers for CARS Gene

  • GC11M003081
  • GC11M003272
  • GC11M002981
  • GC11M002986
  • GC11M002978
  • GC11M002810

Summaries for CARS Gene

Entrez Gene Summary for CARS Gene

  • This gene encodes a class 1 aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase, cysteinyl-tRNA synthetase. Each of the twenty aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases catalyzes the aminoacylation of a specific tRNA or tRNA isoaccepting family with the cognate amino acid. This gene is one of several located near the imprinted gene domain on chromosome 11p15.5, an important tumor-suppressor gene region. Alterations in this region have been associated with Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome, Wilms tumor, rhabdomyosarcoma, adrenocortical carcinoma, and lung, ovarian and breast cancers. Alternative splicing of this gene results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Aug 2010]

GeneCards Summary for CARS Gene

CARS (Cysteinyl-TRNA Synthetase) is a Protein Coding gene. Diseases associated with CARS include Inflammatory Myofibroblastic Tumor and Beckwith-Wiedemann Syndrome. Among its related pathways are tRNA Aminoacylation and Gene Expression. Gene Ontology (GO) annotations related to this gene include protein homodimerization activity and tRNA binding. An important paralog of this gene is CARS2.

Additional gene information for CARS Gene

No data available for CIViC summary , UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot , Tocris Summary , Gene Wiki entry , PharmGKB "VIP" Summary , fRNAdb sequence ontologies and piRNA Summary for CARS Gene

Genomics for CARS Gene

GeneHancer (GH) Regulatory Elements for CARS Gene

Promoters and enhancers for CARS Gene
GeneHancer (GH) Identifier GH Type GH
GH Sources Gene Association Score Total Score TSS distance (kb) Number of Genes Away Size (kb) Transcription Factor
Binding Sites
Gene Targets
GH11J003055 Promoter/Enhancer 2.1 EPDnew Ensembl ENCODE 606.3 +0.1 114 4.2 ZFX ELF3 MNT SIX5 NKRF MLLT1 CEBPG POLR2A GTF2F1 CSDE1 NAP1L4 CARS ENSG00000285644 NUP98 ENSG00000183562 GC11M003048 RNU1-91P
GH11J002986 Promoter/Enhancer 2.2 EPDnew Ensembl ENCODE dbSUPER 17.4 +67.3 67293 7 HDGF SP1 ZFX MNT NKRF POLR2A MLLT1 GTF2F1 CSDE1 FOS ENSG00000183562 NAP1L4 CARS SLC22A18 SNORA54 PHLDA2 GC11M002982
GH11J003000 Enhancer 1.4 FANTOM5 Ensembl ENCODE dbSUPER 12.5 +56.6 56586 2.1 SP1 ZBTB8A ZNF600 ZIC2 POLR2A ZNF341 ZBTB44 ZBTB20 ZBTB48 ZNF217 NAP1L4 CARS-AS1 CARS SNORA54 RNU1-91P ENSG00000224513 PHLDA2 SLC22A18 MRGPRG MRGPRG-AS1
GH11J002131 Promoter/Enhancer 2.4 EPDnew FANTOM5 Ensembl ENCODE dbSUPER 6.5 +915.5 915507 21.1 CTCF MNT POLR2A CEBPG TFE3 ZBTB7A SP7 RELA PRDM1 MZF1 IGF2 GC11M002161 GC11M002169 IGF2-AS INS-IGF2 TSSC4 CD81 ENSG00000199550 LSP1 LINC02708
GH11J003232 Promoter 1 Ensembl 10 -174.6 -174588 0.4 CBFA2T2 ZNF148 TRIM24 SMARCA4 HDAC1 MTA2 EP300 SOX6 TCF12 CTBP1 MRGPRE CARS GC11P003228 ENSG00000224513
- Elite GeneHancer and/or Elite GeneHancer-gene association Download GeneHancer data from 2017 publication | Request up-to-date GeneHancer data (full dataset)

GeneHancers around CARS on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Top Transcription factor binding sites by QIAGEN in the CARS gene promoter:
  • ATF6
  • Nkx2-5
  • Nkx5-1
  • POU2F1
  • POU2F1a
  • RORalpha1

Genomic Locations for CARS Gene

Genomic Locations for CARS Gene
56,692 bases
Minus strand
56,692 bases
Minus strand

Genomic View for CARS Gene

Genes around CARS on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Cytogenetic band:
CARS Gene in genomic location: bands according to Ensembl, locations according to GeneLoc (and/or Entrez Gene and/or Ensembl if different)
Genomic Location for CARS Gene
GeneLoc Logo Genomic Neighborhood Exon StructureGene Density

RefSeq DNA sequence for CARS Gene

Proteins for CARS Gene

  • Protein details for CARS Gene (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)

    Protein Symbol:
    Recommended name:
    Cysteine--tRNA ligase, cytoplasmic
    Protein Accession:
    Secondary Accessions:
    • Q53XI8
    • Q5HYE4
    • Q9HD24
    • Q9HD25

    Protein attributes for CARS Gene

    748 amino acids
    Molecular mass:
    85473 Da
    Name=Zn(2+); Xref=ChEBI:CHEBI:29105;
    Quaternary structure:
    • Monomer.
    • Sequence=AAA73901.1; Type=Frameshift; Positions=619; Evidence={ECO:0000305};

    Alternative splice isoforms for CARS Gene


neXtProt entry for CARS Gene

Selected DME Specific Peptides for CARS Gene


Post-translational modifications for CARS Gene

  • Modification sites at PhosphoSitePlus
  • Modification sites at neXtProt

Domains & Families for CARS Gene

Gene Families for CARS Gene

Human Protein Atlas (HPA):
  • Cancer-related genes
  • Disease related genes
  • Enzymes
  • Potential drug targets
  • Predicted intracellular proteins

Suggested Antigen Peptide Sequences for CARS Gene

GenScript: Design optimal peptide antigens:
  • cDNA FLJ38994 fis, clone NT2RI2009259, highly similar to Cysteinyl-tRNA synthetase (EC (A8MVQ3_HUMAN)
  • cDNA FLJ59563, highly similar to Cysteinyl-tRNA synthetase (EC (B4DKY1_HUMAN)
  • Cysteine--tRNA ligase (SYCC_HUMAN)

Graphical View of Domain Structure for InterPro Entry



  • Belongs to the class-I aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase family.
  • Belongs to the class-I aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase family.
genes like me logo Genes that share domains with CARS: view

Function for CARS Gene

Molecular function for CARS Gene

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot CatalyticActivity:
Reaction=ATP + L-cysteine + tRNA(Cys) = AMP + diphosphate + L-cysteinyl-tRNA(Cys); Xref=Rhea:RHEA:17773, Rhea:RHEA-COMP:9661, Rhea:RHEA-COMP:9679, ChEBI:CHEBI:30616, ChEBI:CHEBI:33019, ChEBI:CHEBI:35235, ChEBI:CHEBI:78442, ChEBI:CHEBI:78517, ChEBI:CHEBI:456215; EC=;.
GENATLAS Biochemistry:
cysteinyl-tRNA synthetase,target autoantibodies in the immune disease polymyositis/dermatomyositis

Enzyme Numbers (IUBMB) for CARS Gene

Phenotypes From GWAS Catalog for CARS Gene

Gene Ontology (GO) - Molecular Function for CARS Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0000049 tRNA binding NAS 7987009
GO:0000166 nucleotide binding IEA --
GO:0004812 aminoacyl-tRNA ligase activity IEA --
GO:0004817 cysteine-tRNA ligase activity IEA,IDA 10908348
GO:0005515 protein binding IPI 10908348
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with CARS: view
genes like me logo Genes that share phenotypes with CARS: view

Animal Model Products

CRISPR Products

miRNA for CARS Gene

Inhibitory RNA Products

  • Search GeneCopoeia for shRNA, lentivirus and/or AAV clone products for CARS

Clone Products

  • Applied Biological Materials (abm): Clones for CARS - Now 50% OFF >
  • * CARS as ready-to-use vector or virus: ORF | Lenti- | Retro- | Adeno- | AAV- | Protein Vector - Browse All
  • * CARS tags and reporters available: His, HA, Myc, Flag, GFP, RFP, Luciferase - Browse All

No data available for Human Phenotype Ontology , Animal Models , Transcription Factor Targets and HOMER Transcription for CARS Gene

Localization for CARS Gene

Subcellular locations from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for CARS Gene


Subcellular locations from

Extracellular space Cytosol Plasma membrane Cytoskeleton Lysosome Endosome Peroxisome ER Golgi Apparatus Nucleus Mitochondrion 0 1 2 3 4 5 Confidence
COMPARTMENTS Subcellular localization image for CARS gene
Compartment Confidence
cytosol 5
nucleus 0

Subcellular locations from the

Human Protein Atlas (HPA)

Gene Ontology (GO) - Cellular Components for CARS Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0005737 cytoplasm IDA,IBA 11347887
GO:0005829 cytosol TAS,IDA --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with CARS: view

Pathways & Interactions for CARS Gene

PathCards logo

SuperPathways for CARS Gene

genes like me logo Genes that share pathways with CARS: view

Pathways by source for CARS Gene

1 KEGG pathway for CARS Gene

Gene Ontology (GO) - Biological Process for CARS Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0006412 translation IEA --
GO:0006418 tRNA aminoacylation for protein translation TAS,IEA --
GO:0006423 cysteinyl-tRNA aminoacylation IDA,IEA 10908348
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with CARS: view

No data available for SIGNOR curated interactions for CARS Gene

Drugs & Compounds for CARS Gene

(8) Drugs for CARS Gene - From: DrugBank, HMDB, and Novoseek

Name Status Disease Links Group Role Mechanism of Action Clinical Trials
L-Cysteine Approved Nutra Target 0
Phosphoric acid Approved Pharma 0
Adenosine monophosphate Approved, Investigational Nutra 0
ATP Investigational Nutra Agonist, Activator, Full agonist, Antagonist, Pore Blocker, Potentiation 0

(7) Additional Compounds for CARS Gene - From: Novoseek and HMDB

Name Synonyms Role CAS Number PubChem IDs PubMed IDs
  • [(ho)2P(O)OP(O)(OH)2]
  • Acide diphosphorique
  • Diphosphorsaeure
  • H4P2O7
  • PYROphosphATE
genes like me logo Genes that share compounds with CARS: view

Transcripts for CARS Gene

Unigene Clusters for CARS Gene

Cysteinyl-tRNA synthetase:
Representative Sequences:

CRISPR Products

Inhibitory RNA Products

  • Search GeneCopoeia for shRNA, lentivirus and/or AAV clone products for CARS

Clone Products

  • Applied Biological Materials (abm): Clones for CARS - Now 50% OFF >
  • * CARS as ready-to-use vector or virus: ORF | Lenti- | Retro- | Adeno- | AAV- | Protein Vector - Browse All
  • * CARS tags and reporters available: His, HA, Myc, Flag, GFP, RFP, Luciferase - Browse All

Alternative Splicing Database (ASD) splice patterns (SP) for CARS Gene

ExUns: 1a · 1b · 1c ^ 2 ^ 3 ^ 4a · 4b ^ 5a · 5b ^ 6 ^ 7 ^ 8 ^ 9a · 9b ^ 10 ^ 11a · 11b · 11c ^ 12a · 12b ^ 13 ^ 14a · 14b ^ 15 ^ 16 ^ 17 ^
SP1: - - - - -
SP2: - - - - - - -
SP3: - - - - - - -
SP4: - - - -
SP6: - - - -
SP7: - - -
SP9: -

ExUns: 18 ^ 19 ^ 20 ^ 21a · 21b · 21c ^ 22 ^ 23a · 23b ^ 24 ^ 25a · 25b ^ 26a · 26b
SP1: - - - -
SP2: - - - -
SP3: - - -
SP8: -
SP12: -

Relevant External Links for CARS Gene

GeneLoc Exon Structure for
ECgene alternative splicing isoforms for

Expression for CARS Gene

mRNA expression in normal human tissues from GTEx, Illumina, BioGPS, and CGAP SAGE for CARS Gene

Protein differential expression in normal tissues from HIPED for CARS Gene

This gene is overexpressed in Lymph node (9.1).

Integrated Proteomics: protein expression in normal tissues and cell lines from ProteomicsDB, MaxQB, and MOPED for CARS Gene

Protein tissue co-expression partners for CARS Gene

NURSA nuclear receptor signaling pathways regulating expression of CARS Gene:


SOURCE GeneReport for Unigene cluster for CARS Gene:


Evidence on tissue expression from TISSUES for CARS Gene

  • Nervous system(4.9)
  • Lung(4.5)
  • Liver(4.3)
  • Kidney(3.4)
  • Skin(3.3)
  • Blood(2.9)
  • Intestine(2.8)
  • Thyroid gland(2.2)
genes like me logo Genes that share expression patterns with CARS: view

No data available for mRNA expression in embryonic tissues and stem cells from LifeMap Discovery , mRNA differential expression in normal tissues , mRNA Expression by UniProt/SwissProt and Phenotype-based relationships between genes and organs from Gene ORGANizer for CARS Gene

Orthologs for CARS Gene

This gene was present in the common ancestor of eukaryotes.

Orthologs for CARS Gene

Organism Taxonomy Gene Similarity Type Details
(Pan troglodytes)
Mammalia CARS 35 34
  • 99.56 (n)
(Mus musculus)
Mammalia Cars 17 35 34
  • 86.08 (n)
(Canis familiaris)
Mammalia CARS 35 34
  • 85.44 (n)
(Rattus norvegicus)
Mammalia Cars 34
  • 85.35 (n)
(Bos Taurus)
Mammalia CARS 35 34
  • 81.22 (n)
(Monodelphis domestica)
Mammalia CARS 35
  • 79 (a)
(Gallus gallus)
Aves CARS 35 34
  • 75.54 (n)
(Anolis carolinensis)
Reptilia CARS 35
  • 77 (a)
tropical clawed frog
(Silurana tropicalis)
Amphibia cars 34
  • 71.1 (n)
African clawed frog
(Xenopus laevis)
Amphibia cars-prov 34
(Danio rerio)
Actinopterygii cars 35 34
  • 68.98 (n)
Dr.24192 34
fruit fly
(Drosophila melanogaster)
Insecta Aats-cys 35 34
  • 61.5 (n)
BcDNA:LD21177 36
  • 58 (a)
African malaria mosquito
(Anopheles gambiae)
Insecta AgaP_AGAP012283 34
  • 60.04 (n)
(Caenorhabditis elegans)
Secernentea cars-1 35 34
  • 56.93 (n)
crs-1 36
  • 53 (a)
baker's yeast
(Saccharomyces cerevisiae)
Saccharomycetes YNL247W 34
  • 51.67 (n)
-- 35
  • 44 (a)
-- 37
K. lactis yeast
(Kluyveromyces lactis)
Saccharomycetes KLLA0C03025g 34
  • 50.55 (n)
thale cress
(Arabidopsis thaliana)
eudicotyledons SYCO ARATH 34
  • 47.79 (n)
(Oryza sativa)
Liliopsida Os09g0556500 34
  • 51.83 (n)
(Hordeum vulgare)
Liliopsida Hv.2722 34
sea squirt
(Ciona savignyi)
Ascidiacea CSA.7234 35
  • 59 (a)
Cin.14611 34
fission yeast
(Schizosaccharomyces pombe)
Schizosaccharomycetes SPAC29E6.06c 34
  • 50.7 (n)
sea squirt
(Ciona intestinalis)
Ascidiacea Cin.14611 34
Species where no ortholog for CARS was found in the sources mined by GeneCards:
  • A. gosspyii yeast (Ashbya gossypii)
  • Actinobacteria (Mycobacterium tuberculosis)
  • Alicante grape (Vitis vinifera)
  • alpha proteobacteria (Wolbachia pipientis)
  • amoeba (Dictyostelium discoideum)
  • Archea (Pyrococcus horikoshii)
  • beta proteobacteria (Neisseria meningitidis)
  • bread mold (Neurospora crassa)
  • Chromalveolata (Phytophthora infestans)
  • common water flea (Daphnia pulex)
  • corn (Zea mays)
  • E. coli (Escherichia coli)
  • filamentous fungi (Aspergillus nidulans)
  • Firmicute bacteria (Streptococcus pneumoniae)
  • green algae (Chlamydomonas reinhardtii)
  • honey bee (Apis mellifera)
  • loblloly pine (Pinus taeda)
  • malaria parasite (Plasmodium falciparum)
  • medicago trunc (Medicago Truncatula)
  • moss (Physcomitrella patens)
  • orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus)
  • pig (Sus scrofa)
  • platypus (Ornithorhynchus anatinus)
  • rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)
  • rice blast fungus (Magnaporthe grisea)
  • schistosome parasite (Schistosoma mansoni)
  • sea anemone (Nematostella vectensis)
  • sea urchin (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus)
  • sorghum (Sorghum bicolor)
  • soybean (Glycine max)
  • stem rust fungus (Puccinia graminis)
  • sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum)
  • tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum)
  • toxoplasmosis (Toxoplasma gondii)
  • Trichoplax (Trichoplax adhaerens)
  • wheat (Triticum aestivum)

Evolution for CARS Gene

Gene Tree for CARS (if available)
Gene Tree for CARS (if available)
Evolutionary constrained regions (ECRs) for CARS: view image

Paralogs for CARS Gene

Paralogs for CARS Gene

(2) SIMAP similar genes for CARS Gene using alignment to 7 proteins:

  • E9PRS8_HUMAN Pseudogenes for CARS Gene

genes like me logo Genes that share paralogs with CARS: view

Variants for CARS Gene

Sequence variations from dbSNP and Humsavar for CARS Gene

SNP ID Clin Chr 11 pos Variation AA Info Type
rs1000016459 -- 3,002,247(-) T/C intron_variant
rs1000027703 -- 3,042,574(-) A/G genic_upstream_transcript_variant, intron_variant, upstream_transcript_variant
rs1000028748 -- 3,045,809(-) G/A genic_upstream_transcript_variant, intron_variant
rs1000086336 -- 3,003,474(-) G/A intron_variant
rs1000095986 -- 3,040,718(-) G/A 5_prime_UTR_variant, intron_variant

Structural Variations from Database of Genomic Variants (DGV) for CARS Gene

Variant ID Type Subtype PubMed ID
esv2668116 CNV deletion 23128226
esv3625132 CNV gain 21293372
esv3625133 CNV loss 21293372
nsv819979 CNV loss 19587683
nsv825716 CNV gain 20364138
nsv8766 CNV loss 18304495

Variation tolerance for CARS Gene

Residual Variation Intolerance Score: 52.4% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)
Gene Damage Index Score: 7.13; 80.64% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)

Additional Variant Information for CARS Gene

SNPedia medical, phenotypic, and genealogical associations of SNPs for

SNP Genotyping and Copy Number Assay Products

No data available for Polymorphic Variants from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for CARS Gene

Disorders for CARS Gene

MalaCards: The human disease database

(2) MalaCards diseases for CARS Gene - From: Orphanet, DISEASES, and GeneCards

Disorder Aliases PubMed IDs
inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor
  • inflammatory fibrosarcoma
beckwith-wiedemann syndrome
  • bws
- elite association - COSMIC cancer census association via MalaCards
Search CARS in MalaCards View complete list of genes associated with diseases


  • Note=A chromosomal aberration involving CARS is associated with inflammatory myofibroblastic tumors (IMTs). Translocation t(2;11)(p23;p15) with ALK.

Additional Disease Information for CARS

Genetic Association Database
Human Genome Epidemiology Navigator
ATLAS of Genetics and Cytogenetics in Oncology and Haematology
genes like me logo Genes that share disorders with CARS: view

No data available for Genatlas for CARS Gene

Publications for CARS Gene

  1. Genome-wide association scan for diabetic nephropathy susceptibility genes in type 1 diabetes. (PMID: 19252134) Pezzolesi MG … Krolewski AS (Diabetes 2009) 3 23 45 58
  2. Isolation of two cDNAs encoding functional human cytoplasmic cysteinyl-tRNA synthetase. (PMID: 11347887) Davidson E … King MP (Biological chemistry 2001) 3 4 23 58
  3. Nucleotide and deduced amino acid sequence of human cysteinyl-tRNA synthetase. (PMID: 7987009) Cruzen ME … Arfin SM (DNA sequence : the journal of DNA sequencing and mapping 1994) 3 4 23 58
  4. Assignment of the cysteinyl-tRNA synthetase gene (CARS) to 11p15.5. (PMID: 8468064) Cruzen ME … Arfin SM (Genomics 1993) 2 3 23 58
  5. Joint influence of small-effect genetic variants on human longevity. (PMID: 20834067) Yashin AI … Ukraintseva SV (Aging 2010) 3 45 58

Products for CARS Gene

Sources for CARS Gene

Loading form....