Aliases for ATM Gene
External Ids for ATM Gene
Previous HGNC Symbols for ATM Gene
Previous GeneCards Identifiers for ATM Gene
The protein encoded by this gene belongs to the PI3/PI4-kinase family. This protein is an important cell cycle checkpoint kinase that phosphorylates; thus, it functions as a regulator of a wide variety of downstream proteins, including tumor suppressor proteins p53 and BRCA1, checkpoint kinase CHK2, checkpoint proteins RAD17 and RAD9, and DNA repair protein NBS1. This protein and the closely related kinase ATR are thought to be master controllers of cell cycle checkpoint signaling pathways that are required for cell response to DNA damage and for genome stability. Mutations in this gene are associated with ataxia telangiectasia, an autosomal recessive disorder. [provided by RefSeq, Aug 2010]
Ataxia-telangiectasia (A-T) is a recessive disorder resulting from germline mutation of the A-T mutated (ATM) gene on chromosome 11q. Upon sensing double-stranded breaks (DSB), the wild-type kinase encoded by ATM initiates the DNA-damage response by phosphorylating histone H2AX and, subsequently, various other proteins, such as BRCA1 and the MRE11–RAD50–NBS1 (MRN) complex, which are recruited to the damaged site. Additionally, ATM phosphorylates p53, resulting in expression of the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p21 and leading to senescence or apoptosis. Somatic variants can result in inhibition or loss of these functions and can cause resistance to therapies that rely on inducing apoptosis via DSBs. Germline variants in A-T patients result in a predisposition to cancer, most frequently hematologic or breast. PARP inhibition has been studied for its potential in treating ATM mutated breast cancer patients.
GeneCards Summary for ATM Gene
ATM (ATM Serine/Threonine Kinase) is a Protein Coding gene. Diseases associated with ATM include Ataxia-Telangiectasia and Mantle Cell Lymphoma. Among its related pathways are DNA Double-Strand Break Repair and Apoptosis Modulation and Signaling. Gene Ontology (GO) annotations related to this gene include transferase activity, transferring phosphorus-containing groups and binding. An important paralog of this gene is PRKDC.
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Summary for ATM Gene
Serine/threonine protein kinase which activates checkpoint signaling upon double strand breaks (DSBs), apoptosis and genotoxic stresses such as ionizing ultraviolet A light (UVA), thereby acting as a DNA damage sensor. Recognizes the substrate consensus sequence [ST]-Q. Phosphorylates 'Ser-139' of histone variant H2AX at double strand breaks (DSBs), thereby regulating DNA damage response mechanism. Also plays a role in pre-B cell allelic exclusion, a process leading to expression of a single immunoglobulin heavy chain allele to enforce clonality and monospecific recognition by the B-cell antigen receptor (BCR) expressed on individual B-lymphocytes. After the introduction of DNA breaks by the RAG complex on one immunoglobulin allele, acts by mediating a repositioning of the second allele to pericentromeric heterochromatin, preventing accessibility to the RAG complex and recombination of the second allele. Also involved in signal transduction and cell cycle control. May function as a tumor suppressor. Necessary for activation of ABL1 and SAPK. Phosphorylates DYRK2, CHEK2, p53/TP53, FANCD2, NFKBIA, BRCA1, CTIP, nibrin (NBN), TERF1, UFL1, RAD9, UBQLN4 and DCLRE1C (PubMed:9843217, PubMed:9733515, PubMed:10550055, PubMed:10766245, PubMed:10839545, PubMed:10910365, PubMed:10802669, PubMed:10973490, PubMed:11375976, PubMed:12086603, PubMed:15456891, PubMed:19965871, PubMed:30612738, PubMed:30886146). May play a role in vesicle and/or protein transport. Could play a role in T-cell development, gonad and neurological function. Plays a role in replication-dependent histone mRNA degradation. Binds DNA ends. Phosphorylation of DYRK2 in nucleus in response to genotoxic stress prevents its MDM2-mediated ubiquitination and subsequent proteasome degradation. Phosphorylates ATF2 which stimulates its function in DNA damage response. Phosphorylates ERCC6 which is essential for its chromatin remodeling activity at DNA double-strand breaks (PubMed:29203878).
ATM (Ataxia telangiectasia mutated) and ATR (Ataxia telangiectasia and Rad3 related) are closely related kinases that are activated by DNA damage. They are serine-threonine protein kinases which are part of the phosphatidylinositol 3' kinase-like kinase (PIKK) enzyme family.