This protein belongs to the aldehyde dehydrogenase family of proteins. This gene encodes a mitochondrial NAD(+)-dependent succinic semialdehyde dehydrogenase. A deficiency of this enzyme, known as 4-hydroxybutyricaciduria, is a rare inborn error in the metabolism of the neurotransmitter 4-aminobutyric acid (GABA). In response to the defect, physiologic fluids from patients accu... See more...

Aliases for ALDH5A1 Gene

Aliases for ALDH5A1 Gene

  • Aldehyde Dehydrogenase 5 Family Member A1 2 3 5
  • NAD(+)-Dependent Succinic Semialdehyde Dehydrogenase 3 4
  • Succinate-Semialdehyde Dehydrogenase, Mitochondrial 3 4
  • EC 4 54
  • SSADH 3 4
  • Mitochondrial Succinate Semialdehyde Dehydrogenase 3
  • Aldehyde Dehydrogenase 5 Family, Member A1 2
  • Aldehyde Dehydrogenase Family 5 Member A1 4
  • Succinate-Semialdehyde Dehydrogenase 2
  • EC 1.2.1 54
  • SSDH 3

External Ids for ALDH5A1 Gene

Previous GeneCards Identifiers for ALDH5A1 Gene

  • GC06P024552
  • GC06P024603
  • GC06P024444

Summaries for ALDH5A1 Gene

Entrez Gene Summary for ALDH5A1 Gene

  • This protein belongs to the aldehyde dehydrogenase family of proteins. This gene encodes a mitochondrial NAD(+)-dependent succinic semialdehyde dehydrogenase. A deficiency of this enzyme, known as 4-hydroxybutyricaciduria, is a rare inborn error in the metabolism of the neurotransmitter 4-aminobutyric acid (GABA). In response to the defect, physiologic fluids from patients accumulate GHB, a compound with numerous neuromodulatory properties. Two transcript variants encoding distinct isoforms have been identified for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

GeneCards Summary for ALDH5A1 Gene

ALDH5A1 (Aldehyde Dehydrogenase 5 Family Member A1) is a Protein Coding gene. Diseases associated with ALDH5A1 include Succinic Semialdehyde Dehydrogenase Deficiency and Gamma-Amino Butyric Acid Metabolism Disorder. Among its related pathways are Cyclophosphamide Pathway, Pharmacodynamics and Transmission across Chemical Synapses. Gene Ontology (GO) annotations related to this gene include protein homodimerization activity and aldehyde dehydrogenase (NAD) activity. An important paralog of this gene is ALDH1L1.

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Summary for ALDH5A1 Gene

  • Catalyzes one step in the degradation of the inhibitory neurotransmitter gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA).

Gene Wiki entry for ALDH5A1 Gene

Additional gene information for ALDH5A1 Gene

No data available for CIViC Summary , Tocris Summary , PharmGKB "VIP" Summary , Rfam classification and piRNA Summary for ALDH5A1 Gene

Genomics for ALDH5A1 Gene

GeneHancer (GH) Regulatory Elements for ALDH5A1 Gene

Promoters and enhancers for ALDH5A1 Gene
GeneHancer (GH) Identifier GH Type GH
GH Sources Gene Association Score Total Score TSS distance (kb) Number of Genes Away Size (kb) Transcription Factor
Binding Sites
Gene Targets
GH06J024494 Promoter/Enhancer 2 EPDnew Ensembl ENCODE CraniofacialAtlas 770.3 +0.2 249 2.2 CTCF ZBTB6 LCORL SMARCE1 RBPJ HDAC2 MYC L3MBTL2 MAX MNT ALDH5A1 GPLD1 NONHSAG043179.2 lnc-GPLD1-2 RF00017-5367
GH06J024399 Promoter/Enhancer 2 EPDnew Ensembl ENCODE CraniofacialAtlas 13.9 -92.6 -92599 5.9 SIN3A ZBTB40 MLX RBPJ SMARCE1 POLR2A NR2F6 HCFC1 MYC CC2D1A MRS2 piR-61279 ALDH5A1 ENSG00000219682 DCDC2
GH06J024522 Enhancer 1 Ensembl ENCODE 26.2 +27.1 27149 2.4 CTCF RBPJ L3MBTL2 DACH1 RAD21 ELF3 AHR MAFK CBFA2T2 BACH1 ALDH5A1 CMAHP GPLD1 ACOT13 TDP2 piR-58733 piR-57392-004 RF00017-5367
GH06J024471 Enhancer 0.6 Ensembl 31.3 -22.6 -22622 0.7 ZNF121 MAFK BACH1 NFE2L2 ZNF316 NFE2 MAFG DPF2 CUX1 FOS ALDH5A1 GPLD1 RNU6-391P RF00017-5366 piR-50437-555 lnc-GPLD1-2 RF00017-5365
GH06J024504 Enhancer 1.1 Ensembl ENCODE 16.1 +10.2 10189 1.5 ZBTB40 RBPJ CREB1 MIXL1 HLF MNT RERE ELF3 AHR SP1 ALDH5A1 NONHSAG043179.2 piR-57392-004 RF00017-5367 piR-58733
- Elite GeneHancer and/or Elite GeneHancer-gene association Download GeneHancer data from 2017 publication | Request up-to-date GeneHancer data (full dataset)

GeneHancers around ALDH5A1 on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Top Transcription factor binding sites by QIAGEN in the ALDH5A1 gene promoter:
  • Cart-1
  • Cdc5
  • FOXO3
  • LyF-1
  • Max1
  • Meis-1
  • Meis-1a
  • Meis-1b
  • p53
  • RFX1

Genomic Locations for ALDH5A1 Gene

Genomic Locations for ALDH5A1 Gene
42,356 bases
Plus strand
42,356 bases
Plus strand

Genomic View for ALDH5A1 Gene

Genes around ALDH5A1 on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Cytogenetic band:
ALDH5A1 Gene in genomic location: bands according to Ensembl, locations according to GeneLoc (and/or Entrez Gene and/or Ensembl if different)
Genomic Location for ALDH5A1 Gene
GeneLoc Logo Genomic Neighborhood Exon StructureGene Density

RefSeq DNA sequence for ALDH5A1 Gene

Proteins for ALDH5A1 Gene

  • Protein details for ALDH5A1 Gene (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)

    Protein Symbol:
    Recommended name:
    Succinate-semialdehyde dehydrogenase, mitochondrial
    Protein Accession:
    Secondary Accessions:
    • B2RD26
    • G5E949
    • Q546H9
    • Q8N3W6

    Protein attributes for ALDH5A1 Gene

    535 amino acids
    Molecular mass:
    57215 Da
    Quaternary structure:
    • Homotetramer.

    Three dimensional structures from OCA and Proteopedia for ALDH5A1 Gene

    Alternative splice isoforms for ALDH5A1 Gene


neXtProt entry for ALDH5A1 Gene

Selected DME Specific Peptides for ALDH5A1 Gene


Post-translational modifications for ALDH5A1 Gene

  • Modification sites at PhosphoSitePlus
  • Modification sites at neXtProt

Other Protein References for ALDH5A1 Gene

Domains & Families for ALDH5A1 Gene

Gene Families for ALDH5A1 Gene

Human Protein Atlas (HPA):
  • Disease related genes
  • Enzymes
  • Potential drug targets
  • Predicted intracellular proteins

Suggested Antigen Peptide Sequences for ALDH5A1 Gene

GenScript: Design optimal peptide antigens:
  • Succinic semialdehyde dehydrogenase (Q546H9_HUMAN)
  • Succinic semialdehyde dehydrogenase (Q8N3W6_HUMAN)
  • Succinate semialdehyde dehydrogenase (Q8N3W7_HUMAN)
  • NAD(+)-dependent succinic semialdehyde dehydrogenase (SSDH_HUMAN)

Graphical View of Domain Structure for InterPro Entry



  • Belongs to the aldehyde dehydrogenase family.
  • Belongs to the aldehyde dehydrogenase family.
genes like me logo Genes that share domains with ALDH5A1: view

Function for ALDH5A1 Gene

Molecular function for ALDH5A1 Gene

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Function:
Catalyzes one step in the degradation of the inhibitory neurotransmitter gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA).
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot CatalyticActivity:
Reaction=H2O + NAD(+) + succinate semialdehyde = 2 H(+) + NADH + succinate; Xref=Rhea:RHEA:13217, ChEBI:CHEBI:15377, ChEBI:CHEBI:15378, ChEBI:CHEBI:30031, ChEBI:CHEBI:57540, ChEBI:CHEBI:57706, ChEBI:CHEBI:57945; EC=;.
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot EnzymeRegulation:
Redox-regulated. Inhibited under oxydizing conditions. Inhibited by hydrogen peroxide H(2)O(2).
GENATLAS Biochemistry:
NAD+ dependent succinic semialdehyde dehydrogenase,involved in the biosynthesis of gammahydroxybutyrate and in the detoxification of xenobiotic carbonyl compounds

Enzyme Numbers (IUBMB) for ALDH5A1 Gene

Phenotypes From GWAS Catalog for ALDH5A1 Gene

Gene Ontology (GO) - Molecular Function for ALDH5A1 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0004777 succinate-semialdehyde dehydrogenase (NAD+) activity TAS --
GO:0009013 succinate-semialdehyde dehydrogenase [NAD(P)+] activity IBA 21873635
GO:0016491 oxidoreductase activity IEA --
GO:0016620 oxidoreductase activity, acting on the aldehyde or oxo group of donors, NAD or NADP as acceptor IEA --
GO:0042803 protein homodimerization activity IC 16199352
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with ALDH5A1: view
genes like me logo Genes that share phenotypes with ALDH5A1: view

Human Phenotype Ontology for ALDH5A1 Gene

HPO Id HPO Name Alternative Ids Definition Synonyms

Animal Models for ALDH5A1 Gene

MGI Knock Outs for ALDH5A1:

Animal Model Products

CRISPR Products

Clone Products

No data available for Transcription Factor Targets and HOMER Transcription for ALDH5A1 Gene

Localization for ALDH5A1 Gene

Subcellular locations from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for ALDH5A1 Gene


Subcellular locations from

Extracellular space Cytosol Plasma membrane Cytoskeleton Lysosome Endosome Peroxisome ER Golgi Apparatus Nucleus Mitochondrion 0 1 2 3 4 5 Confidence
COMPARTMENTS Subcellular localization image for ALDH5A1 gene
Compartment Confidence
mitochondrion 5
peroxisome 1
nucleus 1
cytosol 1

Subcellular locations from the

Human Protein Atlas (HPA)

Gene Ontology (GO) - Cellular Components for ALDH5A1 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0005739 mitochondrion ISS --
GO:0005759 mitochondrial matrix TAS --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with ALDH5A1: view

Pathways & Interactions for ALDH5A1 Gene

genes like me logo Genes that share pathways with ALDH5A1: view

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot P51649-SSDH_HUMAN

  • Pathway: Amino-acid degradation; 4-aminobutanoate degradation.

Gene Ontology (GO) - Biological Process for ALDH5A1 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0006006 glucose metabolic process ISS,IEA --
GO:0006083 acetate metabolic process ISS,IEA --
GO:0006105 succinate metabolic process ISS,IEA --
GO:0006536 glutamate metabolic process IEA,ISS --
GO:0006541 glutamine metabolic process ISS,IEA --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with ALDH5A1: view

No data available for SIGNOR curated interactions for ALDH5A1 Gene

Drugs & Compounds for ALDH5A1 Gene

(14) Drugs for ALDH5A1 Gene - From: DrugBank, PharmGKB, HMDB, and Novoseek

Name Status Disease Links Group Role Mechanism of Action Clinical Trials
NADH Approved Nutra Target 0
Chlormerodrin Approved, Withdrawn Pharma Target, inhibitor 0
Succinic acid Approved Nutra Full agonist, Agonist, Target, inhibitor 0
Sodium oxybate Approved Pharma Enzyme, substrate 44
Valproic acid Approved, Investigational Pharma Target, inhibitor HDAC1 inhibitor, Histone deacetylase (HDAC)inhibitors 352

(9) Additional Compounds for ALDH5A1 Gene - From: HMDB and Novoseek

Name Synonyms Role CAS Number PubChem IDs PubMed IDs
Hydrogen Ion
  • H+
  • H(+)
  • Hydrogen cation
  • Hydron
  • Proton
Succinic acid semialdehyde
  • 3-Formylpropanoic acid
  • 3-Formylpropionic acid
  • 4-Oxobutanoate
  • beta-Formylpropionic acid
  • Semialdehyde succinique
genes like me logo Genes that share compounds with ALDH5A1: view

Transcripts for ALDH5A1 Gene

mRNA/cDNA for ALDH5A1 Gene

CRISPR Products

Clone Products

Alternative Splicing Database (ASD) splice patterns (SP) for ALDH5A1 Gene

ExUns: 1a · 1b ^ 2 ^ 3 ^ 4 ^ 5 ^ 6 ^ 7 ^ 8a · 8b ^ 9 ^ 10 ^ 11a · 11b · 11c
SP1: -
SP2: - -

Relevant External Links for ALDH5A1 Gene

GeneLoc Exon Structure for
ECgene alternative splicing isoforms for

Expression for ALDH5A1 Gene

mRNA expression in normal human tissues from GTEx, Illumina, BioGPS, and CGAP SAGE for ALDH5A1 Gene

mRNA expression in embryonic tissues and stem cells from LifeMap Discovery

Protein differential expression in normal tissues from HIPED for ALDH5A1 Gene

This gene is overexpressed in Liver (12.3) and Frontal cortex (7.3).

Integrated Proteomics: protein expression in normal tissues and cell lines from ProteomicsDB, MaxQB, and MOPED for ALDH5A1 Gene

Protein tissue co-expression partners for ALDH5A1 Gene

- Elite partner

NURSA nuclear receptor signaling pathways regulating expression of ALDH5A1 Gene:


SOURCE GeneReport for Unigene cluster for ALDH5A1 Gene:


mRNA Expression by UniProt/SwissProt for ALDH5A1 Gene:

Tissue specificity: Brain, pancreas, heart, liver, skeletal muscle and kidney. Lower in placenta.

Evidence on tissue expression from TISSUES for ALDH5A1 Gene

  • Nervous system(4.7)
  • Liver(4.6)
  • Blood(4.2)

Phenotype-based relationships between genes and organs from Gene ORGANizer for ALDH5A1 Gene

Germ Layers:
  • ectoderm
  • mesoderm
  • nervous
  • skeletal muscle
Head and neck:
  • brain
  • eye
  • head
  • peripheral nerve
  • peripheral nervous system
genes like me logo Genes that share expression patterns with ALDH5A1: view

No data available for mRNA differential expression in normal tissues for ALDH5A1 Gene

Orthologs for ALDH5A1 Gene

This gene was present in the common ancestor of eukaryotes.

Orthologs for ALDH5A1 Gene

Organism Taxonomy Gene Similarity Type Details
(Pan troglodytes)
Mammalia ALDH5A1 33 32
  • 99.56 (n)
(Canis familiaris)
Mammalia ALDH5A1 33 32
  • 87.87 (n)
(Bos Taurus)
Mammalia ALDH5A1 33 32
  • 86.12 (n)
(Mus musculus)
Mammalia Aldh5a1 17 33 32
  • 81.96 (n)
(Rattus norvegicus)
Mammalia Aldh5a1 32
  • 81.96 (n)
(Monodelphis domestica)
Mammalia ALDH5A1 33
  • 79 (a)
(Gallus gallus)
Aves ALDH5A1 33 32
  • 72.58 (n)
(Anolis carolinensis)
Reptilia ALDH5A1 33
  • 76 (a)
tropical clawed frog
(Silurana tropicalis)
Amphibia aldh5a1 32
  • 70.8 (n)
(Danio rerio)
Actinopterygii aldh5a1 33 32
  • 67.68 (n)
African malaria mosquito
(Anopheles gambiae)
Insecta AgaP_AGAP003165 32
  • 56.6 (n)
fruit fly
(Drosophila melanogaster)
Insecta Ssadh 33 32
  • 54.8 (n)
CG4685 34
  • 52 (a)
(Caenorhabditis elegans)
Secernentea alh-7 33 32
  • 53.77 (n)
K. lactis yeast
(Kluyveromyces lactis)
Saccharomycetes KLLA0E17491g 32
  • 54.14 (n)
baker's yeast
(Saccharomyces cerevisiae)
Saccharomycetes UGA2 35 33 32
  • 53.57 (n)
A. gosspyii yeast
(Ashbya gossypii)
Saccharomycetes AGOS_AER007W 32
  • 52.73 (n)
thale cress
(Arabidopsis thaliana)
eudicotyledons ALDH5F1 32
  • 58.63 (n)
Alicante grape
(Vitis vinifera)
eudicotyledons Vvi.3967 32
(Hordeum vulgare)
Liliopsida Hv.5500 32
(Oryza sativa)
Liliopsida Os.9838 32
(Triticum aestivum)
Liliopsida Ta.5774 32
sea squirt
(Ciona savignyi)
Ascidiacea -- 33
  • 65 (a)
-- 33
  • 56 (a)
Cin.6288 32
bread mold
(Neurospora crassa)
Ascomycetes NCU00936 32
  • 57.53 (n)
fission yeast
(Schizosaccharomyces pombe)
Schizosaccharomycetes SPAC1002.12c 32
  • 56.52 (n)
sea squirt
(Ciona intestinalis)
Ascidiacea Cin.6288 32
Species where no ortholog for ALDH5A1 was found in the sources mined by GeneCards:
  • Actinobacteria (Mycobacterium tuberculosis)
  • African clawed frog (Xenopus laevis)
  • alpha proteobacteria (Wolbachia pipientis)
  • amoeba (Dictyostelium discoideum)
  • Archea (Pyrococcus horikoshii)
  • beta proteobacteria (Neisseria meningitidis)
  • Chromalveolata (Phytophthora infestans)
  • common water flea (Daphnia pulex)
  • corn (Zea mays)
  • E. coli (Escherichia coli)
  • filamentous fungi (Aspergillus nidulans)
  • Firmicute bacteria (Streptococcus pneumoniae)
  • green algae (Chlamydomonas reinhardtii)
  • honey bee (Apis mellifera)
  • loblloly pine (Pinus taeda)
  • malaria parasite (Plasmodium falciparum)
  • medicago trunc (Medicago Truncatula)
  • moss (Physcomitrella patens)
  • orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus)
  • pig (Sus scrofa)
  • platypus (Ornithorhynchus anatinus)
  • rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)
  • rice blast fungus (Magnaporthe grisea)
  • schistosome parasite (Schistosoma mansoni)
  • sea anemone (Nematostella vectensis)
  • sea urchin (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus)
  • sorghum (Sorghum bicolor)
  • soybean (Glycine max)
  • stem rust fungus (Puccinia graminis)
  • sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum)
  • tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum)
  • toxoplasmosis (Toxoplasma gondii)
  • Trichoplax (Trichoplax adhaerens)

Evolution for ALDH5A1 Gene

Gene Tree for ALDH5A1 (if available)
Gene Tree for ALDH5A1 (if available)
Evolutionary constrained regions (ECRs) for ALDH5A1: view image

Paralogs for ALDH5A1 Gene

(11) SIMAP similar genes for ALDH5A1 Gene using alignment to 4 proteins:

  • C9J8Q5_HUMAN
  • F5H328_HUMAN
  • Q8N3W7_HUMAN
genes like me logo Genes that share paralogs with ALDH5A1: view

Variants for ALDH5A1 Gene

Sequence variations from dbSNP and Humsavar for ALDH5A1 Gene

SNP ID Clin Chr 06 pos Variation AA Info Type
rs1034294766 uncertain-significance, Succinate-semialdehyde dehydrogenase deficiency 24,495,246(+) G/C coding_sequence_variant, missense_variant
rs1054899 benign, Succinate-semialdehyde dehydrogenase deficiency 24,533,965(+) C/A 3_prime_UTR_variant
rs1055012664 uncertain-significance, Succinate-semialdehyde dehydrogenase deficiency 24,533,543(+) G/A coding_sequence_variant, missense_variant
rs1064796918 uncertain-significance, likely-benign, not provided, Succinate-semialdehyde dehydrogenase deficiency 24,503,389(+) C/G/T coding_sequence_variant, missense_variant, synonymous_variant
rs113591366 uncertain-significance, benign-likely-benign, Succinate-semialdehyde dehydrogenase deficiency 24,504,937(+) G/A/C coding_sequence_variant, synonymous_variant

Structural Variations from Database of Genomic Variants (DGV) for ALDH5A1 Gene

Variant ID Type Subtype PubMed ID
esv2648573 CNV deletion 19546169
esv2763542 CNV gain 21179565
esv34020 CNV loss 18971310
nsv1109765 CNV deletion 24896259
nsv519552 CNV gain 19592680
nsv965688 CNV duplication 23825009

Variation tolerance for ALDH5A1 Gene

Residual Variation Intolerance Score: 72.3% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)
Gene Damage Index Score: 7.79; 83.35% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)

Additional Variant Information for ALDH5A1 Gene

Human Gene Mutation Database (HGMD)
SNPedia medical, phenotypic, and genealogical associations of SNPs for

No data available for Polymorphic Variants from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for ALDH5A1 Gene

Disorders for ALDH5A1 Gene

MalaCards: The human disease database

(12) MalaCards diseases for ALDH5A1 Gene - From: HGMD, OMIM, ClinVar, GTR, Orphanet, DISEASES, Novoseek, and GeneCards

Disorder Aliases PubMed IDs
succinic semialdehyde dehydrogenase deficiency
  • ssadhd
gamma-amino butyric acid metabolism disorder
  • disorder of gamma-aminobutyric acid metabolism
cauda equina syndrome
  • polyradiculopathy
canavan disease
  • canavan-van bogaert-bertrand disease
gaba-transaminase deficiency
  • gamma-aminobutyric acid transaminase deficiency
- elite association - COSMIC cancer census association via MalaCards


  • Succinic semialdehyde dehydrogenase deficiency (SSADHD) [MIM:271980]: A rare inborn error of 4-aminobutyric acid (GABA) metabolism, which leads to accumulation of 4-hydroxybutyric acid in physiologic fluids of patients. The disease is clinically characterized by developmental delay, hypotonia, mental retardation, ataxia, seizures, hyperkinetic behavior, aggression, and sleep disturbances. {ECO:0000269 PubMed:11243727, ECO:0000269 PubMed:11901270, ECO:0000269 PubMed:14635103}. Note=The disease is caused by mutations affecting the gene represented in this entry.

Genatlas disease for ALDH5A1 Gene

4-hydroxybutyric aciduria characterized by psychomotor retardation,ataxia,hypotonia

Additional Disease Information for ALDH5A1

Genetic Association Database
Human Genome Epidemiology Navigator
ATLAS of Genetics and Cytogenetics in Oncology and Haematology
genes like me logo Genes that share disorders with ALDH5A1: view

Publications for ALDH5A1 Gene

  1. Molecular cloning of the mature NAD(+)-dependent succinic semialdehyde dehydrogenase from rat and human. cDNA isolation, evolutionary homology, and tissue expression. (PMID: 7814412) Chambliss KL … Gibson KM (The Journal of biological chemistry 1995) 2 3 4 23 56
  2. Redox-switch modulation of human SSADH by dynamic catalytic loop. (PMID: 19300440) Kim YG … Kim KJ (The EMBO journal 2009) 3 4 23 56
  3. Cognitive functioning and survival in the elderly: the SSADH C538T polymorphism. (PMID: 18505418) De Rango F … De Benedictis G (Annals of human genetics 2008) 3 23 43 56
  4. Candidate gene analysis of the succinic semialdehyde dehydrogenase gene (ALDH5A1) in patients with idiopathic generalized epilepsy and photosensitivity. (PMID: 16406321) Lorenz S … Sander T (Neuroscience letters 2006) 3 23 43 56
  5. An association study between polymorphisms in five genes in glutamate and GABA pathway and paranoid schizophrenia. (PMID: 15642443) Zhang B … Shen Y (European psychiatry : the journal of the Association of European Psychiatrists 2005) 3 23 43 56

Products for ALDH5A1 Gene

Sources for ALDH5A1 Gene