The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the Tyro3-Axl-Mer (TAM) receptor tyrosine kinase subfamily. The encoded protein possesses an extracellular domain which is composed of two immunoglobulin-like motifs at the N-terminal, followed by two fibronectin type-III motifs. It transduces signals from the extracellular matrix into the cytoplasm by binding to the vitamin K-dep... See more...

Aliases for AXL Gene

Aliases for AXL Gene

  • AXL Receptor Tyrosine Kinase 2 3 5
  • Tyrosine-Protein Kinase Receptor UFO 3 4
  • AXL Oncogene 3 4
  • EC 2.7.10.1 4 54
  • UFO 3 4
  • AXL Transforming Sequence/Gene 3
  • EC 2.7.10 54
  • JTK11 3
  • Tyro7 3
  • ARK 3

External Ids for AXL Gene

Previous GeneCards Identifiers for AXL Gene

  • GC19P042364
  • GC19P042116
  • GC19P046400
  • GC19P046416
  • GC19P041725
  • GC19P038157

Summaries for AXL Gene

Entrez Gene Summary for AXL Gene

  • The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the Tyro3-Axl-Mer (TAM) receptor tyrosine kinase subfamily. The encoded protein possesses an extracellular domain which is composed of two immunoglobulin-like motifs at the N-terminal, followed by two fibronectin type-III motifs. It transduces signals from the extracellular matrix into the cytoplasm by binding to the vitamin K-dependent protein growth arrest-specific 6 (Gas6). This gene may be involved in several cellular functions including growth, migration, aggregation and anti-inflammation in multiple cell types. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants of this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2013]

CIViC Summary for AXL Gene

GeneCards Summary for AXL Gene

AXL (AXL Receptor Tyrosine Kinase) is a Protein Coding gene. Diseases associated with AXL include Hypogonadotropic Hypogonadism 7 With Or Without Anosmia and Lymphocytic Choriomeningitis. Among its related pathways are Actin Nucleation by ARP-WASP Complex and ERK Signaling. Gene Ontology (GO) annotations related to this gene include transferase activity, transferring phosphorus-containing groups and protein tyrosine kinase activity. An important paralog of this gene is MERTK.

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Summary for AXL Gene

  • Receptor tyrosine kinase that transduces signals from the extracellular matrix into the cytoplasm by binding growth factor GAS6 and which is thus regulating many physiological processes including cell survival, cell proliferation, migration and differentiation. Ligand binding at the cell surface induces dimerization and autophosphorylation of AXL. Following activation by ligand, ALX binds and induces tyrosine phosphorylation of PI3-kinase subunits PIK3R1, PIK3R2 and PIK3R3; but also GRB2, PLCG1, LCK and PTPN11. Other downstream substrate candidates for AXL are CBL, NCK2, SOCS1 and TNS2. Recruitment of GRB2 and phosphatidylinositol 3 kinase regulatory subunits by AXL leads to the downstream activation of the AKT kinase. GAS6/AXL signaling plays a role in various processes such as endothelial cell survival during acidification by preventing apoptosis, optimal cytokine signaling during human natural killer cell development, hepatic regeneration, gonadotropin-releasing hormone neuron survival and migration, platelet activation, or regulation of thrombotic responses. Plays also an important role in inhibition of Toll-like receptors (TLRs)-mediated innate immune response.
  • (Microbial infection) Acts as a receptor for lassa virus and lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus, possibly through GAS6 binding to phosphatidyl-serine at the surface of virion envelope.
  • (Microbial infection) Acts as a receptor for Ebolavirus, possibly through GAS6 binding to phosphatidyl-serine at the surface of virion envelope.

Gene Wiki entry for AXL Gene

Additional gene information for AXL Gene

No data available for Tocris Summary , PharmGKB "VIP" Summary , Rfam classification and piRNA Summary for AXL Gene

Genomics for AXL Gene

GeneHancer (GH) Regulatory Elements for AXL Gene

Promoters and enhancers for AXL Gene
- Elite GeneHancer and/or Elite GeneHancer-gene association Download GeneHancer data from 2017 publication | Request up-to-date GeneHancer data (full dataset)

GeneHancers around AXL on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Top Transcription factor binding sites by QIAGEN in the AXL gene promoter:
  • AP-1
  • ATF-2
  • c-Jun
  • c-Myc

Genomic Locations for AXL Gene

Genomic Locations for AXL Gene
chr19:41,219,199-41,261,767
(GRCh38/hg38)
Size:
42,569 bases
Orientation:
Plus strand
chr19:41,725,108-41,767,671
(GRCh37/hg19)
Size:
42,564 bases
Orientation:
Plus strand

Genomic View for AXL Gene

Genes around AXL on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Cytogenetic band:
AXL Gene in genomic location: bands according to Ensembl, locations according to GeneLoc (and/or Entrez Gene and/or Ensembl if different)
Genomic Location for AXL Gene
GeneLoc Logo Genomic Neighborhood Exon StructureGene Density

RefSeq DNA sequence for AXL Gene

Proteins for AXL Gene

  • Protein details for AXL Gene (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)

    Protein Symbol:
    P30530-UFO_HUMAN
    Recommended name:
    Tyrosine-protein kinase receptor UFO
    Protein Accession:
    P30530
    Secondary Accessions:
    • Q8N5L2
    • Q9UD27

    Protein attributes for AXL Gene

    Size:
    894 amino acids
    Molecular mass:
    98337 Da
    Quaternary structure:
    • Heterodimer and heterotetramer with ligand GAS6. Interacts with CBL, GRB2, LCK, NCK2, PIK3R1, PIK3R2, PIK3R3, PLCG1, SOCS1 and TNS2. Part of a complex including AXL, TNK2 and GRB2, in which GRB2 promotes AXL recruitment by TNK2.

    Three dimensional structures from OCA and Proteopedia for AXL Gene

    Alternative splice isoforms for AXL Gene

    UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot:

neXtProt entry for AXL Gene

Selected DME Specific Peptides for AXL Gene

P30530:
  • GNRLKQP
  • RDLAARN
  • TSKSDVW
  • FGVTMWEIATRG
  • GDYYRQG
  • KSDVWSFG
  • KVAVKTMK
  • FSCEAHN
  • TRGQTPY

Post-translational modifications for AXL Gene

  • Monoubiquitinated upon GAS6-binding. A very small proportion of the receptor could be subjected to polyubiquitination in a very transient fashion.
  • Phosphorylated at tyrosine residues by autocatalysis, which activates kinase activity.
  • Glycosylation at Asn43, Asn157, Asn198, Asn339, Asn345, and Asn401
  • Ubiquitination at Lys540
  • Modification sites at PhosphoSitePlus
  • Glycosylation from GlyConnect

Other Protein References for AXL Gene

Antibody Products

  • Abcam antibodies for AXL

Domains & Families for AXL Gene

Gene Families for AXL Gene

Suggested Antigen Peptide Sequences for AXL Gene

GenScript: Design optimal peptide antigens:
  • Ufo protein (Q15839_HUMAN)
  • AXL oncogene (UFO_HUMAN)

Graphical View of Domain Structure for InterPro Entry

P30530

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot:

UFO_HUMAN :
  • Belongs to the protein kinase superfamily. Tyr protein kinase family. AXL/UFO subfamily.
Family:
  • Belongs to the protein kinase superfamily. Tyr protein kinase family. AXL/UFO subfamily.
genes like me logo Genes that share domains with AXL: view

Function for AXL Gene

Molecular function for AXL Gene

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Function:
Receptor tyrosine kinase that transduces signals from the extracellular matrix into the cytoplasm by binding growth factor GAS6 and which is thus regulating many physiological processes including cell survival, cell proliferation, migration and differentiation. Ligand binding at the cell surface induces dimerization and autophosphorylation of AXL. Following activation by ligand, ALX binds and induces tyrosine phosphorylation of PI3-kinase subunits PIK3R1, PIK3R2 and PIK3R3; but also GRB2, PLCG1, LCK and PTPN11. Other downstream substrate candidates for AXL are CBL, NCK2, SOCS1 and TNS2. Recruitment of GRB2 and phosphatidylinositol 3 kinase regulatory subunits by AXL leads to the downstream activation of the AKT kinase. GAS6/AXL signaling plays a role in various processes such as endothelial cell survival during acidification by preventing apoptosis, optimal cytokine signaling during human natural killer cell development, hepatic regeneration, gonadotropin-releasing hormone neuron survival and migration, platelet activation, or regulation of thrombotic responses. Plays also an important role in inhibition of Toll-like receptors (TLRs)-mediated innate immune response.
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Function:
(Microbial infection) Acts as a receptor for lassa virus and lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus, possibly through GAS6 binding to phosphatidyl-serine at the surface of virion envelope.
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Function:
(Microbial infection) Acts as a receptor for Ebolavirus, possibly through GAS6 binding to phosphatidyl-serine at the surface of virion envelope.
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot CatalyticActivity:
Reaction=ATP + L-tyrosyl-[protein] = ADP + H(+) + O-phospho-L-tyrosyl-[protein]; Xref=Rhea:RHEA:10596, Rhea:RHEA-COMP:10136, Rhea:RHEA-COMP:10137, ChEBI:CHEBI:15378, ChEBI:CHEBI:30616, ChEBI:CHEBI:46858, ChEBI:CHEBI:82620, ChEBI:CHEBI:456216; EC=2.7.10.1; Evidence=. ;.
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot EnzymeRegulation:
Activated by GAS6-binding and subsequent autophosphorylation.
GENATLAS Biochemistry:
AXL transforming sequence,activated by GAS6,involved in the protection of neurons from apoptosis across neuronal migration,expressed in neural lymphoid,vascular and reproductive tissue,involved in the regulation of spermatogenesis and in primary and tumor cell lines derived from these sources

Enzyme Numbers (IUBMB) for AXL Gene

Phenotypes From GWAS Catalog for AXL Gene

Gene Ontology (GO) - Molecular Function for AXL Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0001618 virus receptor activity IEA --
GO:0001786 phosphatidylserine binding IDA 21501828
GO:0004672 protein kinase activity IEA --
GO:0004713 protein tyrosine kinase activity IEA,EXP 22327215
GO:0004714 transmembrane receptor protein tyrosine kinase activity IEA,IBA 21873635
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with AXL: view
genes like me logo Genes that share phenotypes with AXL: view

Human Phenotype Ontology for AXL Gene

HPO Id HPO Name Alternative Ids Definition Synonyms

Animal Models for AXL Gene

MGI Knock Outs for AXL:
  • Axl Axl<tm1Grl>
  • Axl Axl<tm1Dgen>

Animal Model Products

  • Taconic Biosciences Mouse Models for AXL

CRISPR Products

Clone Products

  • Addgene plasmids for AXL

No data available for Transcription Factor Targets and HOMER Transcription for AXL Gene

Localization for AXL Gene

Subcellular locations from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for AXL Gene

Cell membrane; Single-pass type I membrane protein.

Subcellular locations from

COMPARTMENTS
Extracellular space Cytosol Plasma membrane Cytoskeleton Lysosome Endosome Peroxisome ER Golgi Apparatus Nucleus Mitochondrion 0 1 2 3 4 5 Confidence
COMPARTMENTS Subcellular localization image for AXL gene
Compartment Confidence
plasma membrane 5
extracellular 5
cytoskeleton 3
nucleus 2
mitochondrion 1
endoplasmic reticulum 1
endosome 1
cytosol 1
lysosome 0
golgi apparatus 0

Gene Ontology (GO) - Cellular Components for AXL Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0005615 extracellular space IDA 20088931
GO:0005886 plasma membrane TAS --
GO:0005887 integral component of plasma membrane TAS,IBA 21873635
GO:0009986 cell surface IDA 19657094
GO:0016020 membrane IEA --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with AXL: view

No data available for Subcellular locations from the Human Protein Atlas (HPA) for AXL Gene

Pathways & Interactions for AXL Gene

PathCards logo

SuperPathways for AXL Gene

SuperPathway Contained pathways
1 GPCR Pathway
.73
.73
.62
.59
.58
.58
.55
.38
2 ERK Signaling
.61
.61
.58
.51
.49
3 Nanog in Mammalian ESC Pluripotency
.61
.61
.59
.48
4 Actin Nucleation by ARP-WASP Complex
.66
.66
.41
5 Activation of cAMP-Dependent PKA
.77
.71
genes like me logo Genes that share pathways with AXL: view

Pathways by source for AXL Gene

1 KEGG pathway for AXL Gene
29 Qiagen pathways for AXL Gene
  • 14-3-3 Induced Intracellular Signaling
  • Actin Nucleation and Branching
  • Actin Nucleation by ARP-WASP Complex
  • Activation of cAMP-Dependent PKA
  • Activation of PKA through GPCR
1 Cell Signaling Technology pathway for AXL Gene

SIGNOR curated interactions for AXL Gene

Activates:
Is activated by:

Gene Ontology (GO) - Biological Process for AXL Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0001764 neuron migration IEA --
GO:0001779 natural killer cell differentiation IBA 21873635
GO:0001818 negative regulation of cytokine production IEA --
GO:0001961 positive regulation of cytokine-mediated signaling pathway IDA 18840707
GO:0001974 blood vessel remodeling IEA --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with AXL: view

Drugs & Compounds for AXL Gene

(27) Drugs for AXL Gene - From: DrugBank, PharmGKB, ClinicalTrials, ApexBio, DGIdb, IUPHAR, HMDB, and Novoseek

Name Status Disease Links Group Role Mechanism of Action Clinical Trials
Fludarabine Approved Pharma DNA synthsis inhibitor 1425,1425
Tyrosine Approved, Investigational Nutra 938
fostamatinib Approved, Investigational Pharma Target, inhibitor Kinase Inhibitors 0
gilteritinib Approved, Investigational Pharma Target, inhibitor 0
cabozantinib Approved, Investigational Pharma Kinase Inhibitors, Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and VEGF receptor (VEGFR) inhibitors 0

(3) Additional Compounds for AXL Gene - From: HMDB and Novoseek

Name Synonyms Role CAS Number PubChem IDs PubMed IDs
ADP
  • 5'-Adenylphosphoric acid
  • Adenosine 5'-diphosphate
  • ADENOSINE-5'-diphosphATE
  • H3ADP
  • 5'-Adenylphosphate
Full agonist, Agonist, Partial agonist, Antagonist, Gating inhibitor 58-64-0

(6) ApexBio Compounds for AXL Gene

Compound Action Cas Number
BMS-777607 C-Met inhibitor, potent and selective 1025720-94-8
Cabozantinib (XL184, BMS-907351) VEGFR2/Met/Ret/Kit/FLT//AXL inhibitor 849217-68-1
LDC1267 TAM kinase inhibitor,highly selective 1361030-48-9
R428 Selective Axl inhibitor 1037624-75-1
TP-0903 AXL receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitor, anti-cancer agent 1341200-45-0
UNC2881 1493764-08-1
genes like me logo Genes that share compounds with AXL: view

Transcripts for AXL Gene

mRNA/cDNA for AXL Gene

CRISPR Products

Clone Products

  • Addgene plasmids for AXL

Alternative Splicing Database (ASD) splice patterns (SP) for AXL Gene

ExUns: 1a · 1b ^ 2 ^ 3 ^ 4 ^ 5a · 5b ^ 6 ^ 7 ^ 8 ^ 9 ^ 10 ^ 11 ^ 12 ^ 13 ^ 14 ^ 15 ^ 16 ^ 17 ^ 18 ^ 19 ^ 20 ^ 21
SP1: -
SP2: - -
SP3:

Relevant External Links for AXL Gene

GeneLoc Exon Structure for
AXL
ECgene alternative splicing isoforms for
AXL

Expression for AXL Gene

mRNA expression in normal human tissues from GTEx, Illumina, BioGPS, and CGAP SAGE for AXL Gene

mRNA expression in embryonic tissues and stem cells from LifeMap Discovery

Protein differential expression in normal tissues from HIPED for AXL Gene

This gene is overexpressed in Urine (41.6) and Breast (10.7).

Integrated Proteomics: protein expression in normal tissues and cell lines from ProteomicsDB, MaxQB, and MOPED for AXL Gene



NURSA nuclear receptor signaling pathways regulating expression of AXL Gene:

AXL

SOURCE GeneReport for Unigene cluster for AXL Gene:

Hs.590970

mRNA Expression by UniProt/SwissProt for AXL Gene:

P30530-UFO_HUMAN
Tissue specificity: Highly expressed in metastatic colon tumors. Expressed in primary colon tumors. Weakly expressed in normal colon tissue.

Evidence on tissue expression from TISSUES for AXL Gene

  • Nervous system(3.8)
  • Lung(2.3)
  • Eye(2.2)
  • Heart(2.2)
  • Spleen(2.2)
  • Skin(2.1)
  • Kidney(2)
  • Muscle(2)
genes like me logo Genes that share expression patterns with AXL: view

No data available for mRNA differential expression in normal tissues , Protein tissue co-expression partners and Phenotype-based relationships between genes and organs from Gene ORGANizer for AXL Gene

Orthologs for AXL Gene

This gene was present in the common ancestor of animals.

Orthologs for AXL Gene

Organism Taxonomy Gene Similarity Type Details
chimpanzee
(Pan troglodytes)
Mammalia AXL 33 32
  • 99.32 (n)
OneToOne
dog
(Canis familiaris)
Mammalia AXL 33 32
  • 89.12 (n)
OneToOne
mouse
(Mus musculus)
Mammalia Axl 17 33 32
  • 85.61 (n)
rat
(Rattus norvegicus)
Mammalia Axl 32
  • 85.34 (n)
cow
(Bos Taurus)
Mammalia AXL 33 32
  • 84.39 (n)
OneToOne
oppossum
(Monodelphis domestica)
Mammalia AXL 33
  • 79 (a)
OneToOne
platypus
(Ornithorhynchus anatinus)
Mammalia -- 33
  • 52 (a)
ManyToMany
lizard
(Anolis carolinensis)
Reptilia AXL 33
  • 61 (a)
OneToOne
tropical clawed frog
(Silurana tropicalis)
Amphibia axl 32
  • 63.02 (n)
zebrafish
(Danio rerio)
Actinopterygii CABZ01088927.1 33
  • 57 (a)
OneToMany
CABZ01088930.1 33
  • 57 (a)
OneToMany
worm
(Caenorhabditis elegans)
Secernentea F11E6.8 33
  • 34 (a)
ManyToMany
T14E8.1a 34
  • 34 (a)
T14E8.1b 34
  • 34 (a)
old-2 34
  • 33 (a)
sea squirt
(Ciona savignyi)
Ascidiacea -- 33
  • 30 (a)
OneToMany
Species where no ortholog for AXL was found in the sources mined by GeneCards:
  • A. gosspyii yeast (Ashbya gossypii)
  • Actinobacteria (Mycobacterium tuberculosis)
  • African clawed frog (Xenopus laevis)
  • African malaria mosquito (Anopheles gambiae)
  • Alicante grape (Vitis vinifera)
  • alpha proteobacteria (Wolbachia pipientis)
  • amoeba (Dictyostelium discoideum)
  • Archea (Pyrococcus horikoshii)
  • baker's yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae)
  • barley (Hordeum vulgare)
  • beta proteobacteria (Neisseria meningitidis)
  • bread mold (Neurospora crassa)
  • chicken (Gallus gallus)
  • Chromalveolata (Phytophthora infestans)
  • common water flea (Daphnia pulex)
  • corn (Zea mays)
  • E. coli (Escherichia coli)
  • filamentous fungi (Aspergillus nidulans)
  • Firmicute bacteria (Streptococcus pneumoniae)
  • fission yeast (Schizosaccharomyces pombe)
  • fruit fly (Drosophila melanogaster)
  • green algae (Chlamydomonas reinhardtii)
  • honey bee (Apis mellifera)
  • K. lactis yeast (Kluyveromyces lactis)
  • loblloly pine (Pinus taeda)
  • malaria parasite (Plasmodium falciparum)
  • medicago trunc (Medicago Truncatula)
  • moss (Physcomitrella patens)
  • orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus)
  • pig (Sus scrofa)
  • rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)
  • rice (Oryza sativa)
  • rice blast fungus (Magnaporthe grisea)
  • schistosome parasite (Schistosoma mansoni)
  • sea anemone (Nematostella vectensis)
  • sea urchin (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus)
  • sorghum (Sorghum bicolor)
  • soybean (Glycine max)
  • stem rust fungus (Puccinia graminis)
  • sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum)
  • thale cress (Arabidopsis thaliana)
  • tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum)
  • toxoplasmosis (Toxoplasma gondii)
  • Trichoplax (Trichoplax adhaerens)
  • wheat (Triticum aestivum)

Evolution for AXL Gene

ENSEMBL:
Gene Tree for AXL (if available)
TreeFam:
Gene Tree for AXL (if available)
Aminode:
Evolutionary constrained regions (ECRs) for AXL: view image

Paralogs for AXL Gene

Paralogs for AXL Gene