The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the BCL-2 family. BCL-2 family members are known to be regulators of programmed cell death. This protein positively regulates cell apoptosis by forming heterodimers with BCL-xL (B-cell lymphoma-extra large) and BCL-2, and reversing their death repressor activity. Proapoptotic activity of this protein is regulated through its phosp... See more...

Aliases for BAD Gene

Aliases for BAD Gene

  • BCL2 Associated Agonist Of Cell Death 2 3 5
  • BCL2L8 2 3 4
  • Bcl-XL/Bcl-2-Associated Death Promoter 3 4
  • Bcl2-Associated Agonist Of Cell Death 3 4
  • Bcl2 Antagonist Of Cell Death 3 4
  • Bcl-2-Binding Component 6 3 4
  • Bcl-2-Like Protein 8 3 4
  • Bcl2-L-8 3 4
  • BBC2 2 3
  • BCL2-Antagonist Of Cell Death Protein 3
  • BCL-X/BCL-2 Binding Protein 3
  • BCL2-Binding Component 6 3
  • BCL2-Binding Protein 3
  • BBC6 4
  • BAD 5

External Ids for BAD Gene

Previous GeneCards Identifiers for BAD Gene

  • GC11M066553
  • GC11M065718
  • GC11M064288
  • GC11M063812
  • GC11M063793
  • GC11M064037
  • GC11M060365

Summaries for BAD Gene

Entrez Gene Summary for BAD Gene

  • The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the BCL-2 family. BCL-2 family members are known to be regulators of programmed cell death. This protein positively regulates cell apoptosis by forming heterodimers with BCL-xL (B-cell lymphoma-extra large) and BCL-2, and reversing their death repressor activity. Proapoptotic activity of this protein is regulated through its phosphorylation. Protein kinases AKT and MAP kinase, as well as protein phosphatase calcineurin were found to be involved in the regulation of this protein. Alternative splicing of this gene results in two transcript variants which encode the same isoform. [provided by RefSeq, Dec 2019]

GeneCards Summary for BAD Gene

BAD (BCL2 Associated Agonist Of Cell Death) is a Protein Coding gene. Diseases associated with BAD include B-Cell Lymphoma and Myeloid Leukemia. Among its related pathways are Apoptosis Modulation and Signaling and Common Cytokine Receptor Gamma-Chain Family Signaling Pathways. Gene Ontology (GO) annotations related to this gene include protein heterodimerization activity and lipid binding.

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Summary for BAD Gene

  • Promotes cell death. Successfully competes for the binding to Bcl-X(L), Bcl-2 and Bcl-W, thereby affecting the level of heterodimerization of these proteins with BAX. Can reverse the death repressor activity of Bcl-X(L), but not that of Bcl-2 (By similarity). Appears to act as a link between growth factor receptor signaling and the apoptotic pathways.

Gene Wiki entry for BAD Gene

No data available for CIViC Summary , Tocris Summary , PharmGKB "VIP" Summary , Rfam classification and piRNA Summary for BAD Gene

Genomics for BAD Gene

GeneHancer (GH) Regulatory Elements Pubs

Promoters and enhancers for BAD Gene
- Elite GeneHancer and/or Elite GeneHancer-gene association Download GeneHancer data from 2017 publication | Request up-to-date GeneHancer data (full dataset)

GeneHancers around BAD on the GeneHancer Hub at the UCSC Golden Path

Cistromic (ChIP-Seq) regulation report from SPP (The Signaling Pathways Project) for BAD

Top Transcription factor binding sites by QIAGEN in the BAD gene promoter:
  • ATF-2
  • c-Jun
  • CREB
  • deltaCREB

Genomic Locations for BAD Gene

Genomic Locations for BAD Gene
chr11:64,269,828-64,284,704
(GRCh38/hg38)
Size:
14,877 bases
Orientation:
Minus strand
chr11:64,037,300-64,052,176
(GRCh37/hg19)
Size:
14,877 bases
Orientation:
Minus strand

Genomic View for BAD Gene

Genes around BAD on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Cytogenetic band:
BAD Gene in genomic location: bands according to Ensembl, locations according to GeneLoc (and/or Entrez Gene and/or Ensembl if different)
Genomic Location for BAD Gene
GeneLoc Logo Genomic Neighborhood Exon StructureGene Density

RefSeq DNA sequence for BAD Gene

Proteins for BAD Gene

  • Protein details for BAD Gene (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)

    Protein Symbol:
    Q92934-BAD_HUMAN
    Recommended name:
    Bcl2-associated agonist of cell death
    Protein Accession:
    Q92934
    Secondary Accessions:
    • O14803
    • Q6FH21

    Protein attributes for BAD Gene

    Size:
    168 amino acids
    Molecular mass:
    18392 Da
    Quaternary structure:
    • Forms heterodimers with the anti-apoptotic proteins, Bcl-X(L), Bcl-2 and Bcl-W. Also binds protein S100A10 (By similarity). The Ser-75/Ser-99 phosphorylated form binds 14-3-3 proteins (By similarity). Interacts with AKT1 and PIM3. Interacts (via BH3 domain) with NOL3 (via CARD domain); preventing the association of BAD with BCL2 (By similarity). Interacts with HIF3A (via C-terminus domain); the interaction reduces the binding between BAD and BAX (By similarity). Interacts with GIMAP3/IAN4 and GIMAP5/IAN5 (PubMed:16509771).
    SequenceCaution:
    • Sequence=AAB36516.1; Type=Frameshift; Evidence={ECO:0000305};

    Three dimensional structures from OCA and Proteopedia for BAD Gene

neXtProt entry for BAD Gene

Post-translational modifications for BAD Gene

  • Phosphorylated on one or more of Ser-75, Ser-99, Ser-118 and Ser-134 in response to survival stimuli, which blocks its pro-apoptotic activity. Phosphorylation on Ser-99 or Ser-75 promotes heterodimerization with 14-3-3 proteins. This interaction then facilitates the phosphorylation at Ser-118, a site within the BH3 motif, leading to the release of Bcl-X(L) and the promotion of cell survival. Ser-99 is the major site of AKT/PKB phosphorylation, Ser-118 the major site of protein kinase A (CAPK) phosphorylation. Phosphorylation at Ser-99 by PKB/AKT1 is almost completely blocked by the apoptotic C-terminus cleavage product of PKN2 generated by caspases-3 activity during apoptosis.
  • Methylation at Arg-94 and Arg-96 by PRMT1 inhibits Akt-mediated phosphorylation at Ser-99.
  • Modification sites at PhosphoSitePlus
  • Modification sites at neXtProt

Other Protein References for BAD Gene

Antibody Products

  • Abcam antibodies for BAD

No data available for DME Specific Peptides for BAD Gene

Domains & Families for BAD Gene

Gene Families for BAD Gene

HGNC:
Human Protein Atlas (HPA):
  • Cancer-related genes
  • Predicted intracellular proteins

Protein Domains for BAD Gene

InterPro:
Blocks:
  • Apoptosis regulator Bcl-2 protein, BH
ProtoNet:

Suggested Antigen Peptide Sequences for BAD Gene

GenScript: Design optimal peptide antigens:
  • Bcl-XL/Bcl-2-associated death promoter (BAD_HUMAN)
  • cDNA FLJ75743, highly similar to Homo sapiens BCL2-antagonist of cell death (BAD), transcript variant 1, mRNA (Q6FH21_HUMAN)

Graphical View of Domain Structure for InterPro Entry

Q92934

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot:

BAD_HUMAN :
  • Intact BH3 motif is required by BIK, BID, BAK, BAD and BAX for their pro-apoptotic activity and for their interaction with anti-apoptotic members of the Bcl-2 family.
  • Belongs to the Bcl-2 family.
Domain:
  • Intact BH3 motif is required by BIK, BID, BAK, BAD and BAX for their pro-apoptotic activity and for their interaction with anti-apoptotic members of the Bcl-2 family.
Family:
  • Belongs to the Bcl-2 family.
genes like me logo Genes that share domains with BAD: view

Function for BAD Gene

Molecular function for BAD Gene

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Function:
Promotes cell death. Successfully competes for the binding to Bcl-X(L), Bcl-2 and Bcl-W, thereby affecting the level of heterodimerization of these proteins with BAX. Can reverse the death repressor activity of Bcl-X(L), but not that of Bcl-2 (By similarity). Appears to act as a link between growth factor receptor signaling and the apoptotic pathways.

Phenotypes From GWAS Catalog for BAD Gene

Gene Ontology (GO) - Molecular Function for BAD Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0005515 protein binding IPI 9388232
GO:0005543 phospholipid binding IMP 21081150
GO:0008289 lipid binding IDA 19667065
GO:0008656 cysteine-type endopeptidase activator activity involved in apoptotic process IBA,IDA 18402937
GO:0019901 protein kinase binding IBA,IPI 17270021
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with BAD: view
genes like me logo Genes that share phenotypes with BAD: view

Animal Models for BAD Gene

MGI Knock Outs for BAD:
  • Bad Bad<tm1Sjk>

Animal Model Products

CRISPR Products

miRNA for BAD Gene

miRTarBase miRNAs that target BAD

Inhibitory RNA Products

  • Search GeneCopoeia for shRNA, lentivirus and/or AAV clone products for BAD

No data available for Enzyme Numbers (IUBMB) , Human Phenotype Ontology , Transcription Factor Targets and HOMER Transcription for BAD Gene

Localization for BAD Gene

Subcellular locations from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for BAD Gene

Mitochondrion outer membrane. Cytoplasm. Note=Colocalizes with HIF3A in the cytoplasm (By similarity). Upon phosphorylation, locates to the cytoplasm. {ECO:0000250 UniProtKB:Q61337}.

Subcellular locations from

COMPARTMENTS
Extracellular space Cytosol Plasma membrane Cytoskeleton Lysosome Endosome Peroxisome ER Golgi Apparatus Nucleus Mitochondrion 0 1 2 3 4 5 Confidence
COMPARTMENTS Subcellular localization image for BAD gene
Compartment Confidence
mitochondrion 5
cytosol 5
nucleus 3
plasma membrane 2
extracellular 2
cytoskeleton 2
endoplasmic reticulum 2
peroxisome 1
endosome 1
lysosome 1
golgi apparatus 1

Subcellular locations from the

Human Protein Atlas (HPA)

Gene Ontology (GO) - Cellular Components for BAD Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0005737 cytoplasm IEA --
GO:0005739 mitochondrion IBA,IDA --
GO:0005741 mitochondrial outer membrane TAS --
GO:0005829 cytosol TAS --
GO:0016020 membrane IEA --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with BAD: view

Pathways & Interactions for BAD Gene

genes like me logo Genes that share pathways with BAD: view

Pathways by source for BAD Gene

2 Sino Biological pathways for BAD Gene
15 GeneGo (Thomson Reuters) pathways for BAD Gene
  • Apoptosis and survival Anti-apoptotic action of membrane-bound ESR1
  • Apoptosis and survival BAD phosphorylation
  • Apoptosis and survival NGF signaling pathway
  • Apoptosis and survival Role of CDK5 in neuronal death and survival
  • Apoptosis and survival_Regulation of Apoptosis by Mitochondrial Proteins
1 Tocris pathway for BAD Gene
32 Qiagen pathways for BAD Gene
  • 14-3-3 and Regulation of BAD Activity
  • 14-3-3 Induced Apoptosis
  • 14-3-3 Induced Intracellular Signaling
  • Activation of cAMP-Dependent PKA
  • Activation of PKA through GPCR
3 Cell Signaling Technology pathways for BAD Gene
2 GeneTex pathways for BAD Gene

SIGNOR curated interactions for BAD Gene

Gene Ontology (GO) - Biological Process for BAD Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0001666 response to hypoxia IEA --
GO:0001836 release of cytochrome c from mitochondria IBA 21873635
GO:0001844 protein insertion into mitochondrial membrane involved in apoptotic signaling pathway TAS --
GO:0006007 glucose catabolic process IEA --
GO:0006915 apoptotic process IEA,TAS 7834748
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with BAD: view

Drugs & Compounds for BAD Gene

(37) Drugs for BAD Gene - From: DrugBank, ApexBio, DGIdb, and Novoseek

Name Status Disease Links Group Role Mechanism of Action Clinical Trials
AT-101 Approved, Investigational Pharma inhibitor BH3-mimetic,gossypol enantiomer, BCL-2 inhibitors 86
Navitoclax Investigational Pharma Target BCL-2 inhibitors 30
Gossypol Investigational Pharma PAF inhibitor;anti-fertility and anti-cancer 24
ABT-263 (Navitoclax) Pharma Potent Bcl-2 family inhibitor, inhibits Bcl-2, Bcl-xL, and Bcl-w 0
Bax inhibitor peptide P5 Pharma Bax inhibitor 0

(15) Additional Compounds for BAD Gene - From: Novoseek

Name Synonyms Role CAS Number PubChem IDs PubMed IDs

(6) ApexBio Compounds for BAD Gene

Compound Action Cas Number
ABT-263 (Navitoclax) Potent Bcl-2 family inhibitor, inhibits Bcl-2, Bcl-xL, and Bcl-w 923564-51-6
AT-101 BH3-mimetic,gossypol enantiomer 90141-22-3
Bax inhibitor peptide P5 Bax inhibitor 579492-83-4
Bax inhibitor peptide V5 Bax inhibitor 579492-81-2
Gossypol PAF inhibitor;anti-fertility and anti-cancer 303-45-7
Sabutoclax pan-Bcl-2 inhibitor 1228108-65-3
genes like me logo Genes that share compounds with BAD: view

Transcripts for BAD Gene

mRNA/cDNA for BAD Gene

2 REFSEQ mRNAs :
18 NCBI additional mRNA sequence :
7 Ensembl transcripts including schematic representations, and UCSC links to gene/alias where relevant :

CRISPR Products

Inhibitory RNA Products

  • Search GeneCopoeia for shRNA, lentivirus and/or AAV clone products for BAD

Alternative Splicing Database (ASD) splice patterns (SP) for BAD Gene

ExUns: 1 ^ 2a · 2b · 2c ^ 3a · 3b ^ 4a · 4b ^ 5a · 5b · 5c · 5d · 5e
SP1: - - - -
SP2: - -
SP3: -
SP4: - - -
SP5:
SP6: - - - -

Relevant External Links for BAD Gene

GeneLoc Exon Structure for
BAD

Expression for BAD Gene

mRNA expression in normal human tissues from GTEx, Illumina, BioGPS, and SAGE for BAD Gene

mRNA expression in embryonic tissues and stem cells from LifeMap Discovery

Protein differential expression in normal tissues from HIPED for BAD Gene

This gene is overexpressed in Bone (14.8) and Skin (7.0).

Integrated Proteomics: protein expression in normal tissues and cell lines from ProteomicsDB, MaxQB, and MOPED for BAD Gene



Transcriptomic regulation report from SPP (The Signaling Pathways Project) for BAD

SOURCE GeneReport for Unigene cluster for BAD Gene:

Hs.370254

mRNA Expression by UniProt/SwissProt for BAD Gene:

Q92934-BAD_HUMAN
Tissue specificity: Expressed in a wide variety of tissues.

Evidence on tissue expression from TISSUES for BAD Gene

  • Lung(4.5)
  • Muscle(4.5)
  • Liver(4.5)
  • Bone marrow(4.4)
  • Nervous system(3.2)
  • Eye(2.8)
  • Heart(2.6)
  • Kidney(2.6)
  • Skin(2.4)
  • Blood(2.4)
  • Intestine(2.3)
  • Spleen(2.2)
  • Stomach(2.1)
  • Pancreas(2.1)
  • Lymph node(2.1)
genes like me logo Genes that share expression patterns with BAD: view

No data available for mRNA differential expression in normal tissues , Protein tissue co-expression partners and Phenotype-based relationships between genes and organs from Gene ORGANizer for BAD Gene

Orthologs for BAD Gene

This gene was present in the common ancestor of chordates.

Orthologs for BAD Gene

Organism Taxonomy Gene Similarity Type Details
Chimpanzee
(Pan troglodytes)
Mammalia BAD 30 31
  • 99.8 (n)
OneToOne
Dog
(Canis familiaris)
Mammalia BAD 30 31
  • 86.35 (n)
OneToOne
Cow
(Bos Taurus)
Mammalia BAD 30 31
  • 85.03 (n)
OneToOne
Mouse
(Mus musculus)
Mammalia Bad 30 17 31
  • 82.92 (n)
OneToOne
Rat
(Rattus norvegicus)
Mammalia Bad 30
  • 82.3 (n)
Zebrafish
(Danio rerio)
Actinopterygii badb 31
  • 39 (a)
OneToMany
bada 31
  • 34 (a)
OneToMany
Species where no ortholog for BAD was found in the sources mined by GeneCards:
  • A. gosspyii yeast (Eremothecium gossypii)
  • Actinobacteria (Mycobacterium tuberculosis)
  • African clawed frog (Xenopus laevis)
  • African malaria mosquito (Anopheles gambiae)
  • Alicante grape (Vitis vinifera)
  • Alpha proteobacteria (Wolbachia pipientis)
  • Amoeba (Dictyostelium discoideum)
  • Archea (Pyrococcus horikoshii)
  • Baker's yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae)
  • Barley (Hordeum vulgare)
  • Beta proteobacteria (Neisseria meningitidis)
  • Bread mold (Neurospora crassa)
  • Chicken (Gallus gallus)
  • Chromalveolata (Phytophthora infestans)
  • Common water flea (Daphnia pulex)
  • Corn (Zea mays)
  • E. coli (Escherichia coli)
  • Filamentous fungi (Aspergillus nidulans)
  • Firmicute Bacteria (Streptococcus pneumoniae)
  • Fission Yeast (Schizosaccharomyces pombe)
  • Fruit Fly (Drosophila melanogaster)
  • Green Algae (Chlamydomonas reinhardtii)
  • Honey Bee (Apis mellifera)
  • K. Lactis Yeast (Kluyveromyces lactis)
  • Lizard (Anolis carolinensis)
  • Loblloly Pine (Pinus taeda)
  • Malaria Parasite (Plasmodium falciparum)
  • Medicago Trunc (Medicago Truncatula)
  • Moss (Physcomitrella patens)
  • Oppossum (Monodelphis domestica)
  • Orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus)
  • Pig (Sus scrofa)
  • Platypus (Ornithorhynchus anatinus)
  • Rainbow Trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)
  • Rice (Oryza sativa)
  • Rice Blast Fungus (Magnaporthe grisea)
  • Schistosome Parasite (Schistosoma mansoni)
  • Sea Anemone (Nematostella vectensis)
  • Sea Vase (Ciona intestinalis)
  • Sea Squirt (Ciona savignyi)
  • Sea Urchin (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus)
  • Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor)
  • Soybean (Glycine max)
  • Stem Rust Fungus (Puccinia graminis)
  • Sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum)
  • Thale Cress (Arabidopsis thaliana)
  • Tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum)
  • Toxoplasmosis (Toxoplasma gondii)
  • Trichoplax (Trichoplax adhaerens)
  • Tropical Clawed Frog (Silurana tropicalis)
  • Wheat (Triticum aestivum)
  • Worm (Caenorhabditis elegans)

Evolution for BAD Gene

ENSEMBL:
Gene Tree for BAD (if available)
TreeFam:
Gene Tree for BAD (if available)
Aminode:
Evolutionary constrained regions (ECRs) for BAD: view image

Paralogs for BAD Gene

No data available for Paralogs for BAD Gene

Variants for BAD Gene

Sequence variations, with clinical significance, from ClinVar and Humsavar, with links to dbSNP for BAD Gene

SNP ID Clinical significance and condition Chr 11 pos Variation AA Info Type
rs3729933 - p.Ala107Ser

Additional dbSNP identifiers (rs#s) for BAD Gene

Structural Variations from Database of Genomic Variants (DGV) for BAD Gene

Variant ID Type Subtype PubMed ID
dgv1963n54 CNV loss 21841781
esv2744615 CNV deletion 23290073
esv2744616 CNV deletion 23290073
nsv1159904 CNV deletion 26073780
nsv357 CNV insertion 18451855
nsv469961 CNV loss 18288195
nsv555184 CNV loss 21841781
nsv832186 CNV loss 17160897
nsv951010 CNV deletion 24416366

Variation tolerance for BAD Gene

Residual Variation Intolerance Score: 63.2% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)
Gene Damage Index Score: 0.38; 8.29% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)

Additional Variant Information for BAD Gene

Human Gene Mutation Database (HGMD)
BAD
SNPedia medical, phenotypic, and genealogical associations of SNPs for
BAD

SNP Genotyping and Copy Number Assay Products

No data available for Polymorphic Variants from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for BAD Gene

Disorders for BAD Gene

MalaCards: The human disease database

(19) MalaCards diseases for BAD Gene - From: DISEASES, Novoseek, and GeneCards

Disorder Aliases PubMed IDs
b-cell lymphoma
  • b-cell lymphocytic neoplasm
myeloid leukemia
  • leukaemia myelogenous
transient cerebral ischemia
  • tia
prostate cancer
  • prostate cancer, somatic
lymphoma
  • lymphoid cancer
- elite association - COSMIC cancer census association via MalaCards
Search BAD in MalaCards View complete list of genes associated with diseases

Additional Disease Information for BAD

Genetic Association Database
(GAD)
Human Genome Epidemiology Navigator
(HuGE)
ATLAS of Genetics and Cytogenetics in Oncology and Haematology
Open Targets Platform
genes like me logo Genes that share disorders with BAD: view

No data available for UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot and Genatlas for BAD Gene

Publications for BAD Gene

  1. Bcl-2 targets the protein kinase Raf-1 to mitochondria. (PMID: 8929532) Wang HG … Reed JC (Cell 1996) 2 3 4 23
  2. Dimerization properties of human BAD. Identification of a BH-3 domain and analysis of its binding to mutant BCL-2 and BCL-XL proteins. (PMID: 9388232) Ottilie S … Oltersdorf T (The Journal of biological chemistry 1997) 3 4 23
  3. A meta-analysis and genome-wide association study of platelet count and mean platelet volume in african americans. (PMID: 22423221) Qayyum R … Reiner AP (PLoS genetics 2012) 3 41
  4. Arginine methylation of BCL-2 antagonist of cell death (BAD) counteracts its phosphorylation and inactivation by Akt. (PMID: 21444773) Sakamaki J … Fukamizu A (Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 2011) 3 4
  5. Protection from rapamycin-induced apoptosis by insulin-like growth factor-I is partially dependent on protein kinase C signaling. (PMID: 20179209) Thimmaiah KN … Houghton PJ (Cancer research 2010) 3 23

Products for BAD Gene

  • Addgene plasmids for BAD

Sources for BAD Gene