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Aliases for B4GALT2 Gene

Aliases for B4GALT2 Gene

  • Beta-1,4-Galactosyltransferase 2 2 3 3 5
  • UDP-Galactose:Beta-N-Acetylglucosamine Beta-1,4-Galactosyltransferase 2 3 4
  • UDP-Gal:Beta-GlcNAc Beta-1,4-Galactosyltransferase 2 3 4
  • Beta-1,4-GalTase 2 3 4
  • Beta4Gal-T2 3 4
  • B4Gal-T2 3 4
  • Beta-N-Acetylglucosaminyl-Glycolipid Beta-1,4-Galactosyltransferase 2 3
  • UDP-Gal:BetaGlcNAc Beta 1,4- Galactosyltransferase, Polypeptide 2 2
  • UDP-Gal:BetaGlcNAc Beta 1,4-Galactosyltransferase, Polypeptide 2 3
  • UDP-Gal:BetaGlcNAc Beta 1,4- Galactosyltransferase 2 3
  • Beta-4-GalT2 3
  • EC 2.4.1.- 4
  • B4Gal-T3 3

External Ids for B4GALT2 Gene

Previous GeneCards Identifiers for B4GALT2 Gene

  • GC01P044283
  • GC01P043445
  • GC01P043875
  • GC01P043858
  • GC01P044114
  • GC01P044217
  • GC01P044444
  • GC01P042560

Summaries for B4GALT2 Gene

Entrez Gene Summary for B4GALT2 Gene

  • This gene is one of seven beta-1,4-galactosyltransferase (beta4GalT) genes. They encode type II membrane-bound glycoproteins that appear to have exclusive specificity for the donor substrate UDP-galactose; all transfer galactose in a beta1,4 linkage to similar acceptor sugars: GlcNAc, Glc, and Xyl. Each beta4GalT has a distinct function in the biosynthesis of different glycoconjugates and saccharide structures. As type II membrane proteins, they have an N-terminal hydrophobic signal sequence that directs the protein to the Golgi apparatus and which then remains uncleaved to function as a transmembrane anchor. By sequence similarity, the beta4GalTs form four groups: beta4GalT1 and beta4GalT2, beta4GalT3 and beta4GalT4, beta4GalT5 and beta4GalT6, and beta4GalT7. The enzyme encoded by this gene synthesizes N-acetyllactosamine in glycolipids and glycoproteins. Its substrate specificity is affected by alpha-lactalbumin but it is not expressed in lactating mammary tissue. Three transcript variants encoding two different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2011]

GeneCards Summary for B4GALT2 Gene

B4GALT2 (Beta-1,4-Galactosyltransferase 2) is a Protein Coding gene. Among its related pathways are Galactose metabolism and N-glycan antennae elongation in the medial/trans-Golgi. Gene Ontology (GO) annotations related to this gene include galactosyltransferase activity and N-acetyllactosamine synthase activity. An important paralog of this gene is B4GALT1.

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for B4GALT2 Gene

  • Responsible for the synthesis of complex-type N-linked oligosaccharides in many glycoproteins as well as the carbohydrate moieties of glycolipids. Can produce lactose.

Gene Wiki entry for B4GALT2 Gene

Additional gene information for B4GALT2 Gene

No data available for CIViC summary , Tocris Summary , PharmGKB "VIP" Summary , fRNAdb sequence ontologies and piRNA Summary for B4GALT2 Gene

Genomics for B4GALT2 Gene

GeneHancer (GH) Regulatory Elements for B4GALT2 Gene

Promoters and enhancers for B4GALT2 Gene
GeneHancer (GH) Identifier GH Type GH
GH Sources Gene Association Score Total Score TSS distance (kb) Number of Genes Away Size (kb) Transcription Factor
Binding Sites
Gene Targets
GH01J043978 Promoter/Enhancer 2 EPDnew Ensembl ENCODE 650.7 +0.8 752 2.9 HDGF FOXA2 ZFP64 ARID4B SIN3A DMAP1 POLR2B ZNF766 SP3 SP5 B4GALT2 SZT2 ATP6V0B MED8 DMAP1 KDM4A-AS1 CCDC24 ARTN ST3GAL3
GH01J044027 Promoter/Enhancer 2.2 EPDnew Ensembl ENCODE dbSUPER 5.6 +51.6 51560 5 HDGF PKNOX1 ARID4B SIN3A DMAP1 ZNF2 POLR2B ZNF766 ZNF207 ZNF143 SLC6A9 ENSG00000230615 SZT2 DMAP1 KDM4A MED8 ERI3-IT1 IPO13 DPH2 ARTN
GH01J043912 Promoter/Enhancer 1.6 EPDnew FANTOM5 ENCODE dbSUPER 6.4 -65.0 -64994 3.8 CEBPB SIN3A ZNF16 ZIC2 ZNF335 ZNF316 CTBP2 ZNF600 PRDM10 PRDM1 ST3GAL3 ARTN LOC101929592 SZT2 CCDC24 B4GALT2 ENSG00000225721 SLC6A9 GC01M043857 ENSG00000284989
GH01J044047 Promoter/Enhancer 1.9 EPDnew Ensembl ENCODE dbSUPER 4.8 +70.0 70033 3.5 HDGF PKNOX1 ATF1 ARNT ARID4B TCF12 POLR2B CBX5 ARID2 ZNF143 KLF17 MED8 IPO13 LOC101929609 KDM4A SZT2 RPS8 ARTN HECTD3 ENSG00000230615
GH01J044551 Enhancer 0.5 dbSUPER 5.2 +573.1 573078 1.3 L3MBTL2 CEBPB CEBPG ZNF384 ERI3 RNU6-369P RNF220 B4GALT2 ATP6V0B MIR5584 PIR47647
- Elite GeneHancer and/or Elite GeneHancer-gene association Download GeneHancer data from 2017 publication | Request up-to-date GeneHancer data (full dataset)

GeneHancers around B4GALT2 on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Top Transcription factor binding sites by QIAGEN in the B4GALT2 gene promoter:
  • E2F-1
  • E2F-4
  • E2F-3a
  • E2F-2
  • E2F
  • FAC1

Genomic Locations for B4GALT2 Gene

Genomic Locations for B4GALT2 Gene
12,229 bases
Plus strand
12,229 bases
Plus strand

Genomic View for B4GALT2 Gene

Genes around B4GALT2 on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Cytogenetic band:
B4GALT2 Gene in genomic location: bands according to Ensembl, locations according to GeneLoc (and/or Entrez Gene and/or Ensembl if different)
Genomic Location for B4GALT2 Gene
GeneLoc Logo Genomic Neighborhood Exon StructureGene Density

RefSeq DNA sequence for B4GALT2 Gene

Proteins for B4GALT2 Gene

  • Protein details for B4GALT2 Gene (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)

    Protein Symbol:
    Recommended name:
    Beta-1,4-galactosyltransferase 2
    Protein Accession:
    Secondary Accessions:
    • B3KTP0
    • B4DE14
    • D3DPY6
    • D3DPY7
    • O60511
    • Q4V9L9
    • Q5T4X5
    • Q5T4Y5
    • Q9BUP6
    • Q9NSY7

    Protein attributes for B4GALT2 Gene

    372 amino acids
    Molecular mass:
    41972 Da
    Name=Mn(2+); Xref=ChEBI:CHEBI:29035;
    Quaternary structure:
    No Data Available

    Alternative splice isoforms for B4GALT2 Gene


neXtProt entry for B4GALT2 Gene

Post-translational modifications for B4GALT2 Gene

  • Glycosylation at Asn357, posLast=7171, and posLast=6666
  • Modification sites at PhosphoSitePlus

Other Protein References for B4GALT2 Gene

No data available for DME Specific Peptides for B4GALT2 Gene

Domains & Families for B4GALT2 Gene

Gene Families for B4GALT2 Gene

Human Protein Atlas (HPA):
  • Enzymes
  • Predicted intracellular proteins
  • Predicted membrane proteins

Suggested Antigen Peptide Sequences for B4GALT2 Gene

Graphical View of Domain Structure for InterPro Entry



  • Belongs to the glycosyltransferase 7 family.
  • Belongs to the glycosyltransferase 7 family.
genes like me logo Genes that share domains with B4GALT2: view

Function for B4GALT2 Gene

Molecular function for B4GALT2 Gene

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Function:
Responsible for the synthesis of complex-type N-linked oligosaccharides in many glycoproteins as well as the carbohydrate moieties of glycolipids. Can produce lactose.
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot CatalyticActivity:
UDP-alpha-D-galactose + D-glucose = UDP + lactose.
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot CatalyticActivity:
UDP-alpha-D-galactose + N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosaminylglycopeptide = UDP + beta-D-galactosyl-(1->4)-N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosaminylglycopeptide.
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot CatalyticActivity:
UDP-alpha-D-galactose + N-acetyl-D-glucosamine = UDP + N-acetyllactosamine.
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot BiophysicochemicalProperties:
Kinetic parameters: KM=71 uM for GlcNAc-B-S-pNP {ECO:0000269 PubMed:11588157};
GENATLAS Biochemistry:
UDP galactose

Enzyme Numbers (IUBMB) for B4GALT2 Gene

Phenotypes From GWAS Catalog for B4GALT2 Gene

Gene Ontology (GO) - Molecular Function for B4GALT2 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0003831 beta-N-acetylglucosaminylglycopeptide beta-1,4-galactosyltransferase activity TAS,IEA --
GO:0003945 N-acetyllactosamine synthase activity IEA --
GO:0004461 lactose synthase activity IEA --
GO:0008378 galactosyltransferase activity TAS 9405390
GO:0016740 transferase activity IEA --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with B4GALT2: view
genes like me logo Genes that share phenotypes with B4GALT2: view

Animal Models for B4GALT2 Gene

MGI Knock Outs for B4GALT2:

Animal Model Products

Clone Products

No data available for Human Phenotype Ontology , Transcription Factor Targets and HOMER Transcription for B4GALT2 Gene

Localization for B4GALT2 Gene

Subcellular locations from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for B4GALT2 Gene

Golgi apparatus, Golgi stack membrane; Single-pass type II membrane protein. Note=Trans cisternae of Golgi stack.

Subcellular locations from

Extracellular space Cytosol Plasma membrane Cytoskeleton Lysosome Endosome Peroxisome ER Golgi Apparatus Nucleus Mitochondrion 0 1 2 3 4 5 Confidence
COMPARTMENTS Subcellular localization image for B4GALT2 gene
Compartment Confidence
golgi apparatus 5
nucleus 4
endoplasmic reticulum 2
plasma membrane 1
extracellular 1
cytoskeleton 1
mitochondrion 1
cytosol 1
lysosome 1

Subcellular locations from the

Human Protein Atlas (HPA)
  • Golgi apparatus (3)
  • Vesicles (2)
See all subcellular structures

Gene Ontology (GO) - Cellular Components for B4GALT2 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0000139 Golgi membrane TAS --
GO:0005654 nucleoplasm IDA --
GO:0005794 Golgi apparatus IEA,IDA --
GO:0016020 membrane IEA --
GO:0016021 integral component of membrane IEA --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with B4GALT2: view

Pathways & Interactions for B4GALT2 Gene

genes like me logo Genes that share pathways with B4GALT2: view

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot O60909-B4GT2_HUMAN

  • Pathway: Protein modification; protein glycosylation.

Gene Ontology (GO) - Biological Process for B4GALT2 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0005975 carbohydrate metabolic process IEA --
GO:0006486 protein glycosylation IEA --
GO:0007420 brain development IEA --
GO:0007613 memory IEA --
GO:0007626 locomotory behavior IEA --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with B4GALT2: view

No data available for SIGNOR curated interactions for B4GALT2 Gene

Drugs & Compounds for B4GALT2 Gene

(7) Drugs for B4GALT2 Gene - From: DrugBank, PharmGKB, and HMDB

Name Status Disease Links Group Role Mechanism of Action Clinical Trials
N-Acetyl-D-glucosamine Approved, Investigational Nutra Target 0
Clopidogrel Approved Pharma P2Y12 receptor antagonist 814
D-glucose Approved, Vet_approved Pharma 0
lactose Approved, Investigational Pharma 0
Manganese Approved Nutra 37

(2) Additional Compounds for B4GALT2 Gene - From: HMDB

Name Synonyms Role CAS Number PubChem IDs PubMed IDs
  • 4-O-beta-D-Galactopyranosyl-beta-D-glucopyranose
  • beta-D-Galactopyranosyl-(1->4)-beta-D-glucose
  • beta-D-Galp-(1->4)-beta-D-GLCP
  • beta-D-Lactose
  • Galbeta1-4glcbeta
  • beta-D-Galactosyl-1,4-N-acetyl-D-glucosamine
  • Galb1-4glcnacb
  • Galbeta1-4glcnacbeta
  • LacNAc
  • b-D-Galactosyl-1,4-N-acetyl-D-glucosamine
genes like me logo Genes that share compounds with B4GALT2: view

Transcripts for B4GALT2 Gene

Unigene Clusters for B4GALT2 Gene

UDP-Gal:betaGlcNAc beta 1,4- galactosyltransferase, polypeptide 2:
Representative Sequences:

Clone Products

Alternative Splicing Database (ASD) splice patterns (SP) for B4GALT2 Gene

ExUns: 1 ^ 2 ^ 3 ^ 4 ^ 5a · 5b ^ 6a · 6b · 6c ^ 7a · 7b · 7c ^ 8 ^ 9a · 9b ^ 10a · 10b
SP1: - -
SP2: - - -
SP3: - -
SP6: -

Relevant External Links for B4GALT2 Gene

GeneLoc Exon Structure for
ECgene alternative splicing isoforms for

Expression for B4GALT2 Gene

mRNA expression in normal human tissues from GTEx, Illumina, BioGPS, and CGAP SAGE for B4GALT2 Gene

mRNA expression in embryonic tissues and stem cells from LifeMap Discovery

Protein differential expression in normal tissues from HIPED for B4GALT2 Gene

This gene is overexpressed in Pancreas (68.9).

Integrated Proteomics: protein expression in normal tissues and cell lines from ProteomicsDB, MaxQB, and MOPED for B4GALT2 Gene

Protein tissue co-expression partners for B4GALT2 Gene

NURSA nuclear receptor signaling pathways regulating expression of B4GALT2 Gene:


SOURCE GeneReport for Unigene cluster for B4GALT2 Gene:


mRNA Expression by UniProt/SwissProt for B4GALT2 Gene:

Tissue specificity: Weakly expressed in various tissues. Highest expression in prostate, testis, ovary, intestine, muscle, and in fetal brain.

Evidence on tissue expression from TISSUES for B4GALT2 Gene

  • Nervous system(2.4)
  • Muscle(2.2)
genes like me logo Genes that share expression patterns with B4GALT2: view

No data available for mRNA differential expression in normal tissues and Phenotype-based relationships between genes and organs from Gene ORGANizer for B4GALT2 Gene

Orthologs for B4GALT2 Gene

This gene was present in the common ancestor of animals.

Orthologs for B4GALT2 Gene

Organism Taxonomy Gene Similarity Type Details
(Pan troglodytes)
Mammalia B4GALT2 34 33
  • 99 (n)
(Canis familiaris)
Mammalia B4GALT2 34 33
  • 92.04 (n)
(Bos Taurus)
Mammalia B4GALT2 34 33
  • 91.24 (n)
(Mus musculus)
Mammalia B4galt2 16 34 33
  • 89.97 (n)
(Rattus norvegicus)
Mammalia B4galt2 33
  • 89.25 (n)
(Monodelphis domestica)
Mammalia B4GALT2 34
  • 84 (a)
(Ornithorhynchus anatinus)
Mammalia B4GALT2 34
  • 76 (a)
(Gallus gallus)
Aves B4GALT2 34 33
  • 75.27 (n)
(Anolis carolinensis)
Reptilia B4GALT2 34
  • 75 (a)
tropical clawed frog
(Silurana tropicalis)
Amphibia b4galt2 33
  • 69.43 (n)
(Danio rerio)
Actinopterygii LOC100148828 33
  • 69.47 (n)
b4galt2 34
  • 69 (a)
African malaria mosquito
(Anopheles gambiae)
Insecta AgaP_AGAP004781 33
  • 53.44 (n)
fruit fly
(Drosophila melanogaster)
Insecta beta4GalNAcTA 34 33
  • 50.06 (n)
BcDNA:GH13356 35
  • 39 (a)
CG14517 35
  • 38 (a)
beta4GalNAcTB 34
  • 30 (a)
(Caenorhabditis elegans)
Secernentea bre-4 34 33
  • 47.77 (n)
Y73E7A.7 35
  • 43 (a)
W02B12.11 35
  • 34 (a)
sea squirt
(Ciona savignyi)
Ascidiacea -- 34
  • 32 (a)
Cin.13709 33
sea squirt
(Ciona intestinalis)
Ascidiacea Cin.13709 33
Species where no ortholog for B4GALT2 was found in the sources mined by GeneCards:
  • A. gosspyii yeast (Ashbya gossypii)
  • Actinobacteria (Mycobacterium tuberculosis)
  • African clawed frog (Xenopus laevis)
  • Alicante grape (Vitis vinifera)
  • alpha proteobacteria (Wolbachia pipientis)
  • amoeba (Dictyostelium discoideum)
  • Archea (Pyrococcus horikoshii)
  • baker's yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae)
  • barley (Hordeum vulgare)
  • beta proteobacteria (Neisseria meningitidis)
  • bread mold (Neurospora crassa)
  • Chromalveolata (Phytophthora infestans)
  • common water flea (Daphnia pulex)
  • corn (Zea mays)
  • E. coli (Escherichia coli)
  • filamentous fungi (Aspergillus nidulans)
  • Firmicute bacteria (Streptococcus pneumoniae)
  • fission yeast (Schizosaccharomyces pombe)
  • green algae (Chlamydomonas reinhardtii)
  • honey bee (Apis mellifera)
  • K. lactis yeast (Kluyveromyces lactis)
  • loblloly pine (Pinus taeda)
  • malaria parasite (Plasmodium falciparum)
  • medicago trunc (Medicago Truncatula)
  • moss (Physcomitrella patens)
  • orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus)
  • pig (Sus scrofa)
  • rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)
  • rice (Oryza sativa)
  • rice blast fungus (Magnaporthe grisea)
  • schistosome parasite (Schistosoma mansoni)
  • sea anemone (Nematostella vectensis)
  • sea urchin (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus)
  • sorghum (Sorghum bicolor)
  • soybean (Glycine max)
  • stem rust fungus (Puccinia graminis)
  • sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum)
  • thale cress (Arabidopsis thaliana)
  • tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum)
  • toxoplasmosis (Toxoplasma gondii)
  • Trichoplax (Trichoplax adhaerens)
  • wheat (Triticum aestivum)

Evolution for B4GALT2 Gene

Gene Tree for B4GALT2 (if available)
Gene Tree for B4GALT2 (if available)
Evolutionary constrained regions (ECRs) for B4GALT2: view image

Paralogs for B4GALT2 Gene

Paralogs for B4GALT2 Gene

(5) SIMAP similar genes for B4GALT2 Gene using alignment to 1 proteins:

genes like me logo Genes that share paralogs with B4GALT2: view

Variants for B4GALT2 Gene

Sequence variations from dbSNP and Humsavar for B4GALT2 Gene

SNP ID Clin Chr 01 pos Variation AA Info Type
rs1000164461 -- 43,984,042(+) C/T intron_variant
rs1000321309 -- 43,977,378(+) CTCTCT/CT upstream_transcript_variant
rs1000572528 -- 43,977,741(+) G/C upstream_transcript_variant
rs1000619779 -- 43,983,858(+) G/C intron_variant
rs1000661808 -- 43,989,698(+) C/T intron_variant

Structural Variations from Database of Genomic Variants (DGV) for B4GALT2 Gene

Variant ID Type Subtype PubMed ID
nsv1078381 CNV deletion 25765185
nsv546141 CNV loss 21841781
nsv546142 CNV loss 21841781
nsv732 CNV insertion 18451855

Variation tolerance for B4GALT2 Gene

Residual Variation Intolerance Score: 26.5% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)
Gene Damage Index Score: 4.96; 68.08% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)

Additional Variant Information for B4GALT2 Gene

SNPedia medical, phenotypic, and genealogical associations of SNPs for

No data available for Polymorphic Variants from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for B4GALT2 Gene

Disorders for B4GALT2 Gene

Additional Disease Information for B4GALT2

No disorders were found for B4GALT2 Gene.

No data available for MalaCards , UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot and Genatlas for B4GALT2 Gene

Publications for B4GALT2 Gene

  1. A family of human beta4-galactosyltransferases. Cloning and expression of two novel UDP-galactose:beta-n-acetylglucosamine beta1, 4-galactosyltransferases, beta4Gal-T2 and beta4Gal-T3. (PMID: 9405390) Almeida R … Clausen H (The Journal of biological chemistry 1997) 2 3 4 22 58
  2. The expanding beta 4-galactosyltransferase gene family: messages from the databanks. (PMID: 9597550) Lo NW … Shaper NL (Glycobiology 1998) 2 3 4 58
  3. The DNA sequence and biological annotation of human chromosome 1. (PMID: 16710414) Gregory SG … Prigmore E (Nature 2006) 3 4 58
  4. Complete sequencing and characterization of 21,243 full-length human cDNAs. (PMID: 14702039) Ota T … Sugano S (Nature genetics 2004) 3 4 58
  5. The status, quality, and expansion of the NIH full-length cDNA project: the Mammalian Gene Collection (MGC). (PMID: 15489334) Gerhard DS … MGC Project Team (Genome research 2004) 3 4 58

Products for B4GALT2 Gene

Sources for B4GALT2 Gene

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