Members of arrestin/beta-arrestin protein family are thought to participate in agonist-mediated desensitization of G-protein-coupled receptors and cause specific dampening of cellular responses to stimuli such as hormones, neurotransmitters, or sensory signals. Arrestin beta 2, like arrestin beta 1, was shown to inhibit beta-adrenergic receptor function in vitro. It is expresse... See more...

Aliases for ARRB2 Gene

Aliases for ARRB2 Gene

  • Arrestin Beta 2 2 3 5
  • Non-Visual Arrestin-3 3 4
  • Beta-Arrestin-2 3 4
  • Arrestin 3 2 3
  • BARR2 2 3
  • ARB2 3 4
  • ARR2 3 4
  • Arrestin, Beta 2 2
  • Arrestin Beta-2 4
  • DKFZp686L0365 2
  • ARRB2 5

External Ids for ARRB2 Gene

Previous HGNC Symbols for ARRB2 Gene

  • ARR2

Previous GeneCards Identifiers for ARRB2 Gene

  • GC17P005040
  • GC17P004959
  • GC17P004564
  • GC17P004820
  • GC17P004560
  • GC17P004613
  • GC17P004502

Summaries for ARRB2 Gene

Entrez Gene Summary for ARRB2 Gene

  • Members of arrestin/beta-arrestin protein family are thought to participate in agonist-mediated desensitization of G-protein-coupled receptors and cause specific dampening of cellular responses to stimuli such as hormones, neurotransmitters, or sensory signals. Arrestin beta 2, like arrestin beta 1, was shown to inhibit beta-adrenergic receptor function in vitro. It is expressed at high levels in the central nervous system and may play a role in the regulation of synaptic receptors. Besides the brain, a cDNA for arrestin beta 2 was isolated from thyroid gland, and thus it may also be involved in hormone-specific desensitization of TSH receptors. Multiple alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Mar 2012]

GeneCards Summary for ARRB2 Gene

ARRB2 (Arrestin Beta 2) is a Protein Coding gene. Diseases associated with ARRB2 include Whim Syndrome and Cryptococcal Meningitis. Among its related pathways are Regulation of activated PAK-2p34 by proteasome mediated degradation and ADP signalling through P2Y purinoceptor 12. Gene Ontology (GO) annotations related to this gene include signaling receptor binding and ubiquitin protein ligase binding. An important paralog of this gene is ARRB1.

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Summary for ARRB2 Gene

  • Functions in regulating agonist-mediated G-protein coupled receptor (GPCR) signaling by mediating both receptor desensitization and resensitization processes. During homologous desensitization, beta-arrestins bind to the GPRK-phosphorylated receptor and sterically preclude its coupling to the cognate G-protein; the binding appears to require additional receptor determinants exposed only in the active receptor conformation. The beta-arrestins target many receptors for internalization by acting as endocytic adapters (CLASPs, clathrin-associated sorting proteins) and recruiting the GPRCs to the adapter protein 2 complex 2 (AP-2) in clathrin-coated pits (CCPs). However, the extent of beta-arrestin involvement appears to vary significantly depending on the receptor, agonist and cell type. Internalized arrestin-receptor complexes traffic to intracellular endosomes, where they remain uncoupled from G-proteins. Two different modes of arrestin-mediated internalization occur. Class A receptors, like ADRB2, OPRM1, ENDRA, D1AR and ADRA1B dissociate from beta-arrestin at or near the plasma membrane and undergo rapid recycling. Class B receptors, like AVPR2, AGTR1, NTSR1, TRHR and TACR1 internalize as a complex with arrestin and traffic with it to endosomal vesicles, presumably as desensitized receptors, for extended periods of time. Receptor resensitization then requires that receptor-bound arrestin is removed so that the receptor can be dephosphorylated and returned to the plasma membrane. Mediates endocytosis of CCR7 following ligation of CCL19 but not CCL21. Involved in internalization of P2RY1, P2RY4, P2RY6 and P2RY11 and ATP-stimulated internalization of P2RY2. Involved in phosphorylation-dependent internalization of OPRD1 and subsequent recycling or degradation. Involved in ubiquitination of IGF1R. Beta-arrestins function as multivalent adapter proteins that can switch the GPCR from a G-protein signaling mode that transmits short-lived signals from the plasma membrane via small molecule second messengers and ion channels to a beta-arrestin signaling mode that transmits a distinct set of signals that are initiated as the receptor internalizes and transits the intracellular compartment. Acts as signaling scaffold for MAPK pathways such as MAPK1/3 (ERK1/2) and MAPK10 (JNK3). ERK1/2 and JNK3 activated by the beta-arrestin scaffold are largely excluded from the nucleus and confined to cytoplasmic locations such as endocytic vesicles, also called beta-arrestin signalosomes. Acts as signaling scaffold for the AKT1 pathway. GPCRs for which the beta-arrestin-mediated signaling relies on both ARRB1 and ARRB2 (codependent regulation) include ADRB2, F2RL1 and PTH1R. For some GPCRs the beta-arrestin-mediated signaling relies on either ARRB1 or ARRB2 and is inhibited by the other respective beta-arrestin form (reciprocal regulation). Increases ERK1/2 signaling in AGTR1- and AVPR2-mediated activation (reciprocal regulation). Involved in CCR7-mediated ERK1/2 signaling involving ligand CCL19. Is involved in type-1A angiotensin II receptor/AGTR1-mediated ERK activity. Is involved in type-1A angiotensin II receptor/AGTR1-mediated MAPK10 activity. Is involved in dopamine-stimulated AKT1 activity in the striatum by disrupting the association of AKT1 with its negative regulator PP2A. Involved in AGTR1-mediated chemotaxis. Appears to function as signaling scaffold involved in regulation of MIP-1-beta-stimulated CCR5-dependent chemotaxis. Involved in attenuation of NF-kappa-B-dependent transcription in response to GPCR or cytokine stimulation by interacting with and stabilizing CHUK. Suppresses UV-induced NF-kappa-B-dependent activation by interacting with CHUK. The function is promoted by stimulation of ADRB2 and dephosphorylation of ARRB2. Involved in p53/TP53-mediated apoptosis by regulating MDM2 and reducing the MDM2-mediated degradation of p53/TP53. May serve as nuclear messenger for GPCRs. Upon stimulation of OR1D2, may be involved in regulation of gene expression during the early processes of fertilization. Also involved in regulation of receptors other than GPCRs. Involved in endocytosis of TGFBR2 and TGFBR3 and down-regulates TGF-beta signaling such as NF-kappa-B activation. Involved in endocytosis of low-density lipoprotein receptor/LDLR. Involved in endocytosis of smoothened homolog/Smo, which also requires GRK2. Involved in endocytosis of SLC9A5. Involved in endocytosis of ENG and subsequent TGF-beta-mediated ERK activation and migration of epithelial cells. Involved in Toll-like receptor and IL-1 receptor signaling through the interaction with TRAF6 which prevents TRAF6 autoubiquitination and oligomerization required for activation of NF-kappa-B and JUN. Involved in insulin resistance by acting as insulin-induced signaling scaffold for SRC, AKT1 and INSR. Involved in regulation of inhibitory signaling of natural killer cells by recruiting PTPN6 and PTPN11 to KIR2DL1. Involved in IL8-mediated granule release in neutrophils. Involved in the internalization of the atypical chemokine receptor ACKR3. Acts as an adapter protein coupling FFAR4 receptor to specific downstream signaling pathways, as well as mediating receptor endocytosis (PubMed:22282525, PubMed:23809162). During the activation step of NLRP3 inflammasome, directly associates with NLRP3 leading to inhibition of proinflammatory cytokine release and inhibition of inflammation (PubMed:23809162).

Gene Wiki entry for ARRB2 Gene

No data available for CIViC Summary , Tocris Summary , PharmGKB "VIP" Summary , Rfam classification and piRNA Summary for ARRB2 Gene

Genomics for ARRB2 Gene

GeneHancer (GH) Regulatory Elements Pubs

Promoters and enhancers for ARRB2 Gene
GeneHancer (GH) Identifier GH Type GH
Score
GH Sources Gene Association Score Total Score TSS distance (kb) Number of Genes Away Size (kb) Transcription Factor
Binding Sites
Gene Targets
GH17J004709 Promoter/Enhancer 2.5 EPDnew FANTOM5 Ensembl ENCODE CraniofacialAtlas 640.6 +0.5 490 4.6 SP1 HNRNPL GATAD2A CTCF PRDM10 ZNF629 REST IKZF1 ZNF692 FOS ARRB2 HSALNG0114041 PELP1 ZMYND15 C17orf107 CXCL16 ZNF232 RPAIN ENSG00000261879 ANKFY1
GH17J004713 Promoter/Enhancer 1.1 EPDnew Ensembl ENCODE 612.8 +4.5 4499 2.8 ZSCAN4 SMARCA4 ZNF121 ARRB2 ZFP3 HSALNG0114041 lnc-CXCL16-2 MED11
GH17J004708 Promoter/Enhancer 0.9 EPDnew ENCODE 600.7 -1.9 -1907 0.2 SP1 RBFOX2 POLR2A IRF3 SP2 NFYA NFYB TBP DRAP1 NFATC3 ARRB2 HSALNG0114041 PELP1 piR-31470-227 piR-58297-207 RPS12P29
GH17J004703 Promoter/Enhancer 2 EPDnew Ensembl ENCODE CraniofacialAtlas 13 -6.7 -6695 3 HNRNPL CREB1 GATAD2A ZNF629 TFE3 NFKBIZ POLR2A ZNF692 BACH1 TARDBP LOC101559451 PELP1 RPS12P29 lnc-PELP1-2 lnc-CXCL16-3 ARRB2 DERL2 ZFP3 lnc-CXCL16-4 ALOX15
GH17J004719 Promoter/Enhancer 1.3 EPDnew Ensembl ENCODE 16.2 +9.3 9314 0.9 PRDM10 ZNF629 ZNF692 PRDM1 ZIC2 RBFOX2 PATZ1 ZNF501 ZNF600 ZNF341 MINK1 DERL2 ARRB2 MIS12 ZNF232 RPAIN ENSG00000261879 ZFP3 lnc-CXCL16-2 HSALNG0114041
- Elite GeneHancer and/or Elite GeneHancer-gene association Download GeneHancer data from 2017 publication | Request up-to-date GeneHancer data (full dataset)

GeneHancers around ARRB2 on the GeneHancer Hub at the UCSC Golden Path

Cistromic (ChIP-Seq) regulation report from SPP (The Signaling Pathways Project) for ARRB2

Top Transcription factor binding sites by QIAGEN in the ARRB2 gene promoter:
  • AP-1
  • ATF-2
  • c-Jun
  • COUP
  • COUP-TF
  • COUP-TF1
  • HNF-4alpha1

Genomic Locations for ARRB2 Gene

Genomic Locations for ARRB2 Gene
chr17:4,710,596-4,721,500
(GRCh38/hg38)
Size:
10,905 bases
Orientation:
Plus strand
chr17:4,613,784-4,624,795
(GRCh37/hg19)
Size:
11,012 bases
Orientation:
Plus strand

Genomic View for ARRB2 Gene

Genes around ARRB2 on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Cytogenetic band:
ARRB2 Gene in genomic location: bands according to Ensembl, locations according to GeneLoc (and/or Entrez Gene and/or Ensembl if different)
Genomic Location for ARRB2 Gene
GeneLoc Logo Genomic Neighborhood Exon StructureGene Density

RefSeq DNA sequence for ARRB2 Gene

Proteins for ARRB2 Gene

  • Protein details for ARRB2 Gene (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)

    Protein Symbol:
    P32121-ARRB2_HUMAN
    Recommended name:
    Beta-arrestin-2
    Protein Accession:
    P32121
    Secondary Accessions:
    • B4DLW0
    • B5B0C0
    • B7WPL3
    • D3DTK2
    • H0Y688
    • Q0Z8D3
    • Q2PP19
    • Q6ICT3
    • Q8N7Y2
    • Q9UEQ6

    Protein attributes for ARRB2 Gene

    Size:
    409 amino acids
    Molecular mass:
    46106 Da
    Quaternary structure:
    • Homooligomer; the self-association is mediated by InsP6-binding (Probable). Heterooligomer with ARRB1; the association is mediated by InsP6-binding. Interacts with ADRB2 AND CHRM2. Interacts with PDE4A. Interacts with PDE4D. Interacts with MAPK10, MAPK1 and MAPK3. Interacts with DRD2. Interacts with FSHR. Interacts with CLTC. Interacts with HTR2C. Interacts with CCR5. Interacts with CXCR4. Interacts with SRC. Interacts with DUSP16; the interaction is interrupted by stimulation of AGTR1 and activation of MAPK10. Interacts with CHUK; the interaction is enhanced stimulation of ADRB2. Interacts with RELA. Interacts with MDM2; the interaction is enhanced by activation of GPCRs. Interacts with SLC9A5. Interacts with TRAF6. Interacts with IGF1R. Interacts with ENG. Interacts with KIR2DL1, KIR2DL3 and KIR2DL4. Interacts with LDLR. Interacts with AP2B1. Interacts with C5AR1. Interacts with RAF1. Interacts with MAP2K1. Interacts with MAPK1. Interacts with MAPK10; the interaction enhances MAPK10 activation by MAP3K5. Interacts with MAP2K4; the interaction is enhanced by presence of MAP3K5 and MAPK10. Interacts with MAP3K5. Interacts with AKT1. Interacts with IKBKB and MAP3K14. Interacts with SMO (activated). Interacts with GSK3A and GSK3B. Associates with protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A) (By similarity). Interacts with DHX8; the interaction is detected in the nucleus upon OR1D2 stimulation. Interacts with GAPDHS; the interaction is detected in the nucleus upon OR1D2 stimulation. Interacts with H2AFX; the interaction is detected in the nucleus upon OR1D2 stimulation. Interacts with KIF14; the interaction is detected in the nucleus upon OR1D2 stimulation. Interacts with RCC1; the interaction is detected in the nucleus upon OR1D2 stimulation. Interacts with CXCR4; the interaction is dependent on C-terminal phosphorylation of CXCR4 and allows activation of MAPK1 and MAPK3. Interacts with GPR143. Interacts with HCK and CXCR1 (phosphorylated). Interacts with ACKR3 and ACKR4. Interacts with ARRDC1; the interaction is direct (PubMed:23886940). Interacts with GPR61, GPR62 and GPR135 (PubMed:28827538). Interacts (via NACHT and LRR domains) with NLRP3; this interaction is direct and inducible by omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) (PubMed:23809162). Interacts with FFAR4 (via C-terminus); this interaction is stimulated by long-chain fatty acids (LCFAs) (PubMed:22282525).

    Alternative splice isoforms for ARRB2 Gene

    UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot:

neXtProt entry for ARRB2 Gene

Post-translational modifications for ARRB2 Gene

  • Phosphorylated at Thr-382 in the cytoplasm; probably dephosphorylated at the plasma membrane. The phosphorylation does not regulate internalization and recycling of ADRB2, interaction with clathrin or AP2B1.
  • The ubiquitination status appears to regulate the formation and trafficking of beta-arrestin-GPCR complexes and signaling. Ubiquitination appears to occur GPCR-specific. Ubiquitinated by MDM2; the ubiquitination is required for rapid internalization of ADRB2. Deubiquitinated by USP33; the deubiquitination leads to a dissociation of the beta-arrestin-GPCR complex. Stimulation of a class A GPCR, such as ADRB2, induces transient ubiquitination and subsequently promotes association with USP33. Stimulation of a class B GPCR promotes a sustained ubiquitination.
  • Hydroxylation by PHD2 modulates the rate of internalization by slowing down recruitment to the plasma membrane and inhibiting subsequent co-internalization with class A receptors.
  • Ubiquitination at Lys78
  • Modification sites at PhosphoSitePlus

No data available for DME Specific Peptides for ARRB2 Gene

Domains & Families for ARRB2 Gene

Gene Families for ARRB2 Gene

HGNC:
Human Protein Atlas (HPA):
  • Predicted intracellular proteins

Protein Domains for ARRB2 Gene

Suggested Antigen Peptide Sequences for ARRB2 Gene

GenScript: Design optimal peptide antigens:
  • Arrestin beta-2 (ARRB2_HUMAN)
  • cDNA FLJ58316, highly similar to Beta-arrestin-2 (Q68DZ5_HUMAN)

Graphical View of Domain Structure for InterPro Entry

P32121

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot:

ARRB2_HUMAN :
  • The [DE]-X(1,2)-F-X-X-[FL]-X-X-X-R motif mediates interaction the AP-2 complex subunit AP2B1.
  • Belongs to the arrestin family.
Domain:
  • The [DE]-X(1,2)-F-X-X-[FL]-X-X-X-R motif mediates interaction the AP-2 complex subunit AP2B1.
Family:
  • Belongs to the arrestin family.
genes like me logo Genes that share domains with ARRB2: view

Function for ARRB2 Gene

Molecular function for ARRB2 Gene

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Function:
Functions in regulating agonist-mediated G-protein coupled receptor (GPCR) signaling by mediating both receptor desensitization and resensitization processes. During homologous desensitization, beta-arrestins bind to the GPRK-phosphorylated receptor and sterically preclude its coupling to the cognate G-protein; the binding appears to require additional receptor determinants exposed only in the active receptor conformation. The beta-arrestins target many receptors for internalization by acting as endocytic adapters (CLASPs, clathrin-associated sorting proteins) and recruiting the GPRCs to the adapter protein 2 complex 2 (AP-2) in clathrin-coated pits (CCPs). However, the extent of beta-arrestin involvement appears to vary significantly depending on the receptor, agonist and cell type. Internalized arrestin-receptor complexes traffic to intracellular endosomes, where they remain uncoupled from G-proteins. Two different modes of arrestin-mediated internalization occur. Class A receptors, like ADRB2, OPRM1, ENDRA, D1AR and ADRA1B dissociate from beta-arrestin at or near the plasma membrane and undergo rapid recycling. Class B receptors, like AVPR2, AGTR1, NTSR1, TRHR and TACR1 internalize as a complex with arrestin and traffic with it to endosomal vesicles, presumably as desensitized receptors, for extended periods of time. Receptor resensitization then requires that receptor-bound arrestin is removed so that the receptor can be dephosphorylated and returned to the plasma membrane. Mediates endocytosis of CCR7 following ligation of CCL19 but not CCL21. Involved in internalization of P2RY1, P2RY4, P2RY6 and P2RY11 and ATP-stimulated internalization of P2RY2. Involved in phosphorylation-dependent internalization of OPRD1 and subsequent recycling or degradation. Involved in ubiquitination of IGF1R. Beta-arrestins function as multivalent adapter proteins that can switch the GPCR from a G-protein signaling mode that transmits short-lived signals from the plasma membrane via small molecule second messengers and ion channels to a beta-arrestin signaling mode that transmits a distinct set of signals that are initiated as the receptor internalizes and transits the intracellular compartment. Acts as signaling scaffold for MAPK pathways such as MAPK1/3 (ERK1/2) and MAPK10 (JNK3). ERK1/2 and JNK3 activated by the beta-arrestin scaffold are largely excluded from the nucleus and confined to cytoplasmic locations such as endocytic vesicles, also called beta-arrestin signalosomes. Acts as signaling scaffold for the AKT1 pathway. GPCRs for which the beta-arrestin-mediated signaling relies on both ARRB1 and ARRB2 (codependent regulation) include ADRB2, F2RL1 and PTH1R. For some GPCRs the beta-arrestin-mediated signaling relies on either ARRB1 or ARRB2 and is inhibited by the other respective beta-arrestin form (reciprocal regulation). Increases ERK1/2 signaling in AGTR1- and AVPR2-mediated activation (reciprocal regulation). Involved in CCR7-mediated ERK1/2 signaling involving ligand CCL19. Is involved in type-1A angiotensin II receptor/AGTR1-mediated ERK activity. Is involved in type-1A angiotensin II receptor/AGTR1-mediated MAPK10 activity. Is involved in dopamine-stimulated AKT1 activity in the striatum by disrupting the association of AKT1 with its negative regulator PP2A. Involved in AGTR1-mediated chemotaxis. Appears to function as signaling scaffold involved in regulation of MIP-1-beta-stimulated CCR5-dependent chemotaxis. Involved in attenuation of NF-kappa-B-dependent transcription in response to GPCR or cytokine stimulation by interacting with and stabilizing CHUK. Suppresses UV-induced NF-kappa-B-dependent activation by interacting with CHUK. The function is promoted by stimulation of ADRB2 and dephosphorylation of ARRB2. Involved in p53/TP53-mediated apoptosis by regulating MDM2 and reducing the MDM2-mediated degradation of p53/TP53. May serve as nuclear messenger for GPCRs. Upon stimulation of OR1D2, may be involved in regulation of gene expression during the early processes of fertilization. Also involved in regulation of receptors other than GPCRs. Involved in endocytosis of TGFBR2 and TGFBR3 and down-regulates TGF-beta signaling such as NF-kappa-B activation. Involved in endocytosis of low-density lipoprotein receptor/LDLR. Involved in endocytosis of smoothened homolog/Smo, which also requires GRK2. Involved in endocytosis of SLC9A5. Involved in endocytosis of ENG and subsequent TGF-beta-mediated ERK activation and migration of epithelial cells. Involved in Toll-like receptor and IL-1 receptor signaling through the interaction with TRAF6 which prevents TRAF6 autoubiquitination and oligomerization required for activation of NF-kappa-B and JUN. Involved in insulin resistance by acting as insulin-induced signaling scaffold for SRC, AKT1 and INSR. Involved in regulation of inhibitory signaling of natural killer cells by recruiting PTPN6 and PTPN11 to KIR2DL1. Involved in IL8-mediated granule release in neutrophils. Involved in the internalization of the atypical chemokine receptor ACKR3. Acts as an adapter protein coupling FFAR4 receptor to specific downstream signaling pathways, as well as mediating receptor endocytosis (PubMed:22282525, PubMed:23809162). During the activation step of NLRP3 inflammasome, directly associates with NLRP3 leading to inhibition of proinflammatory cytokine release and inhibition of inflammation (PubMed:23809162).
GENATLAS Biochemistry:
beta-arrestin 2,Ca2+ binding protein of the retinal red outer segments,widely expressed,binding to P-rhodopsin and inhibiting further G protein activation desensitized receptor-arrestin complex and sequestered through clathrin coated pits,also regulator of beta-adrenergic receptor A and involved in synaptic transmission in photoreceptor cells

Phenotypes From GWAS Catalog for ARRB2 Gene

Gene Ontology (GO) - Molecular Function for ARRB2 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0001664 G protein-coupled receptor binding IPI 10644702
GO:0005102 signaling receptor binding IPI 18604210
GO:0005515 protein binding IPI 12958365
GO:0019899 enzyme binding IPI 23382074
GO:0019904 protein domain specific binding IEA --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with ARRB2: view
genes like me logo Genes that share phenotypes with ARRB2: view

Animal Models for ARRB2 Gene

MGI Knock Outs for ARRB2:
  • Arrb2 Arrb2<tm1Rjl>
  • Arrb2 Arrb2<tm1.1(KOMP)Vlcg>

Animal Model Products

CRISPR Products

Inhibitory RNA Products

  • Search GeneCopoeia for shRNA, lentivirus and/or AAV clone products for ARRB2

Clone Products

No data available for Enzyme Numbers (IUBMB) , Human Phenotype Ontology , Transcription Factor Targets and HOMER Transcription for ARRB2 Gene

Localization for ARRB2 Gene

Subcellular locations from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for ARRB2 Gene

Cytoplasm. Nucleus. Cell membrane. Membrane, clathrin-coated pit. Cytoplasmic vesicle. Note=Translocates to the plasma membrane and colocalizes with antagonist-stimulated GPCRs.

Subcellular locations from

COMPARTMENTS
Extracellular space Cytosol Plasma membrane Cytoskeleton Lysosome Endosome Peroxisome ER Golgi Apparatus Nucleus Mitochondrion 0 1 2 3 4 5 Confidence
COMPARTMENTS Subcellular localization image for ARRB2 gene
Compartment Confidence
plasma membrane 5
nucleus 5
cytosol 5
endosome 3
extracellular 2
cytoskeleton 2
mitochondrion 2
endoplasmic reticulum 2
lysosome 2
golgi apparatus 2
peroxisome 1

Subcellular locations from the

Human Protein Atlas (HPA)

Gene Ontology (GO) - Cellular Components for ARRB2 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0005634 nucleus IEA,IDA 16820410
GO:0005737 cytoplasm IBA,IDA 12958365
GO:0005768 endosome IEA --
GO:0005829 cytosol TAS --
GO:0005886 plasma membrane TAS 21149639
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with ARRB2: view

Pathways & Interactions for ARRB2 Gene

PathCards logo

SuperPathways for ARRB2 Gene

SuperPathway Contained pathways
1 RET signaling
2 Paradoxical activation of RAF signaling by kinase inactive BRAF
3 Signaling by Hedgehog
4 Regulation of activated PAK-2p34 by proteasome mediated degradation
5 Signaling by GPCR
genes like me logo Genes that share pathways with ARRB2: view

Pathways by source for ARRB2 Gene

2 GeneGo (Thomson Reuters) pathways for ARRB2 Gene
  • Cytoskeleton remodeling_RalA regulation pathway
  • Development Angiotensin signaling via beta-Arrestin
1 R&D Systems pathway for ARRB2 Gene
3 Qiagen pathways for ARRB2 Gene
  • cAMP Pathway
  • Chemokine Signaling
  • NK1R-mediated Non-Apoptotic PCD
2 Cell Signaling Technology pathways for ARRB2 Gene

SIGNOR curated interactions for ARRB2 Gene

Activates:
Inactivates:
Is activated by:
Other effect:

Gene Ontology (GO) - Biological Process for ARRB2 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0001932 regulation of protein phosphorylation IEA --
GO:0001933 negative regulation of protein phosphorylation IEA --
GO:0001934 positive regulation of protein phosphorylation IEA --
GO:0002031 G protein-coupled receptor internalization TAS 24157794
GO:0002032 desensitization of G protein-coupled receptor signaling pathway by arrestin IMP 12582207
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with ARRB2: view

Drugs & Compounds for ARRB2 Gene

(12) Drugs for ARRB2 Gene - From: PharmGKB and Novoseek

Name Status Disease Links Group Role Mechanism of Action Clinical Trials
Buprenorphine Approved, Illicit, Investigational, Vet_approved Pharma Antagonist, Agonist, Partial agonist 539
Fentanyl Approved, Illicit, Investigational, Vet_approved Pharma Agonist, Full agonist, Partial agonist 1229
Methamphetamine Approved, Illicit Pharma 242
Tramadol Approved, Investigational Pharma 345

(2) Additional Compounds for ARRB2 Gene - From: Novoseek

Name Synonyms Role CAS Number PubChem IDs PubMed IDs
genes like me logo Genes that share compounds with ARRB2: view

Transcripts for ARRB2 Gene

mRNA/cDNA for ARRB2 Gene

7 REFSEQ mRNAs :
16 NCBI additional mRNA sequence :
20 Ensembl transcripts including schematic representations, and UCSC links to gene/alias where relevant :

CRISPR Products

Inhibitory RNA Products

  • Search GeneCopoeia for shRNA, lentivirus and/or AAV clone products for ARRB2

Clone Products

Alternative Splicing Database (ASD) splice patterns (SP) for ARRB2 Gene

ExUns: 1a · 1b ^ 2 ^ 3 ^ 4a · 4b ^ 5 ^ 6a · 6b · 6c ^ 7 ^ 8 ^ 9 ^ 10a · 10b · 10c ^ 11 ^ 12 ^ 13a · 13b ^ 14 ^ 15 ^ 16
SP1: - -
SP2: -
SP3: - - -
SP4: - - - - - - - -
SP5: - -
SP6:
SP7: - -
SP8:

Relevant External Links for ARRB2 Gene

GeneLoc Exon Structure for
ARRB2

Expression for ARRB2 Gene

mRNA expression in normal human tissues from GTEx, Illumina, BioGPS, and SAGE for ARRB2 Gene

mRNA expression in embryonic tissues and stem cells from LifeMap Discovery

mRNA differential expression in normal tissues according to GTEx for ARRB2 Gene

This gene is overexpressed in Whole Blood (x27.6).

Protein differential expression in normal tissues from HIPED for ARRB2 Gene

This gene is overexpressed in Lavage (18.5), Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (10.4), and Monocytes (10.3).

Integrated Proteomics: protein expression in normal tissues and cell lines from ProteomicsDB, MaxQB, and MOPED for ARRB2 Gene



Protein tissue co-expression partners for ARRB2 Gene

Transcriptomic regulation report from SPP (The Signaling Pathways Project) for ARRB2

SOURCE GeneReport for Unigene cluster for ARRB2 Gene:

Hs.435811

Evidence on tissue expression from TISSUES for ARRB2 Gene

  • Nervous system(4.9)
  • Lung(4.6)
  • Muscle(4.6)
  • Pancreas(4.4)
  • Thyroid gland(4.4)
  • Blood(3.4)
  • Kidney(3.2)
  • Intestine(3.1)
  • Heart(3.1)
  • Spleen(3.1)
  • Bone marrow(3)
  • Eye(2.8)
  • Liver(2.7)
  • Lymph node(2.7)
  • Adrenal gland(2.6)
  • Skin(2.6)
  • Stomach(2.3)
genes like me logo Genes that share expression patterns with ARRB2: view

No data available for mRNA Expression by UniProt/SwissProt and Phenotype-based relationships between genes and organs from Gene ORGANizer for ARRB2 Gene

Orthologs for ARRB2 Gene

This gene was present in the common ancestor of animals.

Orthologs for ARRB2 Gene

Organism Taxonomy Gene Similarity Type Details
Chimpanzee
(Pan troglodytes)
Mammalia ARRB2 30 31
  • 99.45 (n)
OneToOne
Cow
(Bos Taurus)
Mammalia ARRB2 30 31
  • 92.3 (n)
OneToOne
Dog
(Canis familiaris)
Mammalia ARRB2 30 31
  • 91.44 (n)
OneToOne
Oppossum
(Monodelphis domestica)
Mammalia -- 31
  • 91 (a)
OneToMany
-- 31
  • 83 (a)
OneToMany
Rat
(Rattus norvegicus)
Mammalia Arrb2 30
  • 90.95 (n)
Mouse
(Mus musculus)
Mammalia Arrb2 30 17 31
  • 88.97 (n)
OneToOne
Platypus
(Ornithorhynchus anatinus)
Mammalia ARRB2 31
  • 64 (a)
OneToOne
Tropical Clawed Frog
(Silurana tropicalis)
Amphibia arrb2 30
  • 76.46 (n)
African clawed frog
(Xenopus laevis)
Amphibia LOC398046 30
Zebrafish
(Danio rerio)
Actinopterygii arrb2a 31
  • 81 (a)
OneToMany
arrb2b 30 31
  • 78.46 (n)
OneToMany
zgc64007 30
Rainbow Trout
(Oncorhynchus mykiss)
Actinopterygii Omy.11852 30
Fruit Fly
(Drosophila melanogaster)
Insecta krz 31 32
  • 52 (a)
ManyToMany
Arr1 31 32
  • 42 (a)
ManyToMany
Arr2 31 32
  • 42 (a)
ManyToMany
CG32683 31
  • 18 (a)
ManyToMany
Worm
(Caenorhabditis elegans)
Secernentea arr-1 31 32
  • 51 (a)
OneToMany
Sea Squirt
(Ciona savignyi)
Ascidiacea CSA.10346 31
  • 65 (a)
OneToMany
Species where no ortholog for ARRB2 was found in the sources mined by GeneCards:
  • A. gosspyii yeast (Eremothecium gossypii)
  • Actinobacteria (Mycobacterium tuberculosis)
  • African malaria mosquito (Anopheles gambiae)
  • Alicante grape (Vitis vinifera)
  • Alpha proteobacteria (Wolbachia pipientis)
  • Amoeba (Dictyostelium discoideum)
  • Archea (Pyrococcus horikoshii)
  • Baker's yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae)
  • Barley (Hordeum vulgare)
  • Beta proteobacteria (Neisseria meningitidis)
  • Bread mold (Neurospora crassa)
  • Chicken (Gallus gallus)
  • Chromalveolata (Phytophthora infestans)
  • Common water flea (Daphnia pulex)
  • Corn (Zea mays)
  • E. coli (Escherichia coli)
  • Filamentous fungi (Aspergillus nidulans)
  • Firmicute Bacteria (Streptococcus pneumoniae)
  • Fission Yeast (Schizosaccharomyces pombe)
  • Green Algae (Chlamydomonas reinhardtii)
  • Honey Bee (Apis mellifera)
  • K. Lactis Yeast (Kluyveromyces lactis)
  • Lizard (Anolis carolinensis)
  • Loblloly Pine (Pinus taeda)
  • Malaria Parasite (Plasmodium falciparum)
  • Medicago Trunc (Medicago Truncatula)
  • Moss (Physcomitrella patens)
  • Orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus)
  • Pig (Sus scrofa)
  • Rice (Oryza sativa)
  • Rice Blast Fungus (Magnaporthe grisea)
  • Schistosome Parasite (Schistosoma mansoni)
  • Sea Anemone (Nematostella vectensis)
  • Sea Vase (Ciona intestinalis)
  • Sea Urchin (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus)
  • Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor)
  • Soybean (Glycine max)
  • Stem Rust Fungus (Puccinia graminis)
  • Sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum)
  • Thale Cress (Arabidopsis thaliana)
  • Tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum)
  • Toxoplasmosis (Toxoplasma gondii)
  • Trichoplax (Trichoplax adhaerens)
  • Wheat (Triticum aestivum)

Evolution for ARRB2 Gene

ENSEMBL:
Gene Tree for ARRB2 (if available)
TreeFam:
Gene Tree for ARRB2 (if available)
Aminode:
Evolutionary constrained regions (ECRs) for ARRB2: view image

Paralogs for ARRB2 Gene

Paralogs for ARRB2 Gene

(6) SIMAP similar genes for ARRB2 Gene using alignment to 7 proteins:

  • ARRB2_HUMAN
  • I3L0V6_HUMAN
  • I3L1M6_HUMAN
  • I3L412_HUMAN
  • K7EL17_HUMAN
  • K7ENA6_HUMAN
  • L8ECB1_HUMAN
genes like me logo Genes that share paralogs with ARRB2: view

Variants for ARRB2 Gene

Sequence variations, with clinical significance, from ClinVar and Humsavar, with links to dbSNP for ARRB2 Gene

SNP ID Clinical significance and condition Chr 17 pos Variation AA Info Type
715689 Benign: not provided 4,716,497(+) C/T NON_CODING_TRANSCRIPT_VARIANT,SYNONYMOUS_VARIANT,FIVE_PRIME_UTR_VARIANT
715690 Benign: not provided 4,719,367(+) C/T NON_CODING_TRANSCRIPT_VARIANT,SYNONYMOUS_VARIANT,INTRON_VARIANT

Additional dbSNP identifiers (rs#s) for ARRB2 Gene

Structural Variations from Database of Genomic Variants (DGV) for ARRB2 Gene

Variant ID Type Subtype PubMed ID
esv2328716 CNV deletion 18987734
esv2715557 CNV deletion 23290073
esv995819 CNV deletion 20482838
nsv1115974 CNV deletion 24896259
nsv111849 CNV deletion 16902084
nsv574273 CNV gain 21841781
nsv833346 CNV loss 17160897

Variation tolerance for ARRB2 Gene

Residual Variation Intolerance Score: 32.1% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)
Gene Damage Index Score: 2.59; 44.94% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)

Additional Variant Information for ARRB2 Gene

Human Gene Mutation Database (HGMD)
ARRB2
SNPedia medical, phenotypic, and genealogical associations of SNPs for
ARRB2

SNP Genotyping and Copy Number Assay Products

No data available for Polymorphic Variants from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for ARRB2 Gene

Disorders for ARRB2 Gene

MalaCards: The human disease database

(10) MalaCards diseases for ARRB2 Gene - From: DISEASES, Novoseek, and GeneCards

Disorder Aliases PubMed IDs
whim syndrome
  • whims
cryptococcal meningitis
  • meningitis cryptococcal
retinal degeneration
  • degeneration of retina
mental retardation, autosomal dominant 56
  • mrd56
placenta praevia
  • placenta previa
- elite association - COSMIC cancer census association via MalaCards
Search ARRB2 in MalaCards View complete list of genes associated with diseases

Additional Disease Information for ARRB2

Genetic Association Database
(GAD)
Human Genome Epidemiology Navigator
(HuGE)
ATLAS of Genetics and Cytogenetics in Oncology and Haematology
Open Targets Platform
genes like me logo Genes that share disorders with ARRB2: view

No data available for UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot and Genatlas for ARRB2 Gene

Publications for ARRB2 Gene

  1. A scanning peptide array approach uncovers association sites within the JNK/beta arrestin signalling complex. (PMID: 19782076) Li X … Baillie GS (FEBS letters 2009) 3 4 23
  2. The coding-synonymous polymorphism rs1045280 (Ser280Ser) in beta-arrestin 2 (ARRB2) gene is associated with tardive dyskinesia in Chinese patients with schizophrenia. (PMID: 19049562) Liou YJ … Lai IC (European journal of neurology 2008) 3 23 41
  3. Beta-arrestins 1 and 2 are associated with nicotine dependence in European American smokers. (PMID: 17579607) Sun D … Li MD (Molecular psychiatry 2008) 3 23 41
  4. Possible association of beta-arrestin 2 gene with methamphetamine use disorder, but not schizophrenia. (PMID: 17233643) Ikeda M … Iwata N (Genes, brain, and behavior 2007) 3 23 41
  5. Dynamic interaction between the dual specificity phosphatase MKP7 and the JNK3 scaffold protein beta-arrestin 2. (PMID: 15888437) Willoughby EA … Collins MK (The Journal of biological chemistry 2005) 3 4 23

Products for ARRB2 Gene

Sources for ARRB2 Gene