This gene encodes a cell surface receptor and transmembrane precursor protein that is cleaved by secretases to form a number of peptides. Some of these peptides are secreted and can bind to the acetyltransferase complex APBB1/TIP60 to promote transcriptional activation, while others form the protein basis of the amyloid plaques found in the brains of patients with Alzheimer dis... See more...

Aliases for APP Gene

Aliases for APP Gene

  • Amyloid Beta Precursor Protein 2 3 5
  • Amyloid Beta (A4) Precursor Protein 2 3
  • Alzheimer Disease Amyloid Protein 3 4
  • Cerebral Vascular Amyloid Peptide 3 4
  • Amyloid-Beta Precursor Protein 3 4
  • Amyloid Precursor Protein 3 4
  • Peptidase Nexin-II 2 3
  • Protease Nexin-II 3 4
  • PreA4 3 4
  • PN-II 3 4
  • ABPP 3 4
  • APPI 3 4
  • CVAP 3 4
  • AD1 3 4
  • Beta-Amyloid Precursor Protein 3
  • Testicular Tissue Protein Li 2 3
  • Beta-Amyloid Peptide(1-40) 3
  • Beta-Amyloid Peptide(1-42) 3
  • Amyloid Beta A4 Protein 3
  • Amyloid-Beta A4 Protein 4
  • Beta-Amyloid Peptide 3
  • Alzheimer Disease 2
  • CTFgamma 3
  • ABETA 3
  • AAA 3
  • PN2 3
  • A4 4

External Ids for APP Gene

Previous HGNC Symbols for APP Gene

  • AD1

Previous GeneCards Identifiers for APP Gene

  • GC21M023831
  • GC21M026174
  • GC21M027252
  • GC21M012656

Summaries for APP Gene

Entrez Gene Summary for APP Gene

  • This gene encodes a cell surface receptor and transmembrane precursor protein that is cleaved by secretases to form a number of peptides. Some of these peptides are secreted and can bind to the acetyltransferase complex APBB1/TIP60 to promote transcriptional activation, while others form the protein basis of the amyloid plaques found in the brains of patients with Alzheimer disease. In addition, two of the peptides are antimicrobial peptides, having been shown to have bacteriocidal and antifungal activities. Mutations in this gene have been implicated in autosomal dominant Alzheimer disease and cerebroarterial amyloidosis (cerebral amyloid angiopathy). Multiple transcript variants encoding several different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Aug 2014]

GeneCards Summary for APP Gene

APP (Amyloid Beta Precursor Protein) is a Protein Coding gene. Diseases associated with APP include Cerebral Amyloid Angiopathy, App-Related and Alzheimer Disease. Among its related pathways are Signaling by GPCR and Clathrin derived vesicle budding. Gene Ontology (GO) annotations related to this gene include identical protein binding and enzyme binding. An important paralog of this gene is APLP2.

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Summary for APP Gene

  • Functions as a cell surface receptor and performs physiological functions on the surface of neurons relevant to neurite growth, neuronal adhesion and axonogenesis. Interaction between APP molecules on neighboring cells promotes synaptogenesis (PubMed:25122912). Involved in cell mobility and transcription regulation through protein-protein interactions. Can promote transcription activation through binding to APBB1-KAT5 and inhibits Notch signaling through interaction with Numb. Couples to apoptosis-inducing pathways such as those mediated by G(O) and JIP. Inhibits G(o) alpha ATPase activity (By similarity). Acts as a kinesin I membrane receptor, mediating the axonal transport of beta-secretase and presenilin 1 (By similarity). By acting as a kinesin I membrane receptor, plays a role in axonal anterograde transport of cargo towards synapes in axons (PubMed:17062754, PubMed:23011729). Involved in copper homeostasis/oxidative stress through copper ion reduction. In vitro, copper-metallated APP induces neuronal death directly or is potentiated through Cu(2+)-mediated low-density lipoprotein oxidation. Can regulate neurite outgrowth through binding to components of the extracellular matrix such as heparin and collagen I and IV. The splice isoforms that contain the BPTI domain possess protease inhibitor activity. Induces a AGER-dependent pathway that involves activation of p38 MAPK, resulting in internalization of amyloid-beta peptide and leading to mitochondrial dysfunction in cultured cortical neurons. Provides Cu(2+) ions for GPC1 which are required for release of nitric oxide (NO) and subsequent degradation of the heparan sulfate chains on GPC1.
  • Amyloid-beta peptides are lipophilic metal chelators with metal-reducing activity. Bind transient metals such as copper, zinc and iron. In vitro, can reduce Cu(2+) and Fe(3+) to Cu(+) and Fe(2+), respectively. Amyloid-beta protein 42 is a more effective reductant than amyloid-beta protein 40. Amyloid-beta peptides bind to lipoproteins and apolipoproteins E and J in the CSF and to HDL particles in plasma, inhibiting metal-catalyzed oxidation of lipoproteins. APP42-beta may activate mononuclear phagocytes in the brain and elicit inflammatory responses. Promotes both tau aggregation and TPK II-mediated phosphorylation. Interaction with overexpressed HADH2 leads to oxidative stress and neurotoxicity. Also binds GPC1 in lipid rafts.
  • Appicans elicit adhesion of neural cells to the extracellular matrix and may regulate neurite outgrowth in the brain.
  • The gamma-CTF peptides as well as the caspase-cleaved peptides, including C31, are potent enhancers of neuronal apoptosis.
  • N-APP binds TNFRSF21 triggering caspase activation and degeneration of both neuronal cell bodies (via caspase-3) and axons (via caspase-6).

Tocris Summary for APP Gene

  • Amyloid beta (Abeta) peptides are the major component of amyloid plaques found in the brains of Alzheimer's patients. Abeta is formed from the progressive cleavage of amyloid precursor protein (APP) by beta- and gamma-secretase. Two Abeta peptides are formed from APP degradation.

Gene Wiki entry for APP Gene

Additional gene information for APP Gene

No data available for CIViC Summary , PharmGKB "VIP" Summary , Rfam classification and piRNA Summary for APP Gene

Genomics for APP Gene

GeneHancer (GH) Regulatory Elements for APP Gene


GeneHancers around APP on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Cistromic (ChIP-Seq) regulation report from SPP (The Signaling Pathways Project) for APP

Top Transcription factor binding sites by QIAGEN in the APP gene promoter:
  • TBP

Genomic Locations for APP Gene

Genomic Locations for APP Gene
chr21:25,880,550-26,171,128
(GRCh38/hg38)
Size:
290,579 bases
Orientation:
Minus strand
chr21:27,252,861-27,543,446
(GRCh37/hg19)
Size:
290,586 bases
Orientation:
Minus strand

Genomic View for APP Gene

Genes around APP on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Cytogenetic band:
APP Gene in genomic location: bands according to Ensembl, locations according to GeneLoc (and/or Entrez Gene and/or Ensembl if different)
Genomic Location for APP Gene
GeneLoc Logo Genomic Neighborhood Exon StructureGene Density

RefSeq DNA sequence for APP Gene

Proteins for APP Gene

  • Protein details for APP Gene (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)

    Protein Symbol:
    P05067-A4_HUMAN
    Recommended name:
    Amyloid-beta precursor protein
    Protein Accession:
    P05067
    Secondary Accessions:
    • B2R5V1
    • B4DII8
    • D3DSD1
    • D3DSD2
    • D3DSD3
    • P09000
    • P78438
    • Q13764
    • Q13778
    • Q13793
    • Q16011
    • Q16014
    • Q16019
    • Q16020
    • Q6GSC0
    • Q8WZ99
    • Q9BT38
    • Q9UC33
    • Q9UCA9
    • Q9UCB6
    • Q9UCC8
    • Q9UCD1
    • Q9UQ58

    Protein attributes for APP Gene

    Size:
    770 amino acids
    Molecular mass:
    86943 Da
    Quaternary structure:
    • Binds, via its C-terminus, to the PID domain of several cytoplasmic proteins, including APBB family members, the APBA family, MAPK8IP1, SHC1 and, NUMB and DAB1 (By similarity). Binding to DAB1 inhibits its serine phosphorylation (By similarity). Interacts (via NPXY motif) with DAB2 (via PID domain); the interaction is impaired by tyrosine phosphorylation of the NPXY motif. Also interacts with GPCR-like protein BPP, APPBP1, IB1, KNS2 (via its TPR domains), APPBP2 (via BaSS) and DDB1. In vitro, it binds MAPT via the MT-binding domains (By similarity). Associates with microtubules in the presence of ATP and in a kinesin-dependent manner (By similarity). Interacts, through a C-terminal domain, with GNAO1. Amyloid-beta protein 42 binds CHRNA7 in hippocampal neurons. Amyloid-beta associates with HADH2. Soluble APP binds, via its N-terminal head, to FBLN1. Interacts with CPEB1 and AGER (By similarity). Interacts with ANKS1B and TNFRSF21. Interacts with ITM2B. Interacts with ITM2C. Interacts with IDE. Can form homodimers; dimerization is enhanced in the presence of Cu(2+) ions (PubMed:25122912). Can form homodimers; this is promoted by heparin binding. Amyloid-beta protein 40 interacts with S100A9. CTF-alpha product of APP interacts with GSAP. Isoform APP695 interacts with SORL1 (via N-terminal ectodomain); this interaction retains APP in the trans-Golgi network and reduces processing into soluble APP-alpha and amyloid-beta peptides (PubMed:16174740, PubMed:16407538, PubMed:17855360, PubMed:24523320). The C99 fragment also interacts with SORL1 (PubMed:16407538). Isoform APP751 interacts with SORL1 (PubMed:16174740). Isoform APP770 interacts with SORL1 (PubMed:16174740). Interacts with PLD3. Interacts with VDAC1 (PubMed:25168729). Interacts with NSG1; could regulate APP processing (By similarity). Amyloid-beta protein 42 interacts with FPR2 (PubMed:11689470). Interacts with SYT7 (By similarity). Interacts (via transmembrane region) with PSEN1; the interaction is direct (PubMed:30630874). Interacts with LRRK2 (PubMed:28720718). Interacts (via cytoplasmic domain) with KIF5B (PubMed:23011729).
    Miscellaneous:
    • Chelation of metal ions, notably copper, iron and zinc, can induce histidine-bridging between amyloid-beta molecules resulting in amyloid-beta-metal aggregates. The affinity for copper is much higher than for other transient metals and is increased under acidic conditions. Extracellular zinc-binding increases binding of heparin to APP and inhibits collagen-binding.
    • [Isoform APP770]: A major isoform.
    • [Isoform L-APP677]: The L-isoforms are referred to as appicans.
    • [Isoform APP695]: A major isoform.
    • [Isoform L-APP696]: The L-isoforms are referred to as appicans.
    • [Isoform L-APP733]: The L-isoforms are referred to as appicans.
    • [Isoform APP751]: A major isoform.
    SequenceCaution:
    • Sequence=AAA58727.1; Type=Miscellaneous discrepancy; Note=Contamination by an Alu repeat.; Evidence={ECO:0000305};

    Three dimensional structures from OCA and Proteopedia for APP Gene

    Alternative splice isoforms for APP Gene

neXtProt entry for APP Gene

Post-translational modifications for APP Gene

  • Proteolytically processed under normal cellular conditions. Cleavage either by alpha-secretase, beta-secretase or theta-secretase leads to generation and extracellular release of soluble APP peptides, S-APP-alpha and S-APP-beta, and the retention of corresponding membrane-anchored C-terminal fragments, C80, C83 and C99. Subsequent processing of C80 and C83 by gamma-secretase yields P3 peptides. This is the major secretory pathway and is non-amyloidogenic. Alternatively, presenilin/nicastrin-mediated gamma-secretase processing of C99 releases the amyloid-beta proteins, amyloid-beta protein 40 and amyloid-beta protein 42, major components of amyloid plaques, and the cytotoxic C-terminal fragments, gamma-CTF(50), gamma-CTF(57) and gamma-CTF(59). PSEN1 cleavage is more efficient with C83 than with C99 as substrate (in vitro) (PubMed:30630874). Many other minor amyloid-beta peptides, amyloid-beta 1-X peptides, are found in cerebral spinal fluid (CSF) including the amyloid-beta X-15 peptides, produced from the cleavage by alpha-secretase and all terminating at Gln-686.
  • Proteolytically cleaved by caspases during neuronal apoptosis. Cleavage at Asp-739 by either CASP6, CASP8 or CASP9 results in the production of the neurotoxic C31 peptide and the increased production of amyloid-beta peptides.
  • N-glycosylated (PubMed:2900137). N- and O-glycosylated (PubMed:2649245). O-glycosylation on Ser and Thr residues with core 1 or possibly core 8 glycans. Partial tyrosine glycosylation (Tyr-681) is found on some minor, short amyloid-beta peptides (amyloid-beta 1-15, 1-16, 1-17, 1-18, 1-19 and 1-20) but not found on amyloid-beta protein 38, amyloid-beta protein 40 nor on amyloid-beta protein 42. Modification on a tyrosine is unusual and is more prevelant in AD patients. Glycans had Neu5AcHex(Neu5Ac)HexNAc-O-Tyr, Neu5AcNeu5AcHex(Neu5Ac)HexNAc-O-Tyr and O-AcNeu5AcNeu5AcHex(Neu5Ac)HexNAc-O-Tyr structures, where O-Ac is O-acetylation of Neu5Ac. Neu5AcNeu5Ac is most likely Neu5Ac 2,8Neu5Ac linked. O-glycosylations in the vicinity of the cleavage sites may influence the proteolytic processing. Appicans are L-APP isoforms with O-linked chondroitin sulfate.
  • Phosphorylation in the C-terminal on tyrosine, threonine and serine residues is neuron-specific (PubMed:10341243). Phosphorylation can affect APP processing, neuronal differentiation and interaction with other proteins (PubMed:10341243). Phosphorylated on Thr-743 in neuronal cells by Cdc5 kinase and Mapk10, in dividing cells by Cdc2 kinase in a cell-cycle dependent manner with maximal levels at the G2/M phase and, in vitro, by GSK-3-beta (PubMed:8131745, PubMed:11146006). The Thr-743 phosphorylated form causes a conformational change which reduces binding of Fe65 family members (PubMed:11517218). In dopaminergic (DA) neurons, phosphorylation on Thr-743 by LRKK2 promotes the production and the nuclear translocation of the APP intracellular domain (AICD) which induces DA neuron apoptosis (PubMed:28720718). Phosphorylation on Tyr-757 is required for SHC binding (PubMed:11877420). Phosphorylated in the extracellular domain by casein kinases on both soluble and membrane-bound APP. This phosphorylation is inhibited by heparin (PubMed:8999878).
  • Extracellular binding and reduction of copper, results in a corresponding oxidation of Cys-144 and Cys-158, and the formation of a disulfide bond. In vitro, the APP-Cu(+) complex in the presence of hydrogen peroxide results in an increased production of amyloid-beta-containing peptides.
  • Trophic-factor deprivation triggers the cleavage of surface APP by beta-secretase to release sAPP-beta which is further cleaved to release an N-terminal fragment of APP (N-APP).
  • Amyloid-beta peptides are degraded by IDE.
  • Sulfated on tyrosine residues.
  • Glycosylation at Thr107, Thr381, Thr352, Thr353, Thr366, Thr367, Ser370, Thr371, Asn542, Asn571, Thr600, Thr633, Thr651, Thr652, Ser656, Thr659, Thr663, Ser667, and Tyr681
  • Ubiquitination at Lys751 and Lys763
  • Modification sites at PhosphoSitePlus
  • Glycosylation from GlyConnect
    • A4_HUMAN (49)

Antibody Products

No data available for DME Specific Peptides for APP Gene

Domains & Families for APP Gene

Gene Families for APP Gene

HGNC:
Human Protein Atlas (HPA):
  • Disease related genes
  • FDA approved drug targets
  • Plasma proteins
  • Predicted intracellular proteins
  • Predicted membrane proteins
  • Transporters

Suggested Antigen Peptide Sequences for APP Gene

GenScript: Design optimal peptide antigens:
  • Protease nexin-II (A4_HUMAN)
  • cDNA FLJ50531, highly similar to Amyloid beta A4 protein (APP) (ABPP)(Alzheimer disease amyloid protein homolog) (B4DII8_HUMAN)
  • Amyloid beta protein (Q9BYY9_HUMAN)

Graphical View of Domain Structure for InterPro Entry

P05067

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot:

A4_HUMAN :
  • The transmembrane helix undergoes a conformation change and unravels partially when bound to PSEN1, facilitating cleavage by PSEN1.
  • Belongs to the APP family.
Domain:
  • The transmembrane helix undergoes a conformation change and unravels partially when bound to PSEN1, facilitating cleavage by PSEN1.
  • The basolateral sorting signal (BaSS) is required for sorting of membrane proteins to the basolateral surface of epithelial cells.
  • The GFLD subdomain binds Cu(2+) ions; this promotes homodimerization.
  • The NPXY sequence motif found in many tyrosine-phosphorylated proteins is required for the specific binding of the PID domain. However, additional amino acids either N- or C-terminal to the NPXY motif are often required for complete interaction. The PID domain-containing proteins which bind APP require the YENPTY motif for full interaction. These interactions are independent of phosphorylation on the terminal tyrosine residue. The YENPXY site is also involved in clathrin-mediated endocytosis.
  • The C-terminal region can bind zinc ions; this favors dimerization and formation of higher oligomers.
  • The OX-2 motif shows some similarity to a region in the N-terminus of CD200/MOX2.
Family:
  • Belongs to the APP family.
genes like me logo Genes that share domains with APP: view

Function for APP Gene

Molecular function for APP Gene

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Function:
Functions as a cell surface receptor and performs physiological functions on the surface of neurons relevant to neurite growth, neuronal adhesion and axonogenesis. Interaction between APP molecules on neighboring cells promotes synaptogenesis (PubMed:25122912). Involved in cell mobility and transcription regulation through protein-protein interactions. Can promote transcription activation through binding to APBB1-KAT5 and inhibits Notch signaling through interaction with Numb. Couples to apoptosis-inducing pathways such as those mediated by G(O) and JIP. Inhibits G(o) alpha ATPase activity (By similarity). Acts as a kinesin I membrane receptor, mediating the axonal transport of beta-secretase and presenilin 1 (By similarity). By acting as a kinesin I membrane receptor, plays a role in axonal anterograde transport of cargo towards synapes in axons (PubMed:17062754, PubMed:23011729). Involved in copper homeostasis/oxidative stress through copper ion reduction. In vitro, copper-metallated APP induces neuronal death directly or is potentiated through Cu(2+)-mediated low-density lipoprotein oxidation. Can regulate neurite outgrowth through binding to components of the extracellular matrix such as heparin and collagen I and IV. The splice isoforms that contain the BPTI domain possess protease inhibitor activity. Induces a AGER-dependent pathway that involves activation of p38 MAPK, resulting in internalization of amyloid-beta peptide and leading to mitochondrial dysfunction in cultured cortical neurons. Provides Cu(2+) ions for GPC1 which are required for release of nitric oxide (NO) and subsequent degradation of the heparan sulfate chains on GPC1.
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Function:
Amyloid-beta peptides are lipophilic metal chelators with metal-reducing activity. Bind transient metals such as copper, zinc and iron. In vitro, can reduce Cu(2+) and Fe(3+) to Cu(+) and Fe(2+), respectively. Amyloid-beta protein 42 is a more effective reductant than amyloid-beta protein 40. Amyloid-beta peptides bind to lipoproteins and apolipoproteins E and J in the CSF and to HDL particles in plasma, inhibiting metal-catalyzed oxidation of lipoproteins. APP42-beta may activate mononuclear phagocytes in the brain and elicit inflammatory responses. Promotes both tau aggregation and TPK II-mediated phosphorylation. Interaction with overexpressed HADH2 leads to oxidative stress and neurotoxicity. Also binds GPC1 in lipid rafts.
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Function:
Appicans elicit adhesion of neural cells to the extracellular matrix and may regulate neurite outgrowth in the brain.
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Function:
The gamma-CTF peptides as well as the caspase-cleaved peptides, including C31, are potent enhancers of neuronal apoptosis.
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Function:
N-APP binds TNFRSF21 triggering caspase activation and degeneration of both neuronal cell bodies (via caspase-3) and axons (via caspase-6).
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Induction:
Increased levels during neuronal differentiation.
GENATLAS Biochemistry:
amyloid beta (A4) precursor protein (APP 695) undergoing proteolytic cleavages by either alpha,beta or gamma secretases in or near the transmembrane domain,to yield several secreted derivatives,including soluble APP,4kDa,beta peptide (A beta) and a related,3 kDa,protein,expressed ubiquitously by neuronal and non neuronal cells and sorted to axons in neurons and the basolateral surface in epithelial cells (see PN2)

Phenotypes From GWAS Catalog for APP Gene

Gene Ontology (GO) - Molecular Function for APP Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0003677 DNA binding ISS --
GO:0004867 serine-type endopeptidase inhibitor activity IEA,IDA 10652580
GO:0005102 signaling receptor binding IPI 19849849
GO:0005515 protein binding IPI 2119582
GO:0008201 heparin binding IEA --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with APP: view
genes like me logo Genes that share phenotypes with APP: view

Human Phenotype Ontology for APP Gene

HPO Id HPO Name Alternative Ids Definition Synonyms

Animal Models for APP Gene

MGI Knock Outs for APP:
  • App App<tm1Dbo>
  • App App<tm1b(KOMP)Wtsi>
  • App App<tm3.2Umu>
  • App App<tm1Cwe>
  • App App<tm1.2Zhe>
  • App App<tm1.2Tlyp>
  • App App<tm2Umu>
  • App App<tm2Cwe>
  • App App<tm1Somm>

Animal Model Products

CRISPR Products

miRNA for APP Gene

miRTarBase miRNAs that target APP

Clone Products

  • Addgene plasmids for APP

No data available for Enzyme Numbers (IUBMB) , Transcription Factor Targets and HOMER Transcription for APP Gene

Localization for APP Gene

Subcellular locations from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for APP Gene

Cell membrane; Single-pass type I membrane protein. Membrane; Single-pass type I membrane protein. Perikaryon. Cell projection, growth cone. Membrane, clathrin-coated pit. Early endosome. Cytoplasmic vesicle. Note=Cell surface protein that rapidly becomes internalized via clathrin-coated pits. Only a minor proportion is present at the cell membrane; most of the protein is present in intracellular vesicles (PubMed:20580937). During maturation, the immature APP (N-glycosylated in the endoplasmic reticulum) moves to the Golgi complex where complete maturation occurs (O-glycosylated and sulfated). After alpha-secretase cleavage, soluble APP is released into the extracellular space and the C-terminal is internalized to endosomes and lysosomes. Some APP accumulates in secretory transport vesicles leaving the late Golgi compartment and returns to the cell surface. APP sorts to the basolateral surface in epithelial cells. During neuronal differentiation, the Thr-743 phosphorylated form is located mainly in growth cones, moderately in neurites and sparingly in the cell body (PubMed:10341243). Casein kinase phosphorylation can occur either at the cell surface or within a post-Golgi compartment. Associates with GPC1 in perinuclear compartments. Colocalizes with SORL1 in a vesicular pattern in cytoplasm and perinuclear regions. {ECO:0000269 PubMed:10341243, ECO:0000269 PubMed:20580937}.
[Soluble APP-beta]: Secreted.
[Amyloid-beta protein 42]: Cell surface. Note=Associates with FPR2 at the cell surface and the complex is then rapidly internalized. {ECO:0000269 PubMed:11689470}.
[Gamma-secretase C-terminal fragment 59]: Nucleus. Cytoplasm. Note=Located to both the cytoplasm and nuclei of neurons. It can be translocated to the nucleus through association with APBB1 (Fe65) (PubMed:11544248). In dopaminergic neurons, the phosphorylated Thr-743 form is localized to the nucleus (By similarity). {ECO:0000250 UniProtKB:P12023, ECO:0000269 PubMed:11544248}.

Subcellular locations from

COMPARTMENTS
Extracellular space Cytosol Plasma membrane Cytoskeleton Lysosome Endosome Peroxisome ER Golgi Apparatus Nucleus Mitochondrion 0 1 2 3 4 5 Confidence
COMPARTMENTS Subcellular localization image for APP gene
Compartment Confidence
plasma membrane 5
extracellular 5
mitochondrion 5
nucleus 5
endoplasmic reticulum 5
endosome 5
cytosol 5
golgi apparatus 5
cytoskeleton 4
lysosome 3
peroxisome 2

Subcellular locations from the

Human Protein Atlas (HPA)
  • Golgi apparatus (2)
  • Vesicles (2)
See all subcellular structures

Gene Ontology (GO) - Cellular Components for APP Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0005576 extracellular region TAS --
GO:0005615 extracellular space IDA 23921129
GO:0005623 cell IEA --
GO:0005634 nucleus IEA --
GO:0005641 nuclear envelope lumen IDA 21989385
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with APP: view

Pathways & Interactions for APP Gene

PathCards logo

SuperPathways for APP Gene

SuperPathway Contained pathways
1 Activated TLR4 signalling
2 Cytosolic sensors of pathogen-associated DNA
3 Peptide ligand-binding receptors
4 Response to elevated platelet cytosolic Ca2+
5 Clathrin derived vesicle budding
genes like me logo Genes that share pathways with APP: view

SIGNOR curated interactions for APP Gene

Activates:
Is activated by:
Other effect:

Gene Ontology (GO) - Biological Process for APP Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0001774 microglial cell activation IGI 15457210
GO:0001934 positive regulation of protein phosphorylation IGI 15457210
GO:0001967 suckling behavior IEA --
GO:0002265 astrocyte activation involved in immune response IGI 23152628
GO:0002576 platelet degranulation TAS --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with APP: view

Drugs & Compounds for APP Gene

(142) Drugs for APP Gene - From: DrugBank, ApexBio, DGIdb, HMDB, Tocris, and Novoseek

Name Status Disease Links Group Role Mechanism of Action Clinical Trials
Copper Approved, Investigational Pharma Target, aggregation inhibitor 236
Dimercaprol Approved Pharma Target 0
Aluminium Approved, Investigational Pharma Target 0
Aluminium phosphate Approved, Investigational Pharma Target 0
Aluminum acetate Approved, Investigational Pharma Target 0

(49) Additional Compounds for APP Gene - From: Novoseek and Tocris

Name Synonyms Role CAS Number PubChem IDs PubMed IDs
EGCG
989-51-5
Dimebon dihydrochloride
97657-92-6
NQTrp
185351-19-3
SEN 1269
956128-01-1

(5) Tocris Compounds for APP Gene

Compound Action Cas Number
Dimebon dihydrochloride Neuroprotectant; protects against beta-amyloid neurotoxicity 97657-92-6
EGCG Inhibits formation of amyloid fibrils 989-51-5
NQTrp Potent inhibitor of Abeta oligomer and fibril formation 185351-19-3
Ro 90-7501 Inhibitor of Abeta42 fibril formation 293762-45-5
SEN 1269 Amyloid-beta aggregation inhibitor 956128-01-1

(32) ApexBio Compounds for APP Gene

Compound Action Cas Number
amyloid A protein fragment [Homo sapiens] Apolipoproteins related to HDL in plasma
Amyloid Beta-Peptide (12-28) (human) 107015-83-8
Amyloid Beta-Peptide (1-40) (human) Amyloid precursor protein 131438-79-4
Amyloid Beta-peptide (25-35) (human) Functional domain of Aβ 131602-53-4
Amyloid Precursor C-Terminal Peptide For beta amyloid generation
Amyloid β-Peptide (10-20) (human) Initiates neurodegeneration in Alzheimer disease 152286-31-2
Amyloid β-peptide (10-35), amide Truncated peptide model
Amyloid β-Protein (1-15) Principal component of amyloid 183745-81-5
ARN2966 APP expression modulator 102212-26-0
Begacestat γ-secretase inhibitor 769169-27-9
Beta-Amyloid (1-11) Amyloidogenic peptide 190436-05-6
Colivelin 867021-83-8
CRANAD 2 1193447-34-5
DAPT (GSI-IX) γ-secretase inhibitor,potent and specific 208255-80-5
EHT 1864 Rac family small GTPases inhibitor 754240-09-0
EUK 134 Salen-manganese complexes;SOD mimetic 81065-76-1
Flurizan NSAID,inhibits γ-secretase activity 51543-40-9
Frentizole 26130-02-9
gamma-secretase modulator 1 Useful for Alzheimer's disease. 1172637-87-4
gamma-secretase modulator 2 Attenuate Aβ production in Alzheimer's Disease 1093978-89-2
gamma-secretase modulator 3 Modulator of gamma-secretase 1431697-84-5
gamma-Secretase Modulators Amyloid-β production inhibitor 937812-80-1
J 147 1146963-51-0
JLK 6 γ-secretase inhibitor 62252-26-0
L-685,458 γ-secretase inhibitor 292632-98-5
LPYFD-NH2 700361-48-4
Methoxy-X04 863918-78-9
MRK 560 γ-secretase inhibitor 677772-84-8
Ro 90-7501 293762-45-5
Semagacestat (LY450139) γ-secretase inhibitor 425386-60-3
TC-E 5006 1257395-14-4
Tramiprosate 3687-18-1
genes like me logo Genes that share compounds with APP: view

Transcripts for APP Gene

mRNA/cDNA for APP Gene

10 REFSEQ mRNAs :
36 NCBI additional mRNA sequence :
17 Ensembl transcripts including schematic representations, and UCSC links to gene/alias where relevant :

CRISPR Products

Clone Products

  • Addgene plasmids for APP

Alternative Splicing Database (ASD) splice patterns (SP) for APP Gene

No ASD Table

Relevant External Links for APP Gene

GeneLoc Exon Structure for
APP

Expression for APP Gene

mRNA expression in normal human tissues from GTEx, Illumina, BioGPS, and SAGE for APP Gene

Protein differential expression in normal tissues from HIPED for APP Gene

This gene is overexpressed in Amniocyte (33.7), Cerebrospinal fluid (11.3), and Serum (7.2).

Integrated Proteomics: protein expression in normal tissues and cell lines from ProteomicsDB, MaxQB, and MOPED for APP Gene



Protein tissue co-expression partners for APP Gene

Transcriptomic regulation report from SPP (The Signaling Pathways Project) for APP

SOURCE GeneReport for Unigene cluster for APP Gene:

Hs.434980

mRNA Expression by UniProt/SwissProt for APP Gene:

P05067-A4_HUMAN
Tissue specificity: Expressed in the brain and in cerebrospinal fluid (at protein level) (PubMed:2649245). Expressed in all fetal tissues examined with highest levels in brain, kidney, heart and spleen. Weak expression in liver. In adult brain, highest expression found in the frontal lobe of the cortex and in the anterior perisylvian cortex-opercular gyri. Moderate expression in the cerebellar cortex, the posterior perisylvian cortex-opercular gyri and the temporal associated cortex. Weak expression found in the striate, extra-striate and motor cortices. Expressed in cerebrospinal fluid, and plasma. Isoform APP695 is the predominant form in neuronal tissue, isoform APP751 and isoform APP770 are widely expressed in non-neuronal cells. Isoform APP751 is the most abundant form in T-lymphocytes. Appican is expressed in astrocytes.

Evidence on tissue expression from TISSUES for APP Gene

  • Nervous system(5)
  • Eye(4.9)
  • Pancreas(4.9)
  • Intestine(4.7)
  • Blood(4.6)
  • Liver(4.6)
  • Bone marrow(4.5)
  • Kidney(4.4)
  • Lung(4.4)
  • Thyroid gland(4.2)
  • Skin(3.6)
  • Adrenal gland(3.5)
  • Lymph node(3.2)
  • Muscle(3.2)
  • Heart(3.1)
  • Stomach(3)
  • Spleen(2.9)
  • Gall bladder(2.4)

Phenotype-based relationships between genes and organs from Gene ORGANizer for APP Gene

Germ Layers:
  • ectoderm
  • endoderm
  • mesoderm
Systems:
  • cardiovascular
  • digestive
  • integumentary
  • nervous
  • skeletal muscle
Regions:
Head and neck:
  • brain
  • cerebellum
  • ear
  • head
  • mouth
  • pharynx
Thorax:
  • esophagus
  • heart
Abdomen:
  • stomach
Limb:
  • foot
  • lower limb
  • upper limb
General:
  • blood
  • blood vessel
  • coagulation system
  • peripheral nerve
  • peripheral nervous system
  • skin
  • spinal cord
genes like me logo Genes that share expression patterns with APP: view

No data available for mRNA expression in embryonic tissues and stem cells from LifeMap Discovery and mRNA differential expression in normal tissues for APP Gene

Orthologs for APP Gene

This gene was present in the common ancestor of animals.

Orthologs for APP Gene

Organism Taxonomy Gene Similarity Type Details
chimpanzee
(Pan troglodytes)
Mammalia APP 31 30
  • 99.7 (n)
OneToOne
cow
(Bos Taurus)
Mammalia APP 31 30
  • 91.22 (n)
OneToOne
dog
(Canis familiaris)
Mammalia APP 31 30
  • 91.17 (n)
OneToOne
oppossum
(Monodelphis domestica)
Mammalia APP 31
  • 91 (a)
OneToOne
mouse
(Mus musculus)
Mammalia App 17 31 30
  • 89.36 (n)
rat
(Rattus norvegicus)
Mammalia App 30
  • 89.27 (n)
platypus
(Ornithorhynchus anatinus)
Mammalia APP 31
  • 70 (a)
OneToOne
chicken
(Gallus gallus)
Aves APP 31 30
  • 82.54 (n)
OneToOne
lizard
(Anolis carolinensis)
Reptilia APP 31
  • 70 (a)
OneToOne
tropical clawed frog
(Silurana tropicalis)
Amphibia app 30
  • 78.76 (n)
Str.11113 30
African clawed frog
(Xenopus laevis)
Amphibia MGC52816 30
zebrafish
(Danio rerio)
Actinopterygii appb 31 30
  • 69.02 (n)
OneToMany
appa 31
  • 69 (a)
OneToMany
APP (1 of 3) 31
  • 62 (a)
OneToMany
-- 30
fruit fly
(Drosophila melanogaster)
Insecta Appl 31
  • 20 (a)
OneToMany
worm
(Caenorhabditis elegans)
Secernentea apl-1 31 32 30
  • 45.96 (n)
OneToMany
Species where no ortholog for APP was found in the sources mined by GeneCards:
  • A. gosspyii yeast (Ashbya gossypii)
  • Actinobacteria (Mycobacterium tuberculosis)
  • African malaria mosquito (Anopheles gambiae)
  • Alicante grape (Vitis vinifera)
  • alpha proteobacteria (Wolbachia pipientis)
  • amoeba (Dictyostelium discoideum)
  • Archea (Pyrococcus horikoshii)
  • baker's yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae)
  • barley (Hordeum vulgare)
  • beta proteobacteria (Neisseria meningitidis)
  • bread mold (Neurospora crassa)
  • Chromalveolata (Phytophthora infestans)
  • common water flea (Daphnia pulex)
  • corn (Zea mays)
  • E. coli (Escherichia coli)
  • filamentous fungi (Aspergillus nidulans)
  • Firmicute bacteria (Streptococcus pneumoniae)
  • fission yeast (Schizosaccharomyces pombe)
  • green algae (Chlamydomonas reinhardtii)
  • honey bee (Apis mellifera)
  • K. lactis yeast (Kluyveromyces lactis)
  • loblloly pine (Pinus taeda)
  • malaria parasite (Plasmodium falciparum)
  • medicago trunc (Medicago Truncatula)
  • moss (Physcomitrella patens)
  • orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus)
  • pig (Sus scrofa)
  • rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)
  • rice (Oryza sativa)
  • rice blast fungus (Magnaporthe grisea)
  • schistosome parasite (Schistosoma mansoni)
  • sea anemone (Nematostella vectensis)
  • sea squirt (Ciona intestinalis)
  • sea squirt (Ciona savignyi)
  • sea urchin (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus)
  • sorghum (Sorghum bicolor)
  • soybean (Glycine max)
  • stem rust fungus (Puccinia graminis)
  • sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum)
  • thale cress (Arabidopsis thaliana)
  • tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum)
  • toxoplasmosis (Toxoplasma gondii)
  • Trichoplax (Trichoplax adhaerens)
  • wheat (Triticum aestivum)

Evolution for APP Gene

ENSEMBL:
Gene Tree for APP (if available)
TreeFam:
Gene Tree for APP (if available)
Aminode:
Evolutionary constrained regions (ECRs) for APP: view image

Paralogs for APP Gene

Paralogs for APP Gene