Aliases for BRCA1 Gene
- BRCA1 DNA Repair Associated 2 3 5
- RNF53 2 3 4
- Protein Phosphatase 1, Regulatory Subunit 53 2 3
- Breast Cancer Type 1 Susceptibility Protein 3 4
- BRCA1/BRCA2-Containing Complex, Subunit 1 2 3
- Fanconi Anemia, Complementation Group S 2 3
- Breast Cancer 1, Early Onset 2 3
- RING Finger Protein 53 3 4
- PPP1R53 2 3
- BRCC1 2 3
- FANCS 2 3
External Ids for BRCA1 Gene
Previous GeneCards Identifiers for BRCA1 Gene
This gene encodes a 190 kD nuclear phosphoprotein that plays a role in maintaining genomic stability, and it also acts as a tumor suppressor. The BRCA1 gene contains 22 exons spanning about 110 kb of DNA. The encoded protein combines with other tumor suppressors, DNA damage sensors, and signal transducers to form a large multi-subunit protein complex known as the BRCA1-associated genome surveillance complex (BASC). This gene product associates with RNA polymerase II, and through the C-terminal domain, also interacts with histone deacetylase complexes. This protein thus plays a role in transcription, DNA repair of double-stranded breaks, and recombination. Mutations in this gene are responsible for approximately 40% of inherited breast cancers and more than 80% of inherited breast and ovarian cancers. Alternative splicing plays a role in modulating the subcellular localization and physiological function of this gene. Many alternatively spliced transcript variants, some of which are disease-associated mutations, have been described for this gene, but the full-length natures of only some of these variants has been described. A related pseudogene, which is also located on chromosome 17, has been identified. [provided by RefSeq, May 2020]
BRCA1 mutations in the germline have become a hallmark for hereditary breast and ovarian cancers. Variants that have been demonstrated to reduce the function of the protein have been shown to increase the risk for these cancers, as well as prostate and pancreatic cancer. These findings have been the impetus for the increased popularity of genetic testing of healthy individuals to assess risk. Recent studies in ovarian cancer have also demonstrated that BRCA mutation status can predict treatment response. A number of trials assessing BRCA mutation status have shown an improved response to platinum agents, and more recently has led to the FDA-approval of PARP inhibitors for BRCA-positive ovarian cancers. These studies have resulted in the Society of Gynecologic Oncology to recommend germline BRCA testing in all patients with a diagnosis of ovarian cancer.
GeneCards Summary for BRCA1 Gene
BRCA1 (BRCA1 DNA Repair Associated) is a Protein Coding gene. Diseases associated with BRCA1 include Breast-Ovarian Cancer, Familial 1 and Fanconi Anemia, Complementation Group S. Among its related pathways are ATM Pathway and Homologous DNA Pairing and Strand Exchange. Gene Ontology (GO) annotations related to this gene include RNA binding and ligase activity.
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Summary for BRCA1 Gene
E3 ubiquitin-protein ligase that specifically mediates the formation of 'Lys-6'-linked polyubiquitin chains and plays a central role in DNA repair by facilitating cellular responses to DNA damage. It is unclear whether it also mediates the formation of other types of polyubiquitin chains. The E3 ubiquitin-protein ligase activity is required for its tumor suppressor function. The BRCA1-BARD1 heterodimer coordinates a diverse range of cellular pathways such as DNA damage repair, ubiquitination and transcriptional regulation to maintain genomic stability. Regulates centrosomal microtubule nucleation. Required for normal cell cycle progression from G2 to mitosis. Required for appropriate cell cycle arrests after ionizing irradiation in both the S-phase and the G2 phase of the cell cycle. Involved in transcriptional regulation of P21 in response to DNA damage. Required for FANCD2 targeting to sites of DNA damage. May function as a transcriptional regulator. Inhibits lipid synthesis by binding to inactive phosphorylated ACACA and preventing its dephosphorylation. Contributes to homologous recombination repair (HRR) via its direct interaction with PALB2, fine-tunes recombinational repair partly through its modulatory role in the PALB2-dependent loading of BRCA2-RAD51 repair machinery at DNA breaks. Component of the BRCA1-RBBP8 complex which regulates CHEK1 activation and controls cell cycle G2/M checkpoints on DNA damage via BRCA1-mediated ubiquitination of RBBP8. Acts as a transcriptional activator (PubMed:20160719).