Aliases for APLN Gene
External Ids for APLN Gene
Previous GeneCards Identifiers for APLN Gene
This gene encodes a peptide that functions as an endogenous ligand for the G-protein coupled apelin receptor. The encoded preproprotein is proteolytically processed into biologically active C-terminal peptide fragments. These peptide fragments activate different tissue specific signaling pathways that regulate diverse biological functions including fluid homeostasis, cardiovascular function and insulin secretion. This protein also functions as a coreceptor for the human immunodeficiency virus 1. [provided by RefSeq, Feb 2016]
GeneCards Summary for APLN Gene
APLN (Apelin) is a Protein Coding gene. Diseases associated with APLN include Syndrome Of Inappropriate Antidiuretic Hormone and Severe Pre-Eclampsia. Among its related pathways are Peptide ligand-binding receptors and Signaling by GPCR. Gene Ontology (GO) annotations related to this gene include signaling receptor binding and G protein-coupled receptor binding.
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Summary for APLN Gene
Endogenous ligand for the apelin receptor (APLNR) (PubMed:10525157). Drives internalization of the apelin receptor (By similarity). Apelin-36 dissociates more hardly than (pyroglu)apelin-13 from APLNR (By similarity). Hormone involved in the regulation of cardiac precursor cell movements during gastrulation and heart morphogenesis (By similarity). Has an inhibitory effect on cytokine production in response to T-cell receptor/CD3 cross-linking; the oral intake of apelin in the colostrum and the milk might therefore modulate immune responses in neonates (By similarity). Plays a role in early coronary blood vessels formation (By similarity). Mediates myocardial contractility in an ERK1/2-dependent manner (By similarity). May also have a role in the central control of body fluid homeostasis by influencing vasopressin release and drinking behavior (By similarity).
(Microbial infection) Endogenous ligand for the apelin receptor (APLNR), an alternative coreceptor with CD4 for HIV-1 infection (PubMed:11090199). Inhibits HIV-1 entry in cells coexpressing CD4 and APLNR (PubMed:11090199). Apelin-36 has a greater inhibitory activity on HIV infection than other synthetic apelin derivatives (PubMed:11090199).
Apelin-36, apelin-13 and [Pyr1]-apelin-13 are the predominant endogenous ligands for the apelin receptor (APJ) receptor. The APJ receptor and apelin peptides act as mediators of cardiovascular function, fluid homeostasis and adipocyte endocrine secretion.