Aliases for APEX2 Gene
External Ids for APEX2 Gene
Previous GeneCards Identifiers for APEX2 Gene
Apurinic/apyrimidinic (AP) sites occur frequently in DNA molecules by spontaneous hydrolysis, by DNA damaging agents or by DNA glycosylases that remove specific abnormal bases. AP sites are pre-mutagenic lesions that can prevent normal DNA replication so the cell contains systems to identify and repair such sites. Class II AP endonucleases cleave the phosphodiester backbone 5' to the AP site. This gene encodes a protein shown to have a weak class II AP endonuclease activity. Most of the encoded protein is located in the nucleus but some is also present in mitochondria. This protein may play an important role in both nuclear and mitochondrial base excision repair. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding multiple isoforms have been observed for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Nov 2012]
GeneCards Summary for APEX2 Gene
APEX2 (Apurinic/Apyrimidinic Endodeoxyribonuclease 2) is a Protein Coding gene. Diseases associated with APEX2 include Protoporphyria, Erythropoietic, X-Linked. Among its related pathways are Telomere C-strand (Lagging Strand) Synthesis. Gene Ontology (GO) annotations related to this gene include nuclease activity and double-stranded DNA 3'-5' exodeoxyribonuclease activity. An important paralog of this gene is APEX1.
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Summary for APEX2 Gene
Function as a weak apurinic/apyrimidinic (AP) endodeoxyribonuclease in the DNA base excision repair (BER) pathway of DNA lesions induced by oxidative and alkylating agents. Initiates repair of AP sites in DNA by catalyzing hydrolytic incision of the phosphodiester backbone immediately adjacent to the damage, generating a single-strand break with 5'-deoxyribose phosphate and 3'-hydroxyl ends. Displays also double-stranded DNA 3'-5' exonuclease, 3'-phosphodiesterase activities. Shows robust 3'-5' exonuclease activity on 3'-recessed heteroduplex DNA and is able to remove mismatched nucleotides preferentially. Shows fairly strong 3'-phosphodiesterase activity involved in the removal of 3'-damaged termini formed in DNA by oxidative agents. In the nucleus functions in the PCNA-dependent BER pathway. Required for somatic hypermutation (SHM) and DNA cleavage step of class switch recombination (CSR) of immunoglobulin genes. Required for proper cell cycle progression during proliferation of peripheral lymphocytes.