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Aliases for ALS2 Gene

Aliases for ALS2 Gene

  • ALS2, Alsin Rho Guanine Nucleotide Exchange Factor 2 3 5
  • Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis 2 Chromosomal Region Candidate Gene 6 Protein 3 4
  • Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis 2 (Juvenile) 2 3
  • Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis 2 Protein 3 4
  • ALS2CR6 3 4
  • Alsin 2 3
  • Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis 2 (Juvenile) Chromosome Region, Candidate 6 2
  • KIAA1563 4
  • IAHSP 3
  • ALSJ 3
  • PLSJ 3

External Ids for ALS2 Gene

Previous HGNC Symbols for ALS2 Gene

  • ALS2CR6

Previous GeneCards Identifiers for ALS2 Gene

  • GC02M200782
  • GC02M201289
  • GC02M202529
  • GC02M202767
  • GC02M202390
  • GC02M202273
  • GC02M194413
  • GC02M202564

Summaries for ALS2 Gene

Entrez Gene Summary for ALS2 Gene

  • The protein encoded by this gene contains an ATS1/RCC1-like domain, a RhoGEF domain, and a vacuolar protein sorting 9 (VPS9) domain, all of which are guanine-nucleotide exchange factors that activate members of the Ras superfamily of GTPases. The protein functions as a guanine nucleotide exchange factor for the small GTPase RAB5. The protein localizes with RAB5 on early endosomal compartments, and functions as a modulator for endosomal dynamics. Mutations in this gene result in several forms of juvenile lateral sclerosis and infantile-onset ascending spastic paralysis. Multiple transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Oct 2008]

GeneCards Summary for ALS2 Gene

ALS2 (ALS2, Alsin Rho Guanine Nucleotide Exchange Factor) is a Protein Coding gene. Diseases associated with ALS2 include Primary Lateral Sclerosis, Juvenile and Spastic Paralysis, Infantile-Onset Ascending. Among its related pathways are Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and RAB GEFs exchange GTP for GDP on RABs. Gene Ontology (GO) annotations related to this gene include protein homodimerization activity and Rab GTPase binding. An important paralog of this gene is ALS2CL.

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for ALS2 Gene

  • May act as a GTPase regulator. Controls survival and growth of spinal motoneurons (By similarity).

Gene Wiki entry for ALS2 Gene

Additional gene information for ALS2 Gene

No data available for CIViC summary , Tocris Summary , PharmGKB "VIP" Summary , fRNAdb sequence ontologies and piRNA Summary for ALS2 Gene

Genomics for ALS2 Gene

GeneHancer (GH) Regulatory Elements for ALS2 Gene

Promoters and enhancers for ALS2 Gene
GeneHancer (GH) Identifier GH Type GH
GH Sources Gene Association Score Total Score TSS distance (kb) Number of Genes Away Size (kb) Transcription Factor
Binding Sites
Gene Targets
GH02J201778 Promoter/Enhancer 2.1 EPDnew Ensembl ENCODE 668.1 +0.9 874 3.9 HDGF PKNOX1 FOXA2 ARID4B SIN3A FEZF1 YY1 SLC30A9 ZNF207 FOS ALS2 GC02M201778 ORC2 CLK1 NOP58 LOC100420110 RPS2P16
GH02J201772 Promoter 0.5 EPDnew 657.9 +8.3 8295 0.1 ALS2 GC02M201778 RPS2P16
GH02J201695 Promoter/Enhancer 1.7 EPDnew FANTOM5 Ensembl ENCODE dbSUPER 10.9 +83.4 83379 5.4 SP1 GATA3 JUND POLR2A JUN FOSL2 FOS NR2F2 MPP4 ALS2 RNU6-651P TMEM237
GH02J201787 Enhancer 1 Ensembl ENCODE 15.2 -6.5 -6525 0.6 HDAC1 CHAMP1 TCF12 ZNF766 ATF7 ZBTB2 CEBPB NCOA1 ZEB2 MBD2 ALS2 CDK15
GH02J201805 Promoter/Enhancer 1.4 EPDnew Ensembl ENCODE 10.7 -26.0 -25956 2.4 PKNOX1 MZF1 FEZF1 ZIC2 ZNF2 FOSL1 ZNF335 CTBP1 POLR2A PRDM10 GC02P201809 ENSG00000202137 CDK15 ALS2 FZD7 RNU6-440P LOC729224 NOP58 SNORD70B SNORD70
- Elite GeneHancer and/or Elite GeneHancer-gene association Download GeneHancer data dump

GeneHancers around ALS2 on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Top Transcription factor binding sites by QIAGEN in the ALS2 gene promoter:

Genomic Locations for ALS2 Gene

Genomic Locations for ALS2 Gene
80,927 bases
Minus strand

Genomic View for ALS2 Gene

Genes around ALS2 on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Cytogenetic band:
ALS2 Gene in genomic location: bands according to Ensembl, locations according to GeneLoc (and/or Entrez Gene and/or Ensembl if different)
Genomic Location for ALS2 Gene
GeneLoc Logo Genomic Neighborhood Exon StructureGene Density

RefSeq DNA sequence for ALS2 Gene

Proteins for ALS2 Gene

  • Protein details for ALS2 Gene (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)

    Protein Symbol:
    Recommended name:
    Protein Accession:
    Secondary Accessions:
    • Q53TT1
    • Q53TV2
    • Q8N1E0
    • Q96PC4
    • Q96Q41
    • Q9H973
    • Q9HCK9

    Protein attributes for ALS2 Gene

    1657 amino acids
    Molecular mass:
    183634 Da
    Quaternary structure:
    • Forms a heteromeric complex with ALS2CL. Interacts with ALS2CL.
    • Sequence=BAB13389.2; Type=Erroneous initiation; Note=Translation N-terminally shortened.; Evidence={ECO:0000305};

    Alternative splice isoforms for ALS2 Gene


neXtProt entry for ALS2 Gene

Post-translational modifications for ALS2 Gene

  • Ubiquitination at Lys849
  • Modification sites at PhosphoSitePlus

No data available for DME Specific Peptides for ALS2 Gene

Domains & Families for ALS2 Gene

Gene Families for ALS2 Gene

Human Protein Atlas (HPA):
  • Disease related genes
  • Predicted intracellular proteins

Graphical View of Domain Structure for InterPro Entry

genes like me logo Genes that share domains with ALS2: view

No data available for UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for ALS2 Gene

Function for ALS2 Gene

Molecular function for ALS2 Gene

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Function:
May act as a GTPase regulator. Controls survival and growth of spinal motoneurons (By similarity).

Gene Ontology (GO) - Molecular Function for ALS2 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0005085 contributes_to guanyl-nucleotide exchange factor activity IEA,IDA 15247254
GO:0005089 Rho guanyl-nucleotide exchange factor activity IEA --
GO:0005515 protein binding IPI 15324660
GO:0017112 Rab guanyl-nucleotide exchange factor activity TAS --
GO:0017137 Rab GTPase binding NAS 16670179
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with ALS2: view
genes like me logo Genes that share phenotypes with ALS2: view

Human Phenotype Ontology for ALS2 Gene

HPO Id HPO Name Alternative Ids Definition Synonyms

Animal Models for ALS2 Gene

MGI Knock Outs for ALS2:

Animal Model Products

  • Taconic Biosciences Mouse Models for ALS2

CRISPR Products

miRNA for ALS2 Gene

miRTarBase miRNAs that target ALS2

Inhibitory RNA Products

  • Search GeneCopoeia for shRNA, lentivirus and/or AAV clone products for ALS2

No data available for Enzyme Numbers (IUBMB) , Phenotypes From GWAS Catalog , Transcription Factor Targets and HOMER Transcription for ALS2 Gene

Localization for ALS2 Gene

Subcellular locations from

Extracellular space Cytosol Plasma membrane Cytoskeleton Lysosome Endosome Peroxisome ER Golgi Apparatus Nucleus Mitochondrion 0 1 2 3 4 5 Confidence
COMPARTMENTS Subcellular localization image for ALS2 gene
Compartment Confidence
cytoskeleton 5
cytosol 5
endosome 5
nucleus 3
mitochondrion 1
endoplasmic reticulum 1
lysosome 1

Subcellular locations from the

Human Protein Atlas (HPA)
  • Cytosol (2)
  • Intermediate filaments (2)
See all subcellular structures

Gene Ontology (GO) - Cellular Components for ALS2 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0001726 ruffle ISS --
GO:0005737 cytoplasm IEA --
GO:0005769 early endosome IDA 12837691
GO:0005813 centrosome IDA 16085057
GO:0005829 cytosol TAS --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with ALS2: view

No data available for Subcellular locations from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for ALS2 Gene

Pathways & Interactions for ALS2 Gene

genes like me logo Genes that share pathways with ALS2: view

Pathways by source for ALS2 Gene

1 KEGG pathway for ALS2 Gene

Gene Ontology (GO) - Biological Process for ALS2 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0001662 behavioral fear response IEA --
GO:0001701 in utero embryonic development IEA --
GO:0001881 receptor recycling IEA --
GO:0006979 response to oxidative stress IEA --
GO:0007032 endosome organization IGI,NAS 12837691
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with ALS2: view

No data available for SIGNOR curated interactions for ALS2 Gene

Drugs & Compounds for ALS2 Gene

(1) Drugs for ALS2 Gene - From: Novoseek

Name Status Disease Links Group Role Mechanism of Action Clinical Trials

(1) Additional Compounds for ALS2 Gene - From: Novoseek

Name Synonyms Role CAS Number PubChem IDs PubMed IDs
genes like me logo Genes that share compounds with ALS2: view

Transcripts for ALS2 Gene

Unigene Clusters for ALS2 Gene

Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis 2 (juvenile):
Representative Sequences:

CRISPR Products

Inhibitory RNA Products

  • Search GeneCopoeia for shRNA, lentivirus and/or AAV clone products for ALS2

Alternative Splicing Database (ASD) splice patterns (SP) for ALS2 Gene

ExUns: 1a · 1b · 1c · 1d ^ 2 ^ 3a · 3b ^ 4a · 4b ^ 5 ^ 6 ^ 7a · 7b · 7c · 7d ^ 8 ^ 9 ^ 10 ^ 11 ^ 12 ^ 13 ^ 14a · 14b ^ 15 ^ 16 ^ 17 ^
SP1: - - - - -
SP2: - - - -
SP3: - -
SP4: -
SP5: - - -
SP6: - -
SP7: - - - - -

ExUns: 18 ^ 19 ^ 20 ^ 21 ^ 22 ^ 23 ^ 24 ^ 25 ^ 26 ^ 27 ^ 28 ^ 29 ^ 30 ^ 31 ^ 32 ^ 33 ^ 34 ^ 35 ^ 36 ^ 37

Relevant External Links for ALS2 Gene

GeneLoc Exon Structure for
ECgene alternative splicing isoforms for

Expression for ALS2 Gene

mRNA expression in normal human tissues from GTEx, Illumina, BioGPS, and CGAP SAGE for ALS2 Gene

mRNA differential expression in normal tissues according to GTEx for ALS2 Gene

This gene is overexpressed in Brain - Cerebellar Hemisphere (x8.7) and Brain - Cerebellum (x7.8).

Protein differential expression in normal tissues from HIPED for ALS2 Gene

This gene is overexpressed in Frontal cortex (26.5) and Retina (22.2).

Integrated Proteomics: protein expression in normal tissues and cell lines from ProteomicsDB, MaxQB, and MOPED for ALS2 Gene

Protein tissue co-expression partners for ALS2 Gene

NURSA nuclear receptor signaling pathways regulating expression of ALS2 Gene:


SOURCE GeneReport for Unigene cluster for ALS2 Gene:


Evidence on tissue expression from TISSUES for ALS2 Gene

  • Liver(4.3)
  • Nervous system(3.9)

Phenotype-based relationships between genes and organs from Gene ORGANizer for ALS2 Gene

Germ Layers:
  • ectoderm
  • endoderm
  • mesoderm
  • digestive
  • integumentary
  • nervous
  • respiratory
  • skeletal muscle
  • skeleton
  • urinary
Head and neck:
  • brain
  • cerebellum
  • cranial nerve
  • eye
  • face
  • head
  • jaw
  • lip
  • mandible
  • maxilla
  • mouth
  • neck
  • nose
  • pharynx
  • salivary gland
  • skull
  • tongue
  • tooth
  • esophagus
  • lung
  • rib
  • rib cage
  • stomach
  • pelvis
  • prostate
  • urinary bladder
  • arm
  • foot
  • forearm
  • hand
  • lower limb
  • shin
  • thigh
  • upper limb
  • peripheral nerve
  • peripheral nervous system
  • skin
  • spinal column
  • spinal cord
  • vertebrae
genes like me logo Genes that share expression patterns with ALS2: view

No data available for mRNA Expression by UniProt/SwissProt for ALS2 Gene

Orthologs for ALS2 Gene

This gene was present in the common ancestor of animals.

Orthologs for ALS2 Gene

Organism Taxonomy Gene Similarity Type Details
(Pan troglodytes)
Mammalia ALS2 34 33
  • 99.68 (n)
(Canis familiaris)
Mammalia ALS2 34 33
  • 92.57 (n)
(Bos Taurus)
Mammalia ALS2 34 33
  • 91.04 (n)
(Ornithorhynchus anatinus)
Mammalia ALS2 34
  • 88 (a)
(Rattus norvegicus)
Mammalia Als2 33
  • 87.36 (n)
(Mus musculus)
Mammalia Als2 16 34 33
  • 87.18 (n)
(Monodelphis domestica)
Mammalia ALS2 34
  • 79 (a)
(Gallus gallus)
Aves ALS2 34 33
  • 76.48 (n)
(Anolis carolinensis)
Reptilia ALS2 34
  • 78 (a)
tropical clawed frog
(Silurana tropicalis)
Amphibia als2 33
  • 68.71 (n)
(Danio rerio)
Actinopterygii als2b 34 33
  • 62.01 (n)
als2a 34
  • 60 (a)
fruit fly
(Drosophila melanogaster)
Insecta CG7158 34 35
  • 23 (a)
Species where no ortholog for ALS2 was found in the sources mined by GeneCards:
  • A. gosspyii yeast (Ashbya gossypii)
  • Actinobacteria (Mycobacterium tuberculosis)
  • African clawed frog (Xenopus laevis)
  • African malaria mosquito (Anopheles gambiae)
  • Alicante grape (Vitis vinifera)
  • alpha proteobacteria (Wolbachia pipientis)
  • amoeba (Dictyostelium discoideum)
  • Archea (Pyrococcus horikoshii)
  • baker's yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae)
  • barley (Hordeum vulgare)
  • beta proteobacteria (Neisseria meningitidis)
  • bread mold (Neurospora crassa)
  • Chromalveolata (Phytophthora infestans)
  • common water flea (Daphnia pulex)
  • corn (Zea mays)
  • E. coli (Escherichia coli)
  • filamentous fungi (Aspergillus nidulans)
  • Firmicute bacteria (Streptococcus pneumoniae)
  • fission yeast (Schizosaccharomyces pombe)
  • green algae (Chlamydomonas reinhardtii)
  • honey bee (Apis mellifera)
  • K. lactis yeast (Kluyveromyces lactis)
  • loblloly pine (Pinus taeda)
  • malaria parasite (Plasmodium falciparum)
  • medicago trunc (Medicago Truncatula)
  • moss (Physcomitrella patens)
  • orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus)
  • pig (Sus scrofa)
  • rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)
  • rice (Oryza sativa)
  • rice blast fungus (Magnaporthe grisea)
  • schistosome parasite (Schistosoma mansoni)
  • sea anemone (Nematostella vectensis)
  • sea squirt (Ciona intestinalis)
  • sea squirt (Ciona savignyi)
  • sea urchin (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus)
  • sorghum (Sorghum bicolor)
  • soybean (Glycine max)
  • stem rust fungus (Puccinia graminis)
  • sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum)
  • thale cress (Arabidopsis thaliana)
  • tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum)
  • toxoplasmosis (Toxoplasma gondii)
  • Trichoplax (Trichoplax adhaerens)
  • wheat (Triticum aestivum)
  • worm (Caenorhabditis elegans)

Evolution for ALS2 Gene

Gene Tree for ALS2 (if available)
Gene Tree for ALS2 (if available)
Evolutionary constrained regions (ECRs) for ALS2: view image

Paralogs for ALS2 Gene

Paralogs for ALS2 Gene

(5) SIMAP similar genes for ALS2 Gene using alignment to 6 proteins:

  • H0Y696_HUMAN
  • J3KQ33_HUMAN
  • J3KQ43_HUMAN
  • Q6IQ41_HUMAN Pseudogenes for ALS2 Gene

genes like me logo Genes that share paralogs with ALS2: view

Variants for ALS2 Gene

Sequence variations from dbSNP and Humsavar for ALS2 Gene

SNP ID Clin Chr 02 pos Variation AA Info Type
rs1060503672 likely-pathogenic, Infantile-onset ascending hereditary spastic paralysis 201,746,749(-) C/T genic_downstream_transcript_variant, splice_acceptor_variant
rs1060504992 likely-benign, Infantile-onset ascending hereditary spastic paralysis 201,746,587(-) T/A 5_prime_UTR_variant, coding_sequence_variant, genic_downstream_transcript_variant, intron_variant, non_coding_transcript_variant, synonymous_variant
rs1085307055 uncertain-significance, Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis type 2 201,757,569(-) T/A 5_prime_UTR_variant, coding_sequence_variant, genic_downstream_transcript_variant, genic_upstream_transcript_variant, missense_variant, non_coding_transcript_variant, upstream_transcript_variant
rs11300 likely-benign, ALS2-Related Spectrum Disorders, Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis, Recessive 201,700,847(-) C/T 3_prime_UTR_variant, genic_downstream_transcript_variant, non_coding_transcript_variant
rs114458388 likely-benign, Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis, Recessive, ALS2-Related Spectrum Disorders 201,705,468(-) T/C genic_downstream_transcript_variant, intron_variant

Structural Variations from Database of Genomic Variants (DGV) for ALS2 Gene

Variant ID Type Subtype PubMed ID
esv1240932 CNV insertion 17803354
esv2664768 CNV deletion 23128226
esv3305718 CNV mobile element insertion 20981092
esv3309655 CNV mobile element insertion 20981092
esv3404179 CNV insertion 20981092
esv3428790 CNV insertion 20981092
esv3584275 CNV loss 25503493
esv3593983 CNV loss 21293372
nsv524548 CNV gain 19592680
nsv584163 CNV loss 21841781
nsv834511 CNV loss 17160897
nsv963760 CNV duplication 23825009

Variation tolerance for ALS2 Gene

Residual Variation Intolerance Score: 1.61% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)
Gene Damage Index Score: 4.51; 64.58% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)

Additional Variant Information for ALS2 Gene

Human Gene Mutation Database (HGMD)
SNPedia medical, phenotypic, and genealogical associations of SNPs for

SNP Genotyping and Copy Number Assay Products

No data available for Polymorphic Variants from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for ALS2 Gene

Disorders for ALS2 Gene

MalaCards: The human disease database

(23) MalaCards diseases for ALS2 Gene - From: HGMD, OMIM, ClinVar, GTR, Orphanet, DISEASES, Novoseek, and GeneCards

- elite association - COSMIC cancer census association via MalaCards
Search ALS2 in MalaCards View complete list of genes associated with diseases


  • Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis 2 (ALS2) [MIM:205100]: A neurodegenerative disorder affecting upper motor neurons in the brain and lower motor neurons in the brain stem and spinal cord, resulting in fatal paralysis. Sensory abnormalities are absent. The pathologic hallmarks of the disease include pallor of the corticospinal tract due to loss of motor neurons, presence of ubiquitin-positive inclusions within surviving motor neurons, and deposition of pathologic aggregates. The etiology of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis is likely to be multifactorial, involving both genetic and environmental factors. The disease is inherited in 5-10% of the cases. {ECO:0000269 PubMed:11586298}. Note=The disease is caused by mutations affecting the gene represented in this entry.
  • Juvenile primary lateral sclerosis (JPLS) [MIM:606353]: A neurodegenerative disorder which is closely related to but clinically distinct from amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. It is a progressive paralytic disorder which results from dysfunction of the upper motor neurons while the lower neurons are unaffected. {ECO:0000269 PubMed:11586297}. Note=The disease is caused by mutations affecting the gene represented in this entry.
  • Infantile-onset ascending spastic paralysis (IAHSP) [MIM:607225]: Characterized by progressive spasticity and weakness of limbs. {ECO:0000269 PubMed:12145748}. Note=The disease is caused by mutations affecting the gene represented in this entry.

Additional Disease Information for ALS2

Genetic Association Database
Human Genome Epidemiology Navigator
ATLAS of Genetics and Cytogenetics in Oncology and Haematology
genes like me logo Genes that share disorders with ALS2: view

No data available for Genatlas for ALS2 Gene

Publications for ALS2 Gene

  1. Infantile-onset ascending hereditary spastic paralysis is associated with mutations in the alsin gene. (PMID: 12145748) Eymard-Pierre E … Boespflug-Tanguy O (American journal of human genetics 2002) 3 4 22 44 58
  2. Single-nucleotide polymorphisms in uncoding regions of ALS2 gene of Japanese patients with autosomal-recessive amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. (PMID: 12866199) Nagano I … Abe K (Neurological research 2003) 3 22 44 58
  3. The gene encoding alsin, a protein with three guanine-nucleotide exchange factor domains, is mutated in a form of recessive amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. (PMID: 11586297) Yang Y … Siddique T (Nature genetics 2001) 3 4 22 58
  4. A gene encoding a putative GTPase regulator is mutated in familial amyotrophic lateral sclerosis 2. (PMID: 11586298) Hadano S … Ikeda JE (Nature genetics 2001) 2 3 4 58
  5. Personalized smoking cessation: interactions between nicotine dose, dependence and quit-success genotype score. (PMID: 20379614) Rose JE … Uhl GR (Molecular medicine (Cambridge, Mass.) 2010) 3 44 58

Products for ALS2 Gene

Sources for ALS2 Gene

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