The protein encoded by this gene is involved in the synthesis of asparagine. This gene complements a mutation in the temperature-sensitive hamster mutant ts11, which blocks progression through the G1 phase of the cell cycle at nonpermissive temperature. Alternatively spliced transcript variants have been described for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, May 2010] See more...

Aliases for ASNS Gene

Aliases for ASNS Gene

  • Asparagine Synthetase (Glutamine-Hydrolyzing) 2 3 5
  • Asparagine Synthetase [Glutamine-Hydrolyzing] 3 4
  • Glutamine-Dependent Asparagine Synthetase 3 4
  • EC 4 54
  • TS11 3 4
  • TS11 Cell Cycle Control Protein 3
  • Cell Cycle Control Protein TS11 4
  • Asparagine Synthetase 2
  • ASNSD 3

External Ids for ASNS Gene

Previous GeneCards Identifiers for ASNS Gene

  • GC07M096016
  • GC07M097079
  • GC07M097093
  • GC07M097126
  • GC07M097319
  • GC07M097481
  • GC07M092082

Summaries for ASNS Gene

Entrez Gene Summary for ASNS Gene

  • The protein encoded by this gene is involved in the synthesis of asparagine. This gene complements a mutation in the temperature-sensitive hamster mutant ts11, which blocks progression through the G1 phase of the cell cycle at nonpermissive temperature. Alternatively spliced transcript variants have been described for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, May 2010]

CIViC Summary for ASNS Gene

GeneCards Summary for ASNS Gene

ASNS (Asparagine Synthetase (Glutamine-Hydrolyzing)) is a Protein Coding gene. Diseases associated with ASNS include Asparagine Synthetase Deficiency and Cystathioninuria. Among its related pathways are Photodynamic therapy-induced unfolded protein response and PERK regulates gene expression. Gene Ontology (GO) annotations related to this gene include protein homodimerization activity and asparagine synthase (glutamine-hydrolyzing) activity. An important paralog of this gene is ASNSD1.

Additional gene information for ASNS Gene

No data available for UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Summary , Tocris Summary , Gene Wiki entry , PharmGKB "VIP" Summary , Rfam classification and piRNA Summary for ASNS Gene

Genomics for ASNS Gene

GeneHancer (GH) Regulatory Elements for ASNS Gene

Promoters and enhancers for ASNS Gene
- Elite GeneHancer and/or Elite GeneHancer-gene association Download GeneHancer data from 2017 publication | Request up-to-date GeneHancer data (full dataset)

GeneHancers around ASNS on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Top Transcription factor binding sites by QIAGEN in the ASNS gene promoter:
  • AML1a

Genomic Locations for ASNS Gene

Genomic Locations for ASNS Gene
20,866 bases
Minus strand
20,426 bases
Minus strand

Genomic View for ASNS Gene

Genes around ASNS on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Cytogenetic band:
ASNS Gene in genomic location: bands according to Ensembl, locations according to GeneLoc (and/or Entrez Gene and/or Ensembl if different)
Genomic Location for ASNS Gene
GeneLoc Logo Genomic Neighborhood Exon StructureGene Density

RefSeq DNA sequence for ASNS Gene

Proteins for ASNS Gene

  • Protein details for ASNS Gene (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)

    Protein Symbol:
    Recommended name:
    Asparagine synthetase [glutamine-hydrolyzing]
    Protein Accession:
    Secondary Accessions:
    • A4D1I8
    • B4DXZ1
    • B7ZAA9
    • D6W5R3
    • E9PCI3
    • E9PCX6
    • P08184
    • Q15666
    • Q549T9
    • Q96HD0

    Protein attributes for ASNS Gene

    561 amino acids
    Molecular mass:
    64370 Da
    Quaternary structure:
    No Data Available

    Alternative splice isoforms for ASNS Gene


neXtProt entry for ASNS Gene

Selected DME Specific Peptides for ASNS Gene


Post-translational modifications for ASNS Gene

  • Ubiquitination at Lys168, Lys460, Lys478, and Lys504
  • Modification sites at PhosphoSitePlus

Antibody Products

  • Boster Bio Antibodies for ASNS

Domains & Families for ASNS Gene

Gene Families for ASNS Gene

Human Protein Atlas (HPA):
  • Disease related genes
  • Enzymes
  • Potential drug targets
  • Predicted intracellular proteins

Suggested Antigen Peptide Sequences for ASNS Gene

GenScript: Design optimal peptide antigens:
  • Glutamine-dependent asparagine synthetase (ASNS_HUMAN)
genes like me logo Genes that share domains with ASNS: view

No data available for Graphical View of Domain Structure and UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for ASNS Gene

Function for ASNS Gene

Molecular function for ASNS Gene

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot CatalyticActivity:
Reaction=ATP + H2O + L-aspartate + L-glutamine = AMP + diphosphate + H(+) + L-asparagine + L-glutamate; Xref=Rhea:RHEA:12228, ChEBI:CHEBI:15377, ChEBI:CHEBI:15378, ChEBI:CHEBI:29985, ChEBI:CHEBI:29991, ChEBI:CHEBI:30616, ChEBI:CHEBI:33019, ChEBI:CHEBI:58048, ChEBI:CHEBI:58359, ChEBI:CHEBI:456215; EC=; Evidence=. ;.
GENATLAS Biochemistry:
asparagine synthetase

Enzyme Numbers (IUBMB) for ASNS Gene

Phenotypes From GWAS Catalog for ASNS Gene

Gene Ontology (GO) - Molecular Function for ASNS Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0004066 asparagine synthase (glutamine-hydrolyzing) activity IBA,IDA 2564390
GO:0005515 protein binding IPI 25416956
GO:0005524 ATP binding IEA --
GO:0016874 ligase activity IEA --
GO:0042803 protein homodimerization activity IEA --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with ASNS: view
genes like me logo Genes that share phenotypes with ASNS: view

Human Phenotype Ontology for ASNS Gene

HPO Id HPO Name Alternative Ids Definition Synonyms

Animal Models for ASNS Gene

MGI Knock Outs for ASNS:
  • Asns Asns<tm1a(EUCOMM)Wtsi>

Animal Model Products

  • Taconic Biosciences Mouse Models for ASNS

CRISPR Products

Clone Products

No data available for Transcription Factor Targets and HOMER Transcription for ASNS Gene

Localization for ASNS Gene

Subcellular locations from

Extracellular space Cytosol Plasma membrane Cytoskeleton Lysosome Endosome Peroxisome ER Golgi Apparatus Nucleus Mitochondrion 0 1 2 3 4 5 Confidence
COMPARTMENTS Subcellular localization image for ASNS gene
Compartment Confidence
cytosol 5
nucleus 2
extracellular 1
mitochondrion 1
endoplasmic reticulum 1

Subcellular locations from the

Human Protein Atlas (HPA)

Gene Ontology (GO) - Cellular Components for ASNS Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0005829 cytosol TAS --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with ASNS: view

No data available for Subcellular locations from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for ASNS Gene

Pathways & Interactions for ASNS Gene

genes like me logo Genes that share pathways with ASNS: view

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot P08243-ASNS_HUMAN

  • Pathway: Amino-acid biosynthesis; L-asparagine biosynthesis; L-asparagine from L-aspartate (L-Gln route): step 1/1.

SIGNOR curated interactions for ASNS Gene

Is activated by:
Is inactivated by:

Gene Ontology (GO) - Biological Process for ASNS Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0001889 liver development IEA --
GO:0006520 cellular amino acid metabolic process IEA --
GO:0006529 asparagine biosynthetic process IDA 2573597
GO:0006541 glutamine metabolic process IEA --
GO:0008652 cellular amino acid biosynthetic process TAS --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with ASNS: view

Drugs & Compounds for ASNS Gene

(11) Drugs for ASNS Gene - From: DrugBank, HMDB, and Novoseek

Name Status Disease Links Group Role Mechanism of Action Clinical Trials
asparagine Approved, Investigational Nutra Target 0
Aspartic acid Approved Nutra Target 171
Glutamic acid Approved Nutra Full agonist, Agonist, Target 281
L-Glutamine Approved, Investigational Nutra Full agonist, Agonist, Enzyme, substrate 0
Famotidine Approved Pharma Histamine H2-receptor antagonist 70

(10) Additional Compounds for ASNS Gene - From: Novoseek and HMDB

Name Synonyms Role CAS Number PubChem IDs PubMed IDs
  • [(ho)2P(O)OP(O)(OH)2]
  • Acide diphosphorique
  • Diphosphorsaeure
  • H4P2O7
  • PYROphosphATE
genes like me logo Genes that share compounds with ASNS: view

Transcripts for ASNS Gene

CRISPR Products

Clone Products

Alternative Splicing Database (ASD) splice patterns (SP) for ASNS Gene

ExUns: 1a · 1b · 1c · 1d ^ 2 ^ 3 ^ 4a · 4b · 4c ^ 5a · 5b · 5c ^ 6 ^ 7 ^ 8a · 8b ^ 9 ^ 10a · 10b ^ 11a · 11b ^ 12 ^ 13 ^ 14a · 14b
SP1: - -
SP2: - - -
SP3: - - - - -
SP5: - -
SP7: -
SP8: - -

Relevant External Links for ASNS Gene

GeneLoc Exon Structure for
ECgene alternative splicing isoforms for

Expression for ASNS Gene

mRNA expression in normal human tissues from GTEx, Illumina, BioGPS, and CGAP SAGE for ASNS Gene

mRNA expression in embryonic tissues and stem cells from LifeMap Discovery

Protein differential expression in normal tissues from HIPED for ASNS Gene

This gene is overexpressed in Breast (22.2), Stomach (11.4), and Islet of Langerhans (8.7).

Integrated Proteomics: protein expression in normal tissues and cell lines from ProteomicsDB, MaxQB, and MOPED for ASNS Gene

NURSA nuclear receptor signaling pathways regulating expression of ASNS Gene:


SOURCE GeneReport for Unigene cluster for ASNS Gene:


Evidence on tissue expression from TISSUES for ASNS Gene

  • Nervous system(4.6)
  • Muscle(4.4)
  • Intestine(4)
  • Lung(3.1)
  • Blood(2.1)
  • Liver(2.1)

Phenotype-based relationships between genes and organs from Gene ORGANizer for ASNS Gene

Germ Layers:
  • ectoderm
  • endoderm
  • mesoderm
  • integumentary
  • nervous
  • respiratory
  • skeletal muscle
  • skeleton
Head and neck:
  • brain
  • cerebellum
  • chin
  • ear
  • eye
  • face
  • forehead
  • head
  • jaw
  • mandible
  • maxilla
  • mouth
  • outer ear
  • skull
  • chest wall
  • lung
  • abdominal wall
  • digit
  • finger
  • foot
  • hand
  • lower limb
  • upper limb
  • spinal cord
genes like me logo Genes that share expression patterns with ASNS: view

No data available for mRNA differential expression in normal tissues , Protein tissue co-expression partners and mRNA Expression by UniProt/SwissProt for ASNS Gene

Orthologs for ASNS Gene

This gene was present in the common ancestor of eukaryotes.

Orthologs for ASNS Gene

Organism Taxonomy Gene Similarity Type Details
(Pan troglodytes)
Mammalia ASNS 33 32
  • 99.58 (n)
(Canis familiaris)
Mammalia ASNS 33
  • 95 (a)
LOC475240 32
  • 91.8 (n)
(Bos Taurus)
Mammalia ASNS 33 32
  • 91.09 (n)
(Rattus norvegicus)
Mammalia Asns 32
  • 88 (n)
(Mus musculus)
Mammalia Asns 17 33 32
  • 87.76 (n)
(Ornithorhynchus anatinus)
Mammalia ASNS 33
  • 54 (a)
(Gallus gallus)
Aves ASNS 33 32
  • 77.02 (n)
(Anolis carolinensis)
Reptilia ASNS 33
  • 80 (a)
tropical clawed frog
(Silurana tropicalis)
Amphibia asns 32
  • 73.43 (n)
Str.4783 32
(Danio rerio)
Actinopterygii asns 33 32
  • 68.83 (n)
zgc56605 32
rainbow trout
(Oncorhynchus mykiss)
Actinopterygii Omy.9138 32
fruit fly
(Drosophila melanogaster)
Insecta asparagine-synthetase 33
  • 37 (a)
(Caenorhabditis elegans)
Secernentea asns-1 33 32
  • 51.06 (n)
nrs-2 34
  • 36 (a)
baker's yeast
(Saccharomyces cerevisiae)
Saccharomycetes ASN2 35 33
  • 37 (a)
ASN1 33
  • 36 (a)
(Oryza sativa)
Liliopsida Os.135 32
sea squirt
(Ciona savignyi)
Ascidiacea -- 33
  • 54 (a)
-- 33
  • 51 (a)
-- 33
  • 51 (a)
Cin.14999 32
sea squirt
(Ciona intestinalis)
Ascidiacea Cin.14999 32
Species where no ortholog for ASNS was found in the sources mined by GeneCards:
  • A. gosspyii yeast (Ashbya gossypii)
  • Actinobacteria (Mycobacterium tuberculosis)
  • African clawed frog (Xenopus laevis)
  • African malaria mosquito (Anopheles gambiae)
  • Alicante grape (Vitis vinifera)
  • alpha proteobacteria (Wolbachia pipientis)
  • amoeba (Dictyostelium discoideum)
  • Archea (Pyrococcus horikoshii)
  • barley (Hordeum vulgare)
  • beta proteobacteria (Neisseria meningitidis)
  • bread mold (Neurospora crassa)
  • Chromalveolata (Phytophthora infestans)
  • common water flea (Daphnia pulex)
  • corn (Zea mays)
  • E. coli (Escherichia coli)
  • filamentous fungi (Aspergillus nidulans)
  • Firmicute bacteria (Streptococcus pneumoniae)
  • fission yeast (Schizosaccharomyces pombe)
  • green algae (Chlamydomonas reinhardtii)
  • honey bee (Apis mellifera)
  • K. lactis yeast (Kluyveromyces lactis)
  • loblloly pine (Pinus taeda)
  • malaria parasite (Plasmodium falciparum)
  • medicago trunc (Medicago Truncatula)
  • moss (Physcomitrella patens)
  • oppossum (Monodelphis domestica)
  • orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus)
  • pig (Sus scrofa)
  • rice blast fungus (Magnaporthe grisea)
  • schistosome parasite (Schistosoma mansoni)
  • sea anemone (Nematostella vectensis)
  • sea urchin (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus)
  • sorghum (Sorghum bicolor)
  • soybean (Glycine max)
  • stem rust fungus (Puccinia graminis)
  • sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum)
  • thale cress (Arabidopsis thaliana)
  • tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum)
  • toxoplasmosis (Toxoplasma gondii)
  • Trichoplax (Trichoplax adhaerens)
  • wheat (Triticum aestivum)

Evolution for ASNS Gene

Gene Tree for ASNS (if available)
Gene Tree for ASNS (if available)
Evolutionary constrained regions (ECRs) for ASNS: view image

Paralogs for ASNS Gene

Variants for ASNS Gene

Sequence variations from dbSNP and Humsavar for ASNS Gene

SNP ID Clin Chr 07 pos Variation AA Info Type
rs1481539409 pathogenic, Asparagine synthetase deficiency 97,859,285(-) TTT/TT coding_sequence_variant, frameshift
rs1554347511 uncertain-significance, Inborn genetic diseases 97,853,336(-) A/C coding_sequence_variant, missense_variant
rs1554350554 likely-pathogenic, Asparagine synthetase deficiency 97,868,955(-) G/T coding_sequence_variant, intron_variant, missense_variant
rs1562817048 pathogenic, Asparagine synthetase deficiency 97,859,317(-) A/C coding_sequence_variant, stop_gained
rs1562823595 uncertain-significance, Asparagine synthetase deficiency 97,869,128(-) C/T coding_sequence_variant, intron_variant, missense_variant

Structural Variations from Database of Genomic Variants (DGV) for ASNS Gene

Variant ID Type Subtype PubMed ID
dgv3621n106 CNV deletion 24896259
dgv444e215 CNV deletion 23714750
esv2672632 CNV deletion 23128226
esv2734862 CNV deletion 23290073
esv2759546 CNV loss 17122850
nsv428178 CNV gain 18775914
nsv970554 CNV duplication 23825009
nsv981551 CNV duplication 23825009
nsv981552 CNV duplication 23825009

Variation tolerance for ASNS Gene

Residual Variation Intolerance Score: 13.6% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)
Gene Damage Index Score: 2.21; 39.91% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)

Additional Variant Information for ASNS Gene

Human Gene Mutation Database (HGMD)
SNPedia medical, phenotypic, and genealogical associations of SNPs for

SNP Genotyping and Copy Number Assay Products

No data available for Polymorphic Variants from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for ASNS Gene

Disorders for ASNS Gene

MalaCards: The human disease database

(8) MalaCards diseases for ASNS Gene - From: HGMD, OMIM, ClinVar, GTR, Orphanet, DISEASES, Novoseek, and GeneCards

Disorder Aliases PubMed IDs
asparagine synthetase deficiency
  • asnsd
  • cystathionase deficiency
chronic rhinitis
  • rhinitis - chronic
  • acute tracheitis
leukemia, acute lymphoblastic
  • all
- elite association - COSMIC cancer census association via MalaCards
Search ASNS in MalaCards View complete list of genes associated with diseases


  • Asparagine synthetase deficiency (ASNSD) [MIM:615574]: An inborn error of asparagine biosynthesis that results in a severe neurologic disorder characterized by microcephaly, severely delayed psychomotor development, progressive encephalopathy, cortical atrophy, and seizure or hyperekplexic activity. {ECO:0000269 PubMed:24139043}. Note=The disease is caused by mutations affecting the gene represented in this entry.

Additional Disease Information for ASNS

genes like me logo Genes that share disorders with ASNS: view

No data available for Genatlas for ASNS Gene

Publications for ASNS Gene

  1. Deficiency of asparagine synthetase causes congenital microcephaly and a progressive form of encephalopathy. (PMID: 24139043) Ruzzo EK … Goldstein DB (Neuron 2013) 3 4 56
  2. Functional analysis of a novel DNA polymorphism of a tandem repeated sequence in the asparagine synthetase gene in acute lymphoblastic leukemia cells. (PMID: 19054556) Akagi T … Koeffler HP (Leukemia research 2009) 3 23 56
  3. Declined asparagine synthetase mRNA expression and enhanced sensitivity to asparaginase in HL-60 cells committed to monocytic differentiation. (PMID: 19414379) Hashimoto K … Sakagami H (Anticancer research 2009) 3 23 56
  4. Transcriptional induction of the human asparagine synthetase gene during the unfolded protein response does not require the ATF6 and IRE1/XBP1 arms of the pathway. (PMID: 18840095) Gjymishka A … Kilberg MS (The Biochemical journal 2009) 3 23 56
  5. Asparagine synthetase is a predictive biomarker of L-asparaginase activity in ovarian cancer cell lines. (PMID: 18852115) Lorenzi PL … Weinstein JN (Molecular cancer therapeutics 2008) 3 23 56

Products for ASNS Gene

Sources for ASNS Gene