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Aliases for AOC3 Gene

Aliases for AOC3 Gene

  • Amine Oxidase, Copper Containing 3 2 3 5
  • Semicarbazide-Sensitive Amine Oxidase 3 4
  • Vascular Adhesion Protein 1 2 4
  • Copper Amine Oxidase 3 4
  • EC 4 56
  • VAP-1 3 4
  • SSAO 3 4
  • HPAO 3 4
  • VAP1 3 4
  • Amine Oxidase, Copper Containing 3 (Vascular Adhesion Protein 1) 3
  • Placenta Copper Monamine Oxidase 3
  • Membrane Primary Amine Oxidase 3
  • EC 1.4.3 56

External Ids for AOC3 Gene

Previous GeneCards Identifiers for AOC3 Gene

  • GC17M040621
  • GC17P043165
  • GC17P040911
  • GC17P041376
  • GC17P038256
  • GC17P041003
  • GC17P036767

Summaries for AOC3 Gene

Entrez Gene Summary for AOC3 Gene

  • This gene encodes a member of the semicarbazide-sensitive amine oxidase family. Copper amine oxidases catalyze the oxidative conversion of amines to aldehydes in the presence of copper and quinone cofactor. The encoded protein is localized to the cell surface, has adhesive properties as well as monoamine oxidase activity, and may be involved in leukocyte trafficking. Alterations in levels of the encoded protein may be associated with many diseases, including diabetes mellitus. A pseudogene of this gene has been described and is located approximately 9-kb downstream on the same chromosome. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Apr 2013]

GeneCards Summary for AOC3 Gene

AOC3 (Amine Oxidase, Copper Containing 3) is a Protein Coding gene. Diseases associated with AOC3 include Diabetes Mellitus and Congestive Heart Failure. Among its related pathways are Phenylalanine metabolism and spermine and spermidine degradation I. Gene Ontology (GO) annotations related to this gene include calcium ion binding and protein heterodimerization activity. An important paralog of this gene is AOC2.

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for AOC3 Gene

  • Cell adhesion protein that participates in lymphocyte extravasation and recirculation by mediating the binding of lymphocytes to peripheral lymph node vascular endothelial cells in an L-selectin-independent fashion. Has semicarbazide-sensitive (SSAO) monoamine oxidase activity. May play a role in adipogenesis.

Gene Wiki entry for AOC3 Gene

Additional gene information for AOC3 Gene

No data available for CIViC summary , Tocris Summary , PharmGKB "VIP" Summary , fRNAdb sequence ontologies and piRNA Summary for AOC3 Gene

Genomics for AOC3 Gene

GeneHancer (GH) Regulatory Elements for AOC3 Gene

Promoters and enhancers for AOC3 Gene
GeneHancer (GH) Identifier GH Type GH
GH Sources Gene Association Score Total Score TSS distance (kb) Number of Genes Away Size (kb) Transcription Factor
Binding Sites
Gene Targets
GH17I042850 Promoter/Enhancer 1.7 EPDnew Ensembl ENCODE dbSUPER 550.8 +1.6 1636 4.2 ELF3 ARID4B DMAP1 THRB RARA SCRT2 SP5 ZHX2 MIER2 ELF1 AOC3 AOC4P MEOX1 AOC2
GH17I042849 Enhancer 0.8 ENCODE dbSUPER 550.8 -1.3 -1294 0 FOXA2 RXRA MAX ZIC2 DNMT3B RAD21 YY1 JUND ATF3 HNF4G AOC3 AOC2
GH17I042419 Promoter/Enhancer 2.5 EPDnew FANTOM5 Ensembl ENCODE dbSUPER 11.6 -429.2 -429179 5.2 PKNOX1 MLX ARNT ZFP64 ARID4B SIN3A DMAP1 ZNF2 SLC30A9 POLR2B CAVIN1 LOC102725238 LINC00910 HMGN1P29 NBR2 ENSG00000267758 DHX58 PSME3 CNTD1 RETREG3
GH17I043543 Promoter/Enhancer 2.3 EPDnew Ensembl ENCODE dbSUPER 11.8 +694.9 694876 4.8 PKNOX1 FOXA2 ARNT MLX ZFP64 ARID4B SIN3A FEZF1 DMAP1 ZNF2 ETV4 ENSG00000267747 ASB16-AS1 DHX8 HMGN1P29 UBTF LINC00910 RPL27 PLEKHH3 HSD17B1
GH17I042823 Promoter/Enhancer 2 EPDnew Ensembl ENCODE 11.7 -27.0 -27046 1.7 HDGF MLX ARNT ARID4B SIN3A DMAP1 ZNF2 YY1 SLC30A9 POLR2B MIR6781 PSME3 BECN1 CNTD1 COA3 AOC2 AOC3 VPS25 RAMP2-AS1 RAMP2
- Elite GeneHancer and/or Elite GeneHancer-gene association Download GeneHancer data dump

GeneHancers around AOC3 on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Top Transcription factor binding sites by QIAGEN in the AOC3 gene promoter:

Genomic Locations for AOC3 Gene

Genomic Locations for AOC3 Gene
7,008 bases
Plus strand

Genomic View for AOC3 Gene

Genes around AOC3 on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Cytogenetic band:
AOC3 Gene in genomic location: bands according to Ensembl, locations according to GeneLoc (and/or Entrez Gene and/or Ensembl if different)
Genomic Location for AOC3 Gene
GeneLoc Logo Genomic Neighborhood Exon StructureGene Density

RefSeq DNA sequence for AOC3 Gene

Proteins for AOC3 Gene

  • Protein details for AOC3 Gene (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)

    Protein Symbol:
    Recommended name:
    Membrane primary amine oxidase
    Protein Accession:
    Secondary Accessions:
    • B2RCI5
    • K7ESB3
    • L0L8N9
    • Q45F94

    Protein attributes for AOC3 Gene

    763 amino acids
    Molecular mass:
    84622 Da
    Name=Ca(2+); Xref=ChEBI:CHEBI:29108;
    Name=Cu cation; Xref=ChEBI:CHEBI:23378;
    Name=L-topaquinone; Xref=ChEBI:CHEBI:79027;
    Quaternary structure:
    • Homodimer; disulfide-linked. Can heterodimerize with isoform 2 leading to reduced surface expression. Forms a heterodimer with AOC2.

    Three dimensional structures from OCA and Proteopedia for AOC3 Gene

    Alternative splice isoforms for AOC3 Gene


neXtProt entry for AOC3 Gene

Selected DME Specific Peptides for AOC3 Gene


Post-translational modifications for AOC3 Gene

  • N- and O-glycosylated.
  • Topaquinone (TPQ) is generated by copper-dependent autoxidation of a specific tyrosyl residue.
  • Glycosylation at Asn137, Thr212, posLast=232232, Asn294, posLast=592592, posLast=618618, and posLast=666666

Domains & Families for AOC3 Gene

Gene Families for AOC3 Gene

Human Protein Atlas (HPA):
  • Cancer-related genes
  • Enzymes
  • FDA approved drug targets
  • Plasma proteins
  • Predicted intracellular proteins
  • Predicted secreted proteins

Suggested Antigen Peptide Sequences for AOC3 Gene

GenScript: Design optimal peptide antigens:

Graphical View of Domain Structure for InterPro Entry



  • Belongs to the copper/topaquinone oxidase family.
  • Belongs to the copper/topaquinone oxidase family.
genes like me logo Genes that share domains with AOC3: view

Function for AOC3 Gene

Molecular function for AOC3 Gene

GENATLAS Biochemistry:
amine oxidase,copper containing 3,endothelial sialoglycoprotein induced under inflammatory conditions,mediating tissue selective lymphocyte binding
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot BiophysicochemicalProperties:
Kinetic parameters: KM=1.94 mM for 2-phenylethylamine {ECO:0000269 PubMed:19588076}; KM=0.67 mM for methylamine {ECO:0000269 PubMed:19588076};
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot CatalyticActivity:
RCH(2)NH(2) + H(2)O + O(2) = RCHO + NH(3) + H(2)O(2).
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Function:
Cell adhesion protein that participates in lymphocyte extravasation and recirculation by mediating the binding of lymphocytes to peripheral lymph node vascular endothelial cells in an L-selectin-independent fashion. Has semicarbazide-sensitive (SSAO) monoamine oxidase activity. May play a role in adipogenesis.
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Induction:
Up-regulated during in vitro adipocyte differentiation.

Enzyme Numbers (IUBMB) for AOC3 Gene

Gene Ontology (GO) - Molecular Function for AOC3 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0005507 copper ion binding IDA 19764817
GO:0005509 calcium ion binding IDA 19764817
GO:0005515 protein binding IPI 23349812
GO:0008131 primary amine oxidase activity TAS --
GO:0016491 oxidoreductase activity IEA --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with AOC3: view
genes like me logo Genes that share phenotypes with AOC3: view

Animal Models for AOC3 Gene

MGI Knock Outs for AOC3:

Animal Model Products

Clone Products

No data available for Phenotypes From GWAS Catalog , Human Phenotype Ontology , Transcription Factor Targets and HOMER Transcription for AOC3 Gene

Localization for AOC3 Gene

Subcellular locations from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for AOC3 Gene

Cell membrane; Single-pass type II membrane protein.

Subcellular locations from

Extracellular space Cytosol Plasma membrane Cytoskeleton Lysosome Endosome Peroxisome ER Golgi Apparatus Nucleus Mitochondrion 0 1 2 3 4 5 Confidence
COMPARTMENTS Subcellular localization image for AOC3 gene
Compartment Confidence
plasma membrane 5
endoplasmic reticulum 5
golgi apparatus 5
endosome 4
extracellular 2
mitochondrion 2
cytosol 2
peroxisome 1
lysosome 1

Subcellular locations from the

Human Protein Atlas (HPA)
  • Cytosol (2)
  • Golgi apparatus (2)
See all subcellular structures

Gene Ontology (GO) - Cellular Components for AOC3 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0005737 cytoplasm IDA 23349812
GO:0005769 early endosome IDA 23474851
GO:0005783 endoplasmic reticulum IDA 23474851
GO:0005794 Golgi apparatus IDA 23474851
GO:0005886 plasma membrane TAS --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with AOC3: view

Pathways & Interactions for AOC3 Gene

genes like me logo Genes that share pathways with AOC3: view

Gene Ontology (GO) - Biological Process for AOC3 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0006805 xenobiotic metabolic process TAS --
GO:0006954 inflammatory response TAS 9653080
GO:0007155 cell adhesion IEA,IDA 9653080
GO:0009308 amine metabolic process IDA 9653080
GO:0046677 response to antibiotic IDA 19764817
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with AOC3: view

No data available for SIGNOR curated interactions for AOC3 Gene

Drugs & Compounds for AOC3 Gene

(40) Drugs for AOC3 Gene - From: DrugBank, DGIdb, HMDB, and Novoseek

Name Status Disease Links Group Role Mechanism of Action Clinical Trials
Hydralazine Approved Pharma Target, inhibitor 46
Phenelzine Approved Pharma Target, inhibitor 7
Copper Approved, Investigational Pharma 202
Dopamine Approved Pharma Full agonist, Agonist 4008
Formaldehyde Approved, Vet_approved Pharma 102

(42) Additional Compounds for AOC3 Gene - From: HMDB and Novoseek

Name Synonyms Role CAS Number PubChem IDs PubMed IDs
  • 1-Amino-(8CI,9CI)-2-propanone
  • 1-Amino-2-propanone
  • 1-Aminopropan-2-one
  • alpha-Aminoacetone
  • Amino-(6CI)-2-propanone
  • 1,5-Diaminopentane
  • 1,5-Diaminopentane dihydrochloride
  • 1,5-Pentamethylenediamine
  • 1,5-Pentanediamine
  • Cadaverin
  • 1,4-Benzoquine
  • 1,4-Benzoquinone
  • 1,4-Cyclohexadiene dioxide
  • 1,4-Cyclohexadienedione
  • 1,4-Diossibenzene
  • (S)-a-amino-6-hydroxy-3,4-dioxo-1,5-Cyclohexadiene-1-propanoate
  • (S)-a-amino-6-hydroxy-3,4-dioxo-1,5-Cyclohexadiene-1-propanoic acid
  • (S)-alpha-amino-6-hydroxy-3,4-dioxo-1,5-Cyclohexadiene-1-propanoate
  • (S)-alpha-amino-6-hydroxy-3,4-dioxo-1,5-Cyclohexadiene-1-propanoic acid
  • 2,4,5-Trihydroxyphenylalanine quinone
  • 1,3-Diamino-N-propane
  • 1,3-Propanediamine
  • 1,3-Propylenediamine
  • 1,3-Trimethylenediamine
  • 3-Aminopropylamine
genes like me logo Genes that share compounds with AOC3: view

Transcripts for AOC3 Gene

Unigene Clusters for AOC3 Gene

Amine oxidase, copper containing 3 (vascular adhesion protein 1):
Representative Sequences:

Clone Products

Alternative Splicing Database (ASD) splice patterns (SP) for AOC3 Gene

ExUns: 1a · 1b ^ 2 ^ 3 ^ 4 ^ 5a · 5b ^ 6 ^ 7a · 7b ^ 8a · 8b ^ 9a · 9b
SP1: - - - -
SP2: - - -
SP4: - - - - -

Relevant External Links for AOC3 Gene

GeneLoc Exon Structure for
ECgene alternative splicing isoforms for

Expression for AOC3 Gene

mRNA expression in normal human tissues from GTEx, Illumina, BioGPS, and CGAP SAGE for AOC3 Gene

mRNA expression in embryonic tissues and stem cells from LifeMap Discovery

mRNA differential expression in normal tissues according to GTEx for AOC3 Gene

This gene is overexpressed in Artery - Tibial (x5.4), Artery - Aorta (x4.4), Artery - Coronary (x4.4), and Adipose - Subcutaneous (x4.0).

Protein differential expression in normal tissues from HIPED for AOC3 Gene

This gene is overexpressed in Adipocyte (25.0) and Nasopharynx (6.4).

Integrated Proteomics: protein expression in normal tissues and cell lines from ProteomicsDB, PaxDb, and MOPED for AOC3 Gene

Protein tissue co-expression partners for AOC3 Gene

- Elite partner

NURSA nuclear receptor signaling pathways regulating expression of AOC3 Gene:


SOURCE GeneReport for Unigene cluster for AOC3 Gene:


mRNA Expression by UniProt/SwissProt for AOC3 Gene:

Tissue specificity: Strongly expressed on the high endothelial venules of peripheral lymph nodes and on hepatic endothelia. Also highly expressed in appendix, lung and small intestine. Expressed also in adipose tissue, in bone marrow, colon, heart, kidney, ovary, pancreas, placenta, prostate, skeletal muscle, spleen and testis. Isoform 2 seems to be the predominant transcript in fetal kidneys, fetal cartilage and fetal tonsils. The highest relative expression of isoform 2 occurs in skeletal muscle, heart, pancreas, kidney, and lung.

Evidence on tissue expression from TISSUES for AOC3 Gene

  • Lung(4.6)
  • Liver(4.5)
  • Nervous system(4.4)
  • Bone marrow(4)
  • Heart(2.8)
  • Muscle(2.7)
  • Kidney(2.5)
  • Intestine(2.4)
  • Blood(2.2)
  • Eye(2)
genes like me logo Genes that share expression patterns with AOC3: view

No data available for Phenotype-based relationships between genes and organs from Gene ORGANizer for AOC3 Gene

Orthologs for AOC3 Gene

This gene was present in the common ancestor of animals and fungi.

Orthologs for AOC3 Gene

Organism Taxonomy Gene Similarity Type Details
(Pan troglodytes)
Mammalia AOC3 33 34
  • 99.04 (n)
(Canis familiaris)
Mammalia AOC3 33 34
  • 88.86 (n)
(Bos Taurus)
Mammalia AOC3 33
  • 86.89 (n)
-- 34
  • 80 (a)
-- 34
  • 80 (a)
-- 34
  • 80 (a)
-- 34
  • 72 (a)
(Mus musculus)
Mammalia Aoc3 33 16 34
  • 83.99 (n)
(Rattus norvegicus)
Mammalia Aoc3 33
  • 82.87 (n)
(Ornithorhynchus anatinus)
Mammalia -- 34
  • 27 (a)
(Gallus gallus)
Aves AOC3 33
  • 63.32 (n)
(Anolis carolinensis)
Reptilia -- 34
  • 60 (a)
-- 34
  • 50 (a)
-- 34
  • 47 (a)
tropical clawed frog
(Silurana tropicalis)
Amphibia aoc3 33
  • 56.52 (n)
African clawed frog
(Xenopus laevis)
Amphibia Xl.9482 33
(Danio rerio)
Actinopterygii aoc2 33 34
  • 52.64 (n)
bread mold
(Neurospora crassa)
Ascomycetes NCU09406 33
  • 44.06 (n)
Species where no ortholog for AOC3 was found in the sources mined by GeneCards:
  • A. gosspyii yeast (Ashbya gossypii)
  • Actinobacteria (Mycobacterium tuberculosis)
  • African malaria mosquito (Anopheles gambiae)
  • Alicante grape (Vitis vinifera)
  • alpha proteobacteria (Wolbachia pipientis)
  • amoeba (Dictyostelium discoideum)
  • Archea (Pyrococcus horikoshii)
  • baker's yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae)
  • barley (Hordeum vulgare)
  • beta proteobacteria (Neisseria meningitidis)
  • Chromalveolata (Phytophthora infestans)
  • common water flea (Daphnia pulex)
  • corn (Zea mays)
  • E. coli (Escherichia coli)
  • filamentous fungi (Aspergillus nidulans)
  • Firmicute bacteria (Streptococcus pneumoniae)
  • fission yeast (Schizosaccharomyces pombe)
  • fruit fly (Drosophila melanogaster)
  • green algae (Chlamydomonas reinhardtii)
  • honey bee (Apis mellifera)
  • K. lactis yeast (Kluyveromyces lactis)
  • loblloly pine (Pinus taeda)
  • malaria parasite (Plasmodium falciparum)
  • medicago trunc (Medicago Truncatula)
  • moss (Physcomitrella patens)
  • oppossum (Monodelphis domestica)
  • orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus)
  • pig (Sus scrofa)
  • rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)
  • rice (Oryza sativa)
  • rice blast fungus (Magnaporthe grisea)
  • schistosome parasite (Schistosoma mansoni)
  • sea anemone (Nematostella vectensis)
  • sea squirt (Ciona intestinalis)
  • sea squirt (Ciona savignyi)
  • sea urchin (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus)
  • sorghum (Sorghum bicolor)
  • soybean (Glycine max)
  • stem rust fungus (Puccinia graminis)
  • sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum)
  • thale cress (Arabidopsis thaliana)
  • tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum)
  • toxoplasmosis (Toxoplasma gondii)
  • Trichoplax (Trichoplax adhaerens)
  • wheat (Triticum aestivum)
  • worm (Caenorhabditis elegans)

Evolution for AOC3 Gene

Gene Tree for AOC3 (if available)
Gene Tree for AOC3 (if available)

Paralogs for AOC3 Gene

Paralogs for AOC3 Gene

(3) SIMAP similar genes for AOC3 Gene using alignment to 5 proteins: Pseudogenes for AOC3 Gene

genes like me logo Genes that share paralogs with AOC3: view

Variants for AOC3 Gene

Sequence variations from dbSNP and Humsavar for AOC3 Gene

SNP ID Clin Chr 17 pos Variation AA Info Type
rs1000593995 -- 42,853,438(+) C/T intron_variant
rs1000740172 -- 42,851,365(+) G/A coding_sequence_variant, genic_upstream_transcript_variant, missense_variant, non_coding_transcript_variant, upstream_transcript_variant
rs1001408836 -- 42,853,692(+) C/G intron_variant
rs1002213011 -- 42,849,205(+) C/T upstream_transcript_variant
rs1002472101 -- 42,854,792(+) G/A intron_variant

Structural Variations from Database of Genomic Variants (DGV) for AOC3 Gene

Variant ID Type Subtype PubMed ID
nsv483009 CNV gain 15286789
nsv1146669 OTHER inversion 26484159
esv33998 OTHER inversion 15654335

Variation tolerance for AOC3 Gene

Residual Variation Intolerance Score: 85.8% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)
Gene Damage Index Score: 6.10; 75.47% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)

Additional Variant Information for AOC3 Gene

SNPedia medical, phenotypic, and genealogical associations of SNPs for

No data available for Polymorphic Variants from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for AOC3 Gene

Disorders for AOC3 Gene

MalaCards: The human disease database

(4) MalaCards diseases for AOC3 Gene - From: DISEASES, Novoseek, and GeneCards

Disorder Aliases PubMed IDs
diabetes mellitus
  • diabetes
congestive heart failure
  • cardiac failure congestive
microvascular complications of diabetes 5
  • microvascular complications of diabetes, susceptibility to, 5
body mass index quantitative trait locus 11
  • bmiq11
- elite association - COSMIC cancer census association via MalaCards
Search AOC3 in MalaCards View complete list of genes associated with diseases

Additional Disease Information for AOC3

genes like me logo Genes that share disorders with AOC3: view

No data available for UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot and Genatlas for AOC3 Gene

Publications for AOC3 Gene

  1. Adipogenesis-related increase of semicarbazide-sensitive amine oxidase and monoamine oxidase in human adipocytes. (PMID: 17400359) Bour S … Carpéné C (Biochimie 2007) 3 4 22 58
  2. Cloning of vascular adhesion protein 1 reveals a novel multifunctional adhesion molecule. (PMID: 9653080) Smith DJ … Jalkanen S (The Journal of experimental medicine 1998) 2 3 4 58
  3. Cloning and sequencing of a copper-containing, topa quinone-containing monoamine oxidase from human placenta. (PMID: 8972912) Zhang X … McIntire WS (Gene 1996) 2 3 4 58
  4. Functional modulation of vascular adhesion protein-1 by a novel splice variant. (PMID: 23349812) Kaitaniemi S … Elima K (PloS one 2013) 3 4 58
  5. Localization of vascular adhesion protein-1 (VAP-1) in the human eye. (PMID: 19761765) Almulki L … Hafezi-Moghadam A (Experimental eye research 2010) 3 22 58

Products for AOC3 Gene

Sources for AOC3 Gene

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