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Aliases for AMD1 Gene

Aliases for AMD1 Gene

  • Adenosylmethionine Decarboxylase 1 2 3 5
  • S-Adenosylmethionine Decarboxylase 1 2 3
  • SAMDC 3 4
  • AMD 3 4
  • S-Adenosylmethionine Decarboxylase Proenzyme 3
  • EC 4
  • AdoMetDC 4

External Ids for AMD1 Gene

Previous GeneCards Identifiers for AMD1 Gene

  • GC06P111031
  • GC06P111218
  • GC06P111241
  • GC06P111304
  • GC06P108767
  • GC06P111195

Summaries for AMD1 Gene

Entrez Gene Summary for AMD1 Gene

  • This gene encodes an important intermediate enzyme in polyamine biosynthesis. The polyamines spermine, spermidine, and putrescine are low-molecular-weight aliphatic amines essential for cellular proliferation and tumor promotion. Multiple alternatively spliced transcript variants have been identified. Pseudogenes of this gene are found on chromosomes 5, 6, 10, X and Y. [provided by RefSeq, Dec 2013]

GeneCards Summary for AMD1 Gene

AMD1 (Adenosylmethionine Decarboxylase 1) is a Protein Coding gene. Diseases associated with AMD1 include Sleeping Sickness and Caspase 8 Deficiency. Among its related pathways are Metabolism and Arginine and proline metabolism. Gene Ontology (GO) annotations related to this gene include adenosylmethionine decarboxylase activity.

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for AMD1 Gene

  • Essential for biosynthesis of the polyamines spermidine and spermine. Promotes maintenance and self-renewal of embryonic stem cells, by maintaining spermine levels.

Additional gene information for AMD1 Gene

No data available for CIViC summary , Tocris Summary , Gene Wiki entry , PharmGKB "VIP" Summary , fRNAdb sequence ontologies and piRNA Summary for AMD1 Gene

Genomics for AMD1 Gene

GeneHancer (GH) Regulatory Elements for AMD1 Gene

Promoters and enhancers for AMD1 Gene
GeneHancer (GH) Identifier GH Type GH
GH Sources Gene Association Score Total Score TSS distance (kb) Number of Genes Away Size (kb) Transcription Factor
Binding Sites
Gene Targets
GH06J110873 Promoter/Enhancer 2.6 EPDnew FANTOM5 Ensembl ENCODE dbSUPER 658.5 +61.9 61934 6.6 ZFP64 FEZF1 DMAP1 YY1 SLC30A9 ZNF213 ZNF143 SP3 NFYC NBN AMD1 MFSD4B ENSG00000220506 BRD7P4 RPF2 CDK19 CNN2P9 FCF1P5 ENSG00000231046 RN7SL617P
GH06J110813 Promoter/Enhancer 2.1 EPDnew Ensembl ENCODE 658.4 +0.7 686 4.1 CLOCK ZFP64 DMAP1 IRF4 YY1 ZNF213 E2F8 ZNF143 ZNF263 SP3 CDK19 AMD1 MFSD4B ENSG00000220506 FCF1P5 CDC40 RPF2 CNN2P9 BRD7P4
GH06J110681 Enhancer 1.3 Ensembl ENCODE dbSUPER 18.6 -132.3 -132298 1.4 PKNOX1 FOXA2 MLX ARID4B FEZF1 IRF4 YY1 ARID2 ZNF207 ZNF143 AMD1 CDK19 GTF3C6 RNU6-957P RPF2 CNN2P9 RPS20P18 LOC100129155
GH06J110951 Enhancer 1.1 Ensembl ENCODE 10.2 +137.9 137912 1.1 PKNOX1 FOXA2 MLX ARID4B SIN3A DMAP1 YY1 FOS RXRA SP5 RPF2 CDK19 AMD1 RNU6-957P GTF3C6 LOC442244
GH06J110754 Enhancer 0.6 ENCODE 18.6 -59.0 -59047 1.4 SOX5 SOX13 GATAD2A FOXA2 NFIA FOXA3 ZFP64 NFIL3 RCOR2 TCF7 AMD1 RPF2 RNU6-957P CDK19 GTF3C6
- Elite GeneHancer and/or Elite GeneHancer-gene association Download GeneHancer data dump

GeneHancers around AMD1 on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Top Transcription factor binding sites by QIAGEN in the AMD1 gene promoter:
  • SRY
  • FOXO4

Genomic Locations for AMD1 Gene

Genomic Locations for AMD1 Gene
81,093 bases
Plus strand
20,944 bases
Plus strand

Genomic View for AMD1 Gene

Genes around AMD1 on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Cytogenetic band:
AMD1 Gene in genomic location: bands according to Ensembl, locations according to GeneLoc (and/or Entrez Gene and/or Ensembl if different)
Genomic Location for AMD1 Gene
GeneLoc Logo Genomic Neighborhood Exon StructureGene Density

RefSeq DNA sequence for AMD1 Gene

Proteins for AMD1 Gene

  • Protein details for AMD1 Gene (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)

    Protein Symbol:
    Recommended name:
    S-adenosylmethionine decarboxylase proenzyme
    Protein Accession:
    Secondary Accessions:
    • E1P5F7
    • Q5VXN4
    • Q5VXN6
    • Q9BWK4

    Protein attributes for AMD1 Gene

    334 amino acids
    Molecular mass:
    38340 Da
    Name=pyruvate; Xref=ChEBI:CHEBI:15361;
    Quaternary structure:
    • Heterotetramer of two alpha and two beta chains.

    Three dimensional structures from OCA and Proteopedia for AMD1 Gene

    Alternative splice isoforms for AMD1 Gene


neXtProt entry for AMD1 Gene

Post-translational modifications for AMD1 Gene

  • Is synthesized initially as an inactive proenzyme. Formation of the active enzyme involves a self-maturation process in which the active site pyruvoyl group is generated from an internal serine residue via an autocatalytic post-translational modification. Two non-identical subunits are generated from the proenzyme in this reaction, and the pyruvate is formed at the N-terminus of the alpha chain, which is derived from the carboxyl end of the proenzyme. The post-translation cleavage follows an unusual pathway, termed non-hydrolytic serinolysis, in which the side chain hydroxyl group of the serine supplies its oxygen atom to form the C-terminus of the beta chain, while the remainder of the serine residue undergoes an oxidative deamination to produce ammonia and the pyruvoyl group blocking the N-terminus of the alpha chain.
  • Ubiquitination at posLast=301301, posLast=291291, and Lys96
  • Modification sites at PhosphoSitePlus

No data available for DME Specific Peptides for AMD1 Gene

Domains & Families for AMD1 Gene

Gene Families for AMD1 Gene

Human Protein Atlas (HPA):
  • Enzymes
  • Predicted intracellular proteins

Graphical View of Domain Structure for InterPro Entry



  • Belongs to the eukaryotic AdoMetDC family.
  • Belongs to the eukaryotic AdoMetDC family.
genes like me logo Genes that share domains with AMD1: view

Function for AMD1 Gene

Molecular function for AMD1 Gene

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Function:
Essential for biosynthesis of the polyamines spermidine and spermine. Promotes maintenance and self-renewal of embryonic stem cells, by maintaining spermine levels.
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot CatalyticActivity:
S-adenosyl-L-methionine = S-adenosyl 3-(methylthio)propylamine + CO(2).
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot EnzymeRegulation:
Both proenzyme processing and catalytic activity are stimulated by putrescine. Catalytic activity is inhibited by iodoacetic acid.
GENATLAS Biochemistry:
S-adenosylmethionine decarboxylase 1 (Adomet DC),polyamine biosynthesis

Enzyme Numbers (IUBMB) for AMD1 Gene

Phenotypes From GWAS Catalog for AMD1 Gene

Gene Ontology (GO) - Molecular Function for AMD1 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0004014 adenosylmethionine decarboxylase activity TAS 1917972
GO:0016829 lyase activity IEA --
GO:0016831 carboxy-lyase activity IEA --
GO:0019810 putrescine binding IBA,IEA --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with AMD1: view
genes like me logo Genes that share phenotypes with AMD1: view

Animal Model Products

miRNA for AMD1 Gene

miRTarBase miRNAs that target AMD1

Clone Products

No data available for Human Phenotype Ontology , Animal Models , Transcription Factor Targets and HOMER Transcription for AMD1 Gene

Localization for AMD1 Gene

Subcellular locations from

Extracellular space Cytosol Plasma membrane Cytoskeleton Lysosome Endosome Peroxisome ER Golgi Apparatus Nucleus Mitochondrion 0 1 2 3 4 5 Confidence
COMPARTMENTS Subcellular localization image for AMD1 gene
Compartment Confidence
nucleus 4
cytosol 4
plasma membrane 1
extracellular 1
cytoskeleton 1
mitochondrion 1
peroxisome 1

Subcellular locations from the

Human Protein Atlas (HPA)

Gene Ontology (GO) - Cellular Components for AMD1 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0005829 cytosol IEA,TAS --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with AMD1: view

No data available for Subcellular locations from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for AMD1 Gene

Pathways & Interactions for AMD1 Gene

genes like me logo Genes that share pathways with AMD1: view

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot P17707-DCAM_HUMAN

  • Pathway: Amine and polyamine biosynthesis; S-adenosylmethioninamine biosynthesis; S-adenosylmethioninamine from S-adenosyl-L-methionine: step 1/1.

Gene Ontology (GO) - Biological Process for AMD1 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0006557 S-adenosylmethioninamine biosynthetic process IEA --
GO:0006595 polyamine metabolic process IEA,TAS --
GO:0006596 polyamine biosynthetic process IEA --
GO:0006597 spermine biosynthetic process IBA,IEA --
GO:0008295 spermidine biosynthetic process IBA,IEA --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with AMD1: view

No data available for SIGNOR curated interactions for AMD1 Gene

Drugs & Compounds for AMD1 Gene

(14) Drugs for AMD1 Gene - From: DrugBank, HMDB, and Novoseek

Name Status Disease Links Group Role Mechanism of Action Clinical Trials
spermine Approved Nutra Full agonist, Agonist, Antagonist, Pore Blocker, Channel blocker 0
Tromethamine Approved Pharma Target 0
Ademetionine Approved, Investigational Nutra Target, cofactor 0
Carbon dioxide Approved, Investigational, Vet_approved Pharma 0
Pyruvic acid Approved, Investigational Nutra 0

(17) Additional Compounds for AMD1 Gene - From: HMDB and Novoseek

Name Synonyms Role CAS Number PubChem IDs PubMed IDs
  • (3S)-5'-[(3-amino-3-Carboxypropyl)methylsulfonio]-5'-deoxyadenosine, inner salt
  • [1-(Adenin-9-yl)-1,5-dideoxy-beta-D-ribofuranos-5-yl][(3S)-3-amino-3-carboxypropyl](methyl)sulfonium
  • Acylcarnitine
  • AdoMet
  • S-(5'-Deoxyadenosin-5'-yl)-L-methionine
  • 1,3-Propanediamine
  • 1,3-Propylenediamine
  • Propane-1,3-diamine
  • tn
  • 1,3-diamino-N-Propane
Hydrogen Ion
  • H+
  • H(+)
  • Hydrogen cation
  • Hydron
  • Proton
  • N'-acetylspermine
  • N'-monoacetylspermine
  • N(1)-Acetylspermine
  • N-(3-((4-((3-Aminopropyl)amino)butyl)amino)propyl)-acetamide
  • N-Acetylspermine
  • 1,7-diamino-4-Azaheptane
  • 3,3'-Iminobis(propylamine)
  • 3,3'-Iminobispropylamine
  • 3,3'-Iminodi(propylamine)
  • 3,3-Diaminodipropylamine
genes like me logo Genes that share compounds with AMD1: view

Transcripts for AMD1 Gene

Unigene Clusters for AMD1 Gene

Adenosylmethionine decarboxylase 1:
Representative Sequences:

Clone Products

Alternative Splicing Database (ASD) splice patterns (SP) for AMD1 Gene

ExUns: 1a · 1b ^ 2 ^ 3 ^ 4a · 4b ^ 5 ^ 6 ^ 7a · 7b ^ 8a · 8b · 8c ^ 9a · 9b · 9c ^ 10a · 10b
SP1: -
SP2: -
SP3: -
SP5: - - - - - -
SP6: - - - - -

Relevant External Links for AMD1 Gene

GeneLoc Exon Structure for
ECgene alternative splicing isoforms for

Expression for AMD1 Gene

mRNA expression in normal human tissues from GTEx, Illumina, BioGPS, and CGAP SAGE for AMD1 Gene

mRNA expression in embryonic tissues and stem cells from LifeMap Discovery

Protein differential expression in normal tissues from HIPED for AMD1 Gene

This gene is overexpressed in Platelet (40.3) and Placenta (28.7).

Integrated Proteomics: protein expression in normal tissues and cell lines from ProteomicsDB, MaxQB, and MOPED for AMD1 Gene

Protein tissue co-expression partners for AMD1 Gene

NURSA nuclear receptor signaling pathways regulating expression of AMD1 Gene:


SOURCE GeneReport for Unigene cluster for AMD1 Gene:


Evidence on tissue expression from TISSUES for AMD1 Gene

  • Nervous system(4.9)
  • Heart(4.6)
  • Kidney(3.1)
  • Lung(2.8)
  • Thyroid gland(2.7)
  • Intestine(2.6)
  • Blood(2.5)
  • Liver(2.5)
  • Bone marrow(2.3)
  • Muscle(2.3)
  • Skin(2.3)
  • Spleen(2)
genes like me logo Genes that share expression patterns with AMD1: view

No data available for mRNA differential expression in normal tissues , mRNA Expression by UniProt/SwissProt and Phenotype-based relationships between genes and organs from Gene ORGANizer for AMD1 Gene

Orthologs for AMD1 Gene

This gene was present in the common ancestor of eukaryotes.

Orthologs for AMD1 Gene

Organism Taxonomy Gene Similarity Type Details
(Pan troglodytes)
Mammalia AMD1 34 33
  • 99.9 (n)
(Mus musculus)
Mammalia Amd2 16 34
  • 98 (a)
Amd1 34 33
  • 95.91 (n)
(Bos Taurus)
Mammalia AMD1 34 33
  • 97.6 (n)
(Canis familiaris)
Mammalia AMD1 34 33
  • 97.21 (n)
(Rattus norvegicus)
Mammalia Amd1 33
  • 95.18 (n)
(Ornithorhynchus anatinus)
Mammalia AMD1 34
  • 91 (a)
(Monodelphis domestica)
Mammalia AMD1 34
  • 70 (a)
(Gallus gallus)
Aves AMD1 34 33
  • 89.26 (n)
(Anolis carolinensis)
Reptilia AMD1 34
  • 85 (a)
tropical clawed frog
(Silurana tropicalis)
Amphibia amd1 33
  • 83.13 (n)
Str.665 33
African clawed frog
(Xenopus laevis)
Amphibia amd1-prov 33
(Danio rerio)
Actinopterygii amd1 34 33
  • 78.89 (n)
zgc55614 33
fruit fly
(Drosophila melanogaster)
Insecta SamDC 34 35 33
  • 56.25 (n)
African malaria mosquito
(Anopheles gambiae)
Insecta AgaP_AGAP009619 33
  • 39.13 (n)
(Caenorhabditis elegans)
Secernentea smd-1 34 33
  • 49.54 (n)
K. lactis yeast
(Kluyveromyces lactis)
Saccharomycetes KLLA0C14410g 33
  • 47.75 (n)
baker's yeast
(Saccharomyces cerevisiae)
Saccharomycetes SPE2 36 34 33
  • 46.28 (n)
A. gosspyii yeast
(Ashbya gossypii)
Saccharomycetes AGOS_ABL061C 33
  • 45.29 (n)
thale cress
(Arabidopsis thaliana)
eudicotyledons AT5G15950 33
  • 50.06 (n)
(Oryza sativa)
Liliopsida Os09g0424300 33
  • 48.28 (n)
bread mold
(Neurospora crassa)
Ascomycetes NCU01083 33
  • 49.49 (n)
fission yeast
(Schizosaccharomyces pombe)
Schizosaccharomycetes spe2 33
  • 48.89 (n)
sea squirt
(Ciona savignyi)
Ascidiacea CSA.1643 34
  • 46 (a)
Cin.9738 33
sea squirt
(Ciona intestinalis)
Ascidiacea Cin.9738 33
Species where no ortholog for AMD1 was found in the sources mined by GeneCards:
  • Actinobacteria (Mycobacterium tuberculosis)
  • Alicante grape (Vitis vinifera)
  • alpha proteobacteria (Wolbachia pipientis)
  • amoeba (Dictyostelium discoideum)
  • Archea (Pyrococcus horikoshii)
  • barley (Hordeum vulgare)
  • beta proteobacteria (Neisseria meningitidis)
  • Chromalveolata (Phytophthora infestans)
  • common water flea (Daphnia pulex)
  • corn (Zea mays)
  • E. coli (Escherichia coli)
  • filamentous fungi (Aspergillus nidulans)
  • Firmicute bacteria (Streptococcus pneumoniae)
  • green algae (Chlamydomonas reinhardtii)
  • honey bee (Apis mellifera)
  • loblloly pine (Pinus taeda)
  • malaria parasite (Plasmodium falciparum)
  • medicago trunc (Medicago Truncatula)
  • moss (Physcomitrella patens)
  • orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus)
  • pig (Sus scrofa)
  • rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)
  • rice blast fungus (Magnaporthe grisea)
  • schistosome parasite (Schistosoma mansoni)
  • sea anemone (Nematostella vectensis)
  • sea urchin (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus)
  • sorghum (Sorghum bicolor)
  • soybean (Glycine max)
  • stem rust fungus (Puccinia graminis)
  • sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum)
  • tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum)
  • toxoplasmosis (Toxoplasma gondii)
  • Trichoplax (Trichoplax adhaerens)
  • wheat (Triticum aestivum)

Evolution for AMD1 Gene

Gene Tree for AMD1 (if available)
Gene Tree for AMD1 (if available)
Evolutionary constrained regions (ECRs) for AMD1: view image

Paralogs for AMD1 Gene

(1) SIMAP similar genes for AMD1 Gene using alignment to 4 proteins:

  • B4DZ60_HUMAN
genes like me logo Genes that share paralogs with AMD1: view

No data available for Paralogs for AMD1 Gene

Variants for AMD1 Gene

Sequence variations from dbSNP and Humsavar for AMD1 Gene

SNP ID Clin Chr 06 pos Variation AA Info Type
rs1000063460 -- 110,843,775(+) G/A genic_upstream_transcript_variant, intron_variant
rs1000068511 -- 110,884,913(+) C/G intron_variant
rs1000068626 -- 110,813,041(+) G/A upstream_transcript_variant
rs1000077249 -- 110,882,252(+) T/G intron_variant
rs1000077809 -- 110,823,937(+) G/A genic_upstream_transcript_variant, intron_variant

Structural Variations from Database of Genomic Variants (DGV) for AMD1 Gene

Variant ID Type Subtype PubMed ID
nsv965753 CNV duplication 23825009
nsv965752 CNV duplication 23825009
nsv965751 CNV duplication 23825009
nsv830773 CNV loss 17160897
nsv819336 CNV gain 19587683
nsv1137137 CNV deletion 24896259
nsv1032572 CNV gain 25217958
esv3610369 CNV gain 21293372
esv3610368 CNV loss 21293372
esv2677721 CNV deletion 23128226

Variation tolerance for AMD1 Gene

Residual Variation Intolerance Score: 27% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)
Gene Damage Index Score: 0.66; 14.14% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)

Additional Variant Information for AMD1 Gene

Human Gene Mutation Database (HGMD)
SNPedia medical, phenotypic, and genealogical associations of SNPs for

SNP Genotyping and Copy Number Assay Products

No data available for Polymorphic Variants from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for AMD1 Gene

Disorders for AMD1 Gene

MalaCards: The human disease database

(8) MalaCards diseases for AMD1 Gene - From: HGMD, DISEASES, Novoseek, and GeneCards

Disorder Aliases PubMed IDs
sleeping sickness
  • african sleeping sickness
caspase 8 deficiency
  • ceds
rh isoimmunization
  • rh incompatibility affecting management of mother
- elite association - COSMIC cancer census association via MalaCards
Search AMD1 in MalaCards View complete list of genes associated with diseases

Additional Disease Information for AMD1

Genetic Association Database
Human Genome Epidemiology Navigator
ATLAS of Genetics and Cytogenetics in Oncology and Haematology
genes like me logo Genes that share disorders with AMD1: view

No data available for UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot and Genatlas for AMD1 Gene

Publications for AMD1 Gene

  1. The crystal structure of human S-adenosylmethionine decarboxylase at 2.25 A resolution reveals a novel fold. (PMID: 10378277) Ekstrom JL … Ealick SE (Structure (London, England : 1993) 1999) 3 4 22 58
  2. Mechanistic studies of the processing of human S-adenosylmethionine decarboxylase proenzyme. Isolation of an ester intermediate. (PMID: 10574985) Xiong H … Pegg AE (The Journal of biological chemistry 1999) 3 4 22 58
  3. Amino acid residues necessary for putrescine stimulation of human S-adenosylmethionine decarboxylase proenzyme processing and catalytic activity. (PMID: 1917972) Stanley BA … Pegg AE (The Journal of biological chemistry 1991) 3 4 22 58
  4. A candidate gene study of folate-associated one carbon metabolism genes and colorectal cancer risk. (PMID: 20615890) Levine AJ … Haile RW (Cancer epidemiology, biomarkers & prevention : a publication of the American Association for Cancer Research, cosponsored by the American Society of Preventive Oncology 2010) 3 44 58
  5. Role of the sulfonium center in determining the ligand specificity of human s-adenosylmethionine decarboxylase. (PMID: 19527050) Bale S … Ealick SE (Biochemistry 2009) 3 22 58

Products for AMD1 Gene

Sources for AMD1 Gene

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