Aliases for APP Gene
- Amyloid Beta Precursor Protein 2 3 5
- Amyloid Beta (A4) Precursor Protein 2 3
- Alzheimer Disease Amyloid Protein 3 4
- Cerebral Vascular Amyloid Peptide 3 4
- Amyloid-Beta Precursor Protein 3 4
- Amyloid Precursor Protein 3 4
- Peptidase Nexin-II 2 3
- Protease Nexin-II 3 4
- PN-II 3 4
- PreA4 3 4
- ABPP 3 4
- APPI 3 4
- CVAP 3 4
- AD1 3 4
External Ids for APP Gene
Previous HGNC Symbols for APP Gene
Previous GeneCards Identifiers for APP Gene
This gene encodes a cell surface receptor and transmembrane precursor protein that is cleaved by secretases to form a number of peptides. Some of these peptides are secreted and can bind to the acetyltransferase complex APBB1/TIP60 to promote transcriptional activation, while others form the protein basis of the amyloid plaques found in the brains of patients with Alzheimer disease. In addition, two of the peptides are antimicrobial peptides, having been shown to have bacteriocidal and antifungal activities. Mutations in this gene have been implicated in autosomal dominant Alzheimer disease and cerebroarterial amyloidosis (cerebral amyloid angiopathy). Multiple transcript variants encoding several different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Aug 2014]
GeneCards Summary for APP Gene
APP (Amyloid Beta Precursor Protein) is a Protein Coding gene. Diseases associated with APP include Cerebral Amyloid Angiopathy, App-Related and Alzheimer Disease. Among its related pathways are Neuroscience and Nucleotide-binding domain, leucine rich repeat containing receptor (NLR) signaling pathways. Gene Ontology (GO) annotations related to this gene include identical protein binding and enzyme binding. An important paralog of this gene is APLP2.
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Summary for APP Gene
Functions as a cell surface receptor and performs physiological functions on the surface of neurons relevant to neurite growth, neuronal adhesion and axonogenesis. Interaction between APP molecules on neighboring cells promotes synaptogenesis (PubMed:25122912). Involved in cell mobility and transcription regulation through protein-protein interactions. Can promote transcription activation through binding to APBB1-KAT5 and inhibits Notch signaling through interaction with Numb. Couples to apoptosis-inducing pathways such as those mediated by G(O) and JIP. Inhibits G(o) alpha ATPase activity (By similarity). Acts as a kinesin I membrane receptor, mediating the axonal transport of beta-secretase and presenilin 1 (By similarity). By acting as a kinesin I membrane receptor, plays a role in axonal anterograde transport of cargo towards synapes in axons (PubMed:17062754, PubMed:23011729). Involved in copper homeostasis/oxidative stress through copper ion reduction. In vitro, copper-metallated APP induces neuronal death directly or is potentiated through Cu(2+)-mediated low-density lipoprotein oxidation. Can regulate neurite outgrowth through binding to components of the extracellular matrix such as heparin and collagen I and IV. The splice isoforms that contain the BPTI domain possess protease inhibitor activity. Induces a AGER-dependent pathway that involves activation of p38 MAPK, resulting in internalization of amyloid-beta peptide and leading to mitochondrial dysfunction in cultured cortical neurons. Provides Cu(2+) ions for GPC1 which are required for release of nitric oxide (NO) and subsequent degradation of the heparan sulfate chains on GPC1.
Amyloid-beta peptides are lipophilic metal chelators with metal-reducing activity. Bind transient metals such as copper, zinc and iron. In vitro, can reduce Cu(2+) and Fe(3+) to Cu(+) and Fe(2+), respectively. Amyloid-beta protein 42 is a more effective reductant than amyloid-beta protein 40. Amyloid-beta peptides bind to lipoproteins and apolipoproteins E and J in the CSF and to HDL particles in plasma, inhibiting metal-catalyzed oxidation of lipoproteins. APP42-beta may activate mononuclear phagocytes in the brain and elicit inflammatory responses. Promotes both tau aggregation and TPK II-mediated phosphorylation. Interaction with overexpressed HADH2 leads to oxidative stress and neurotoxicity. Also binds GPC1 in lipid rafts.
Appicans elicit adhesion of neural cells to the extracellular matrix and may regulate neurite outgrowth in the brain.
The gamma-CTF peptides as well as the caspase-cleaved peptides, including C31, are potent enhancers of neuronal apoptosis.
N-APP binds TNFRSF21 triggering caspase activation and degeneration of both neuronal cell bodies (via caspase-3) and axons (via caspase-6).
Amyloid beta (Abeta) peptides are the major component of amyloid plaques found in the brains of Alzheimer's patients. Abeta is formed from the progressive cleavage of amyloid precursor protein (APP) by beta- and gamma-secretase. Two Abeta peptides are formed from APP degradation.