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Aliases for ALDH1L2 Gene

Aliases for ALDH1L2 Gene

  • Aldehyde Dehydrogenase 1 Family Member L2 2 3 5
  • Mitochondrial 10-Formyltetrahydrofolate Dehydrogenase 2 3
  • Mitochondrial 10-FTHFDH 3 4
  • MtFDH 3 4
  • Aldehyde Dehydrogenase Family 1 Member L2, Mitochondrial 3
  • Probable 10-Formyltetrahydrofolate Dehydrogenase ALDH1L2 3
  • 10-Formyltetrahydrofolate Dehydrogenase ALDH1L2 3
  • Aldehyde Dehydrogenase 1 Family, Member L2 2
  • Aldehyde Dehydrogenase Family 1 Member L2 4
  • EC 4

External Ids for ALDH1L2 Gene

Previous GeneCards Identifiers for ALDH1L2 Gene

  • GC12M103921
  • GC12M105417
  • GC12M102472

Summaries for ALDH1L2 Gene

Entrez Gene Summary for ALDH1L2 Gene

  • This gene encodes a member of both the aldehyde dehydrogenase superfamily and the formyl transferase superfamily. This member is the mitochondrial form of 10-formyltetrahydrofolate dehydrogenase (FDH), which converts 10-formyltetrahydrofolate to tetrahydrofolate and CO2 in an NADP(+)-dependent reaction, and plays an essential role in the distribution of one-carbon groups between the cytosolic and mitochondrial compartments of the cell. Alternatively spliced transcript variants have been found for this gene.[provided by RefSeq, Oct 2010]

GeneCards Summary for ALDH1L2 Gene

ALDH1L2 (Aldehyde Dehydrogenase 1 Family Member L2) is a Protein Coding gene. Among its related pathways are Metabolism and Metabolism of water-soluble vitamins and cofactors. Gene Ontology (GO) annotations related to this gene include oxidoreductase activity and aldehyde dehydrogenase (NAD) activity. An important paralog of this gene is ALDH1L1.

Gene Wiki entry for ALDH1L2 Gene

Additional gene information for ALDH1L2 Gene

No data available for CIViC summary , UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot , Tocris Summary , PharmGKB "VIP" Summary , fRNAdb sequence ontologies and piRNA Summary for ALDH1L2 Gene

Genomics for ALDH1L2 Gene

GeneHancer (GH) Regulatory Elements for ALDH1L2 Gene

Promoters and enhancers for ALDH1L2 Gene
GeneHancer (GH) Identifier GH Type GH
GH Sources Gene Association Score Total Score TSS distance (kb) Number of Genes Away Size (kb) Transcription Factor
Binding Sites
Gene Targets
GH12J105082 Promoter/Enhancer 2.1 EPDnew FANTOM5 Ensembl ENCODE 654.3 +0.6 584 2.1 ZNF2 ZNF48 ZNF335 ATF7 CREM SMAD5 CEBPB ZNF148 ATF4 KLF16 ALDH1L2 WASHC4 C12orf75 PIR40149
GH12J104985 Promoter/Enhancer 2 EPDnew Ensembl ENCODE 10.6 +97.8 97822 2.3 HDGF PKNOX1 CLOCK ARID4B SIN3A DMAP1 ZNF2 IRF4 YY1 SLC30A9 C12orf45 LOC105369952 SLC41A2 NFYB ALDH1L2 RPL18AP3 PIR60982 GC12M104965
GH12J105036 Enhancer 0.5 ENCODE 11.7 +47.0 47037 1.6 JUND ZSCAN4 JUNB BATF SLC41A2 ALDH1L2 CHST11 C12orf45 PIR40149
GH12J105091 Enhancer 1 FANTOM5 Ensembl ENCODE 0.4 -7.7 -7714 1.8 SP1 PKNOX1 GATA3 POLR2A CREB1 CBFA2T3 ZBTB17 WASHC4 APPL2 C12orf75 ALDH1L2
GH12J105100 Enhancer 0.6 Ensembl 0.4 -16.2 -16181 0.3 TFAP4 ZNF362 JUN FOSL1 JUND ZNF366 ZNF692 ZNF512 ZFP91 FOSL2 WASHC4 ALDH1L2
- Elite GeneHancer and/or Elite GeneHancer-gene association Download GeneHancer data dump

GeneHancers around ALDH1L2 on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Top Transcription factor binding sites by QIAGEN in the ALDH1L2 gene promoter:

Genomic Locations for ALDH1L2 Gene

Genomic Locations for ALDH1L2 Gene
64,800 bases
Minus strand

Genomic View for ALDH1L2 Gene

Genes around ALDH1L2 on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Cytogenetic band:
ALDH1L2 Gene in genomic location: bands according to Ensembl, locations according to GeneLoc (and/or Entrez Gene and/or Ensembl if different)
Genomic Location for ALDH1L2 Gene
GeneLoc Logo Genomic Neighborhood Exon StructureGene Density

RefSeq DNA sequence for ALDH1L2 Gene

Proteins for ALDH1L2 Gene

  • Protein details for ALDH1L2 Gene (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)

    Protein Symbol:
    Recommended name:
    Mitochondrial 10-formyltetrahydrofolate dehydrogenase
    Protein Accession:
    Secondary Accessions:
    • Q3SY68
    • Q68D62
    • Q6AI55
    • Q8N922

    Protein attributes for ALDH1L2 Gene

    923 amino acids
    Molecular mass:
    101746 Da
    Quaternary structure:
    No Data Available
    • Sequence=AAI03936.1; Type=Erroneous translation; Note=Wrong choice of CDS.; Evidence={ECO:0000305};

    Alternative splice isoforms for ALDH1L2 Gene


neXtProt entry for ALDH1L2 Gene

Post-translational modifications for ALDH1L2 Gene

  • Modification sites at PhosphoSitePlus
  • Modification sites at neXtProt

Other Protein References for ALDH1L2 Gene

No data available for DME Specific Peptides for ALDH1L2 Gene

Domains & Families for ALDH1L2 Gene

Gene Families for ALDH1L2 Gene

Human Protein Atlas (HPA):
  • Enzymes
  • Predicted intracellular proteins

Suggested Antigen Peptide Sequences for ALDH1L2 Gene

GenScript: Design optimal peptide antigens:

Graphical View of Domain Structure for InterPro Entry



  • In the N-terminal section; belongs to the GART family.
  • In the N-terminal section; belongs to the GART family.
  • In the C-terminal section; belongs to the aldehyde dehydrogenase family. ALDH1L subfamily.
genes like me logo Genes that share domains with ALDH1L2: view

Function for ALDH1L2 Gene

Molecular function for ALDH1L2 Gene

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot CatalyticActivity:
10-formyltetrahydrofolate + NADP(+) + H(2)O = tetrahydrofolate + CO(2) + NADPH.

Enzyme Numbers (IUBMB) for ALDH1L2 Gene

Phenotypes From GWAS Catalog for ALDH1L2 Gene

Gene Ontology (GO) - Molecular Function for ALDH1L2 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0004029 aldehyde dehydrogenase (NAD) activity IBA,EXP --
GO:0016155 formyltetrahydrofolate dehydrogenase activity IBA --
GO:0016491 oxidoreductase activity IEA --
GO:0016620 oxidoreductase activity, acting on the aldehyde or oxo group of donors, NAD or NADP as acceptor IEA --
GO:0016742 hydroxymethyl-, formyl- and related transferase activity IEA --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with ALDH1L2: view
genes like me logo Genes that share phenotypes with ALDH1L2: view

Animal Model Products

Clone Products

No data available for Human Phenotype Ontology , Animal Models , Transcription Factor Targets and HOMER Transcription for ALDH1L2 Gene

Localization for ALDH1L2 Gene

Subcellular locations from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for ALDH1L2 Gene


Subcellular locations from

Extracellular space Cytosol Plasma membrane Cytoskeleton Lysosome Endosome Peroxisome ER Golgi Apparatus Nucleus Mitochondrion 0 1 2 3 4 5 Confidence
COMPARTMENTS Subcellular localization image for ALDH1L2 gene
Compartment Confidence
extracellular 5
mitochondrion 5
cytosol 3

Subcellular locations from the

Human Protein Atlas (HPA)

Gene Ontology (GO) - Cellular Components for ALDH1L2 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0005634 nucleus IDA --
GO:0005737 cytoplasm IEA --
GO:0005739 mitochondrion IDA,IEA --
GO:0005759 mitochondrial matrix TAS --
GO:0070062 extracellular exosome HDA 23533145
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with ALDH1L2: view

Pathways & Interactions for ALDH1L2 Gene

genes like me logo Genes that share pathways with ALDH1L2: view

Pathways by source for ALDH1L2 Gene

Gene Ontology (GO) - Biological Process for ALDH1L2 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0006730 one-carbon metabolic process IEA --
GO:0008152 metabolic process IEA --
GO:0009058 biosynthetic process IEA --
GO:0009258 10-formyltetrahydrofolate catabolic process IEA --
GO:0046655 folic acid metabolic process TAS --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with ALDH1L2: view

No data available for SIGNOR curated interactions for ALDH1L2 Gene

Drugs & Compounds for ALDH1L2 Gene

(3) Drugs for ALDH1L2 Gene - From: HMDB

Name Status Disease Links Group Role Mechanism of Action Clinical Trials
Carbon dioxide Approved, Investigational, Vet_approved Pharma 0
Water Approved Pharma 0
Tetrahydrofolic acid Nutra 0

(5) Additional Compounds for ALDH1L2 Gene - From: HMDB

Name Synonyms Role CAS Number PubChem IDs PubMed IDs
  • 10-Formyl-THF
  • 10-Formyltetrahydrofolic acid
  • 10-Formyl-(6Rs)-tetrahydrofolic acid
  • 10-Formyl-H4pteglu1
  • 10-Formyl-tetrahydrofolate
Hydrogen Ion
  • H+
  • H(+)
  • Hydrogen cation
  • Hydron
  • Proton
  • beta-Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate
  • NADP+
  • Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate
  • Oxidized nicotinamide-adenine dinucleotide phosphate
  • TPN
  • 2'-(Dihydrogen phosphate) 5'-(trihydrogen pyrophosphate) adenosine 5'-ester with 1,4-dihydro-1-b-D-ribofuranosylnicotinamide
  • 2'-(Dihydrogen phosphate) 5'-(trihydrogen pyrophosphate) adenosine 5'-ester with 1,4-dihydro-1-beta-delta-ribofuranosylnicotinamide
  • Adenosine 5'-(trihydrogen diphosphate) 2'-(dihydrogen phosphate) p'-5'-ester with 1,4-dihydro-1-beta-D-ribofuranosyl-3-pyridinecarboxamide
  • Adenosine 5'-(trihydrogen diphosphate) 2'-(dihydrogen phosphate) p'-5'-ester with 1,4-dihydro-1-beta-delta-ribofuranosyl-3-pyridinecarboxamide
  • b-NADPH
Pantetheine 4'-phosphate
  • 4'-Phosphopantetheine
  • Pantotheine-4'-phosphate
  • Phosphopantetheine
  • PSH-4'-P
  • Pantetheine 4'-phosphoric acid
genes like me logo Genes that share compounds with ALDH1L2: view

Transcripts for ALDH1L2 Gene

mRNA/cDNA for ALDH1L2 Gene

(2) Selected AceView cDNA sequences:
(8) Additional mRNA sequences :
(6) REFSEQ mRNAs :
(5) Ensembl transcripts including schematic representations, and UCSC links where relevant :

Unigene Clusters for ALDH1L2 Gene

Aldehyde dehydrogenase 1 family, member L2:
Representative Sequences:

Clone Products

Alternative Splicing Database (ASD) splice patterns (SP) for ALDH1L2 Gene

ExUns: 1 ^ 2 ^ 3 ^ 4 ^ 5 ^ 6 ^ 7 ^ 8 ^ 9 ^ 10 ^ 11 ^ 12 ^ 13 ^ 14 ^ 15 ^ 16 ^ 17 ^ 18 ^ 19 ^ 20a · 20b
SP2: -

Relevant External Links for ALDH1L2 Gene

GeneLoc Exon Structure for
ECgene alternative splicing isoforms for

Expression for ALDH1L2 Gene

mRNA expression in normal human tissues from GTEx, Illumina, BioGPS, and CGAP SAGE for ALDH1L2 Gene

mRNA expression in embryonic tissues and stem cells from LifeMap Discovery

mRNA differential expression in normal tissues according to GTEx for ALDH1L2 Gene

This gene is overexpressed in Pancreas (x6.5).

Protein differential expression in normal tissues from HIPED for ALDH1L2 Gene

This gene is overexpressed in Bone marrow stromal cell (20.3), Salivary gland (15.9), and Pancreas (9.4).

Integrated Proteomics: protein expression in normal tissues and cell lines from ProteomicsDB, MaxQB, and MOPED for ALDH1L2 Gene

Protein tissue co-expression partners for ALDH1L2 Gene

NURSA nuclear receptor signaling pathways regulating expression of ALDH1L2 Gene:


SOURCE GeneReport for Unigene cluster for ALDH1L2 Gene:


mRNA Expression by UniProt/SwissProt for ALDH1L2 Gene:

Tissue specificity: Highly expressed in pancreas, heart, brain and skeletal muscle.

Evidence on tissue expression from TISSUES for ALDH1L2 Gene

  • Liver(2.7)
  • Pancreas(2.3)
genes like me logo Genes that share expression patterns with ALDH1L2: view

No data available for Phenotype-based relationships between genes and organs from Gene ORGANizer for ALDH1L2 Gene

Orthologs for ALDH1L2 Gene

This gene was present in the common ancestor of animals and fungi.

Orthologs for ALDH1L2 Gene

Organism Taxonomy Gene Similarity Type Details
(Pan troglodytes)
Mammalia ALDH1L2 34 33
  • 99.53 (n)
(Canis familiaris)
Mammalia ALDH1L2 34 33
  • 92.09 (n)
(Bos Taurus)
Mammalia ALDH1L2 34 33
  • 90.97 (n)
(Monodelphis domestica)
Mammalia ALDH1L2 34
  • 90 (a)
(Ornithorhynchus anatinus)
Mammalia -- 34
  • 89 (a)
-- 34
  • 78 (a)
(Mus musculus)
Mammalia Aldh1l2 16 34 33
  • 86.13 (n)
(Rattus norvegicus)
Mammalia Aldh1l2 33
  • 84.94 (n)
(Gallus gallus)
Aves -- 34
  • 83 (a)
-- 34
  • 83 (a)
ALDH1L2 33
  • 78.05 (n)
(Anolis carolinensis)
Reptilia ALDH1L2 34
  • 84 (a)
tropical clawed frog
(Silurana tropicalis)
Amphibia aldh1l2 33
  • 77.11 (n)
Str.2604 33
(Danio rerio)
Actinopterygii aldh1l2 34 33
  • 72.81 (n)
African malaria mosquito
(Anopheles gambiae)
Insecta AgaP_AGAP009591 33
  • 58.81 (n)
fruit fly
(Drosophila melanogaster)
Insecta CG8665 34 33
  • 58.71 (n)
(Caenorhabditis elegans)
Secernentea alh-3 34
  • 59 (a)
baker's yeast
(Saccharomyces cerevisiae)
Saccharomycetes ALD5 34
  • 44 (a)
ALD4 34
  • 42 (a)
ALD6 34
  • 42 (a)
sea squirt
(Ciona savignyi)
Ascidiacea -- 34
  • 70 (a)
Cin.3698 33
sea squirt
(Ciona intestinalis)
Ascidiacea Cin.3698 33
Species where no ortholog for ALDH1L2 was found in the sources mined by GeneCards:
  • A. gosspyii yeast (Ashbya gossypii)
  • Actinobacteria (Mycobacterium tuberculosis)
  • African clawed frog (Xenopus laevis)
  • Alicante grape (Vitis vinifera)
  • alpha proteobacteria (Wolbachia pipientis)
  • amoeba (Dictyostelium discoideum)
  • Archea (Pyrococcus horikoshii)
  • barley (Hordeum vulgare)
  • beta proteobacteria (Neisseria meningitidis)
  • bread mold (Neurospora crassa)
  • Chromalveolata (Phytophthora infestans)
  • common water flea (Daphnia pulex)
  • corn (Zea mays)
  • E. coli (Escherichia coli)
  • filamentous fungi (Aspergillus nidulans)
  • Firmicute bacteria (Streptococcus pneumoniae)
  • fission yeast (Schizosaccharomyces pombe)
  • green algae (Chlamydomonas reinhardtii)
  • honey bee (Apis mellifera)
  • K. lactis yeast (Kluyveromyces lactis)
  • loblloly pine (Pinus taeda)
  • malaria parasite (Plasmodium falciparum)
  • medicago trunc (Medicago Truncatula)
  • moss (Physcomitrella patens)
  • orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus)
  • pig (Sus scrofa)
  • rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)
  • rice (Oryza sativa)
  • rice blast fungus (Magnaporthe grisea)
  • schistosome parasite (Schistosoma mansoni)
  • sea anemone (Nematostella vectensis)
  • sea urchin (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus)
  • sorghum (Sorghum bicolor)
  • soybean (Glycine max)
  • stem rust fungus (Puccinia graminis)
  • sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum)
  • thale cress (Arabidopsis thaliana)
  • tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum)
  • toxoplasmosis (Toxoplasma gondii)
  • Trichoplax (Trichoplax adhaerens)
  • wheat (Triticum aestivum)

Evolution for ALDH1L2 Gene

Gene Tree for ALDH1L2 (if available)
Gene Tree for ALDH1L2 (if available)
Evolutionary constrained regions (ECRs) for ALDH1L2: view image

Paralogs for ALDH1L2 Gene

(11) SIMAP similar genes for ALDH1L2 Gene using alignment to 2 proteins:

  • H0YHN9_HUMAN Pseudogenes for ALDH1L2 Gene

genes like me logo Genes that share paralogs with ALDH1L2: view

Variants for ALDH1L2 Gene

Sequence variations from dbSNP and Humsavar for ALDH1L2 Gene

SNP ID Clin Chr 12 pos Variation AA Info Type
rs1000138470 -- 105,023,349(-) C/T 3_prime_UTR_variant, genic_downstream_transcript_variant, non_coding_transcript_variant
rs1000176813 -- 105,083,719(-) T/C genic_upstream_transcript_variant, intron_variant
rs1000178141 -- 105,072,028(-) G/A genic_upstream_transcript_variant, intron_variant, upstream_transcript_variant
rs1000226014 -- 105,044,949(-) G/A/T genic_downstream_transcript_variant, intron_variant
rs1000247947 -- 105,076,676(-) A/G genic_upstream_transcript_variant, intron_variant

Structural Variations from Database of Genomic Variants (DGV) for ALDH1L2 Gene

Variant ID Type Subtype PubMed ID
esv1002429 CNV insertion 20482838
esv1010041 CNV deletion 20482838
esv3306561 CNV mobile element insertion 20981092
esv3309843 CNV mobile element insertion 20981092
esv3442903 CNV insertion 20981092
nsv832505 CNV gain 17160897
nsv832506 CNV gain 17160897

Variation tolerance for ALDH1L2 Gene

Residual Variation Intolerance Score: 24.7% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)
Gene Damage Index Score: 3.23; 52.43% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)

Additional Variant Information for ALDH1L2 Gene

Human Gene Mutation Database (HGMD)
SNPedia medical, phenotypic, and genealogical associations of SNPs for

No data available for Polymorphic Variants from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for ALDH1L2 Gene

Disorders for ALDH1L2 Gene

Additional Disease Information for ALDH1L2

Genetic Association Database
Human Genome Epidemiology Navigator
ATLAS of Genetics and Cytogenetics in Oncology and Haematology

No disorders were found for ALDH1L2 Gene.

No data available for MalaCards , UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot and Genatlas for ALDH1L2 Gene

Publications for ALDH1L2 Gene

  1. ALDH1L2 is the mitochondrial homolog of 10-formyltetrahydrofolate dehydrogenase. (PMID: 20498374) Krupenko NI … Krupenko SA (The Journal of biological chemistry 2010) 2 3 4 58
  2. Genetic variants in nuclear-encoded mitochondrial genes influence AIDS progression. (PMID: 20877624) Hendrickson SL … O'Brien SJ (PloS one 2010) 3 44 58
  3. Personalized smoking cessation: interactions between nicotine dose, dependence and quit-success genotype score. (PMID: 20379614) Rose JE … Uhl GR (Molecular medicine (Cambridge, Mass.) 2010) 3 44 58
  4. Complete sequencing and characterization of 21,243 full-length human cDNAs. (PMID: 14702039) Ota T … Sugano S (Nature genetics 2004) 3 4 58
  5. Architecture of the human interactome defines protein communities and disease networks. (PMID: 28514442) Huttlin EL … Harper JW (Nature 2017) 3 58

Products for ALDH1L2 Gene

Sources for ALDH1L2 Gene

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