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Aliases for ALAS2 Gene

Aliases for ALAS2 Gene

  • 5'-Aminolevulinate Synthase 2 2 3
  • Aminolevulinate, Delta-, Synthase 2 2 3
  • Delta-Aminolevulinate Synthase 2 3 4
  • 5-Aminolevulinic Acid Synthase 2 3 4
  • Delta-ALA Synthase 2 3 4
  • ALAS-E 3 4
  • ALASE 3 4
  • ASB 3 4
  • Aminolevulinate, Delta-, Synthase 2 (Sideroblastic/Hypochromic Anemia) 2
  • 5-Aminolevulinate Synthase, Erythroid-Specific, Mitochondrial 3
  • Sideroblastic/Hypochromic Anemia 2
  • 5-Aminolevulinate Synthase 2 5
  • Delta-ALA Synthetase 3
  • EC 4
  • SIDBA1 3
  • XLDPP 3
  • XLEPP 3
  • ANH1 3
  • XLSA 3

External Ids for ALAS2 Gene

Previous HGNC Symbols for ALAS2 Gene

  • ASB

Previous GeneCards Identifiers for ALAS2 Gene

  • GC0XM051887
  • GC0XM052973
  • GC0XM053640
  • GC0XM054002
  • GC0XM054918
  • GC0XM055053
  • GC0XM052086

Summaries for ALAS2 Gene

Entrez Gene Summary for ALAS2 Gene

  • The product of this gene specifies an erythroid-specific mitochondrially located enzyme. The encoded protein catalyzes the first step in the heme biosynthetic pathway. Defects in this gene cause X-linked pyridoxine-responsive sideroblastic anemia. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been identified. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

GeneCards Summary for ALAS2 Gene

ALAS2 (5'-Aminolevulinate Synthase 2) is a Protein Coding gene. Diseases associated with ALAS2 include Anemia, Sideroblastic, 1 and Protoporphyria, Erythropoietic, X-Linked. Among its related pathways are Metabolism and Porphyrin and chlorophyll metabolism. Gene Ontology (GO) annotations related to this gene include pyridoxal phosphate binding and glycine binding. An important paralog of this gene is ALAS1.

Gene Wiki entry for ALAS2 Gene

Additional gene information for ALAS2 Gene

No data available for CIViC summary , UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot , Tocris Summary , PharmGKB "VIP" Summary , fRNAdb sequence ontologies and piRNA Summary for ALAS2 Gene

Genomics for ALAS2 Gene

GeneHancer (GH) Regulatory Elements for ALAS2 Gene

Promoters and enhancers for ALAS2 Gene
GeneHancer (GH) Identifier GH Type GH
GH Sources Gene Association Score Total Score TSS distance (kb) Number of Genes Away Size (kb) Transcription Factor
Binding Sites
Gene Targets
GH0XJ055030 Promoter 0.8 EPDnew 650.7 +0.1 67 0.1 POLR2A ZNF512 VEZF1 ZNF24 ALAS2 PAGE2B
GH0XJ055031 Promoter 0.8 EPDnew 650.7 +0.2 180 0.1 ATF4 POLR2A ZNF512 VEZF1 MLLT1 ZNF24 PRDM1 ALAS2 PAGE2B
GH0XJ055074 Promoter 0.8 EPDnew 13.3 -43.9 -43945 0.1 ZNF639 L3MBTL2 NRF1 MGA PAGE2B ALAS2 PAGE2 ENSG00000234466
GH0XJ055016 Enhancer 0.2 FANTOM5 3.5 +14.5 14489 0.2 ALAS2 PAGE2B APEX2
GH0XJ055006 Enhancer 1.2 Ensembl ENCODE dbSUPER 0.3 +22.8 22841 3.4 ELF3 FOXA2 ZBTB40 RAD21 YY1 SCRT2 ATF7 RXRA CEBPB NFIL3 TRO PFKFB1 APEX2 ALAS2 PAGE2B
- Elite GeneHancer and/or Elite GeneHancer-gene association Download GeneHancer data dump

GeneHancers around ALAS2 on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Top Transcription factor binding sites by QIAGEN in the ALAS2 gene promoter:
  • FOXL1
  • TBP
  • IRF-2
  • IRF-1
  • GCNF
  • GCNF-1
  • GCNF-2
  • GATA-1

Genomic Locations for ALAS2 Gene

Genomic Locations for ALAS2 Gene
22,010 bases
Minus strand
22,010 bases
Minus strand

Genomic View for ALAS2 Gene

Genes around ALAS2 on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Cytogenetic band:
ALAS2 Gene in genomic location: bands according to Ensembl, locations according to GeneLoc (and/or Entrez Gene and/or Ensembl if different)
Genomic Location for ALAS2 Gene
GeneLoc Logo Genomic Neighborhood Exon StructureGene Density

RefSeq DNA sequence for ALAS2 Gene

Proteins for ALAS2 Gene

  • Protein details for ALAS2 Gene (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)

    Protein Symbol:
    Recommended name:
    5-aminolevulinate synthase, erythroid-specific, mitochondrial
    Protein Accession:
    Secondary Accessions:
    • A8K3F0
    • A8K6C4
    • Q13735
    • Q5JZF5
    • Q8N6H3

    Protein attributes for ALAS2 Gene

    587 amino acids
    Molecular mass:
    64633 Da
    Name=pyridoxal 5-phosphate; Xref=ChEBI:CHEBI:597326;
    Quaternary structure:
    • Homodimer. Interacts with SUCLA2.
    • There are two delta-ALA synthases in vertebrates: an erythroid- specific form and one (housekeeping) which is expressed in all tissues.
    • Sequence=CAA39795.1; Type=Erroneous initiation; Note=Translation N-terminally extended.; Evidence={ECO:0000305};

    Alternative splice isoforms for ALAS2 Gene


neXtProt entry for ALAS2 Gene

Post-translational modifications for ALAS2 Gene

  • Modification sites at PhosphoSitePlus
  • Modification sites at neXtProt

No data available for DME Specific Peptides for ALAS2 Gene

Domains & Families for ALAS2 Gene

Gene Families for ALAS2 Gene

Human Protein Atlas (HPA):
  • Disease related genes
  • Enzymes
  • Potential drug targets
  • Predicted intracellular proteins
  • Predicted secreted proteins

Graphical View of Domain Structure for InterPro Entry



  • Belongs to the class-II pyridoxal-phosphate-dependent aminotransferase family.
  • Belongs to the class-II pyridoxal-phosphate-dependent aminotransferase family.
genes like me logo Genes that share domains with ALAS2: view

Function for ALAS2 Gene

Molecular function for ALAS2 Gene

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot CatalyticActivity:
Succinyl-CoA + glycine = 5-aminolevulinate + CoA + CO(2).
GENATLAS Biochemistry:
aminolevulinate,delta-,synthase 2,erythroid,mitochondrial,pyridoxal dependent,catalyzing the first step of porphyrin biosynthesis,with a transcription factor binding site

Enzyme Numbers (IUBMB) for ALAS2 Gene

Gene Ontology (GO) - Molecular Function for ALAS2 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0003824 catalytic activity IEA --
GO:0003870 5-aminolevulinate synthase activity IEA,TAS --
GO:0005515 protein binding IPI 10727444
GO:0016594 glycine binding ISS --
GO:0016740 transferase activity IEA --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with ALAS2: view
genes like me logo Genes that share phenotypes with ALAS2: view

Human Phenotype Ontology for ALAS2 Gene

HPO Id HPO Name Alternative Ids Definition Synonyms

Animal Models for ALAS2 Gene

MGI Knock Outs for ALAS2:

Animal Model Products

miRNA for ALAS2 Gene

miRTarBase miRNAs that target ALAS2

Clone Products

No data available for Phenotypes From GWAS Catalog , Transcription Factor Targets and HOMER Transcription for ALAS2 Gene

Localization for ALAS2 Gene

Subcellular locations from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for ALAS2 Gene

Mitochondrion matrix.

Subcellular locations from

Extracellular space Cytosol Plasma membrane Cytoskeleton Lysosome Endosome Peroxisome ER Golgi Apparatus Nucleus Mitochondrion 0 1 2 3 4 5 Confidence
COMPARTMENTS Subcellular localization image for ALAS2 gene
Compartment Confidence
mitochondrion 5
extracellular 2
cytosol 2
nucleus 1
endoplasmic reticulum 1

Gene Ontology (GO) - Cellular Components for ALAS2 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0005739 mitochondrion IEA,IDA 10727444
GO:0005743 mitochondrial inner membrane IDA 14643893
GO:0005759 mitochondrial matrix TAS,IEA --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with ALAS2: view

No data available for Subcellular locations from the Human Protein Atlas (HPA) for ALAS2 Gene

Pathways & Interactions for ALAS2 Gene

genes like me logo Genes that share pathways with ALAS2: view

Pathways by source for ALAS2 Gene

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot P22557-HEM0_HUMAN

  • Pathway: Porphyrin-containing compound metabolism; protoporphyrin-IX biosynthesis; 5-aminolevulinate from glycine: step 1/1.

Gene Ontology (GO) - Biological Process for ALAS2 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0001666 response to hypoxia IDA 16234850
GO:0006778 porphyrin-containing compound metabolic process IEA --
GO:0006782 protoporphyrinogen IX biosynthetic process IEA --
GO:0006783 heme biosynthetic process TAS --
GO:0006879 cellular iron ion homeostasis ISS --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with ALAS2: view

No data available for SIGNOR curated interactions for ALAS2 Gene

Drugs & Compounds for ALAS2 Gene

(19) Drugs for ALAS2 Gene - From: DrugBank, HMDB, and Novoseek

Name Status Disease Links Group Role Mechanism of Action Clinical Trials
Glycine Approved, Vet_approved Nutra Full agonist, Agonist, Target 254
Pyridoxal Phosphate Approved, Investigational Nutra Target, cofactor 17
Aminolevulinic acid Approved Pharma 170
Carbon dioxide Approved, Investigational, Vet_approved Pharma 0
Succinyl-CoA Experimental Pharma 0

(10) Additional Compounds for ALAS2 Gene - From: HMDB and Novoseek

Name Synonyms Role CAS Number PubChem IDs PubMed IDs
  • FE (II) ion
  • Fe(II)
  • Fe(2+)
  • Ferrous ion
  • Iron ion(2+)
  • Formyl coenzyme A
  • Formyl-coenzyme A
genes like me logo Genes that share compounds with ALAS2: view

Transcripts for ALAS2 Gene

mRNA/cDNA for ALAS2 Gene

Unigene Clusters for ALAS2 Gene

Aminolevulinate, delta-, synthase 2:
Representative Sequences:

Clone Products

Alternative Splicing Database (ASD) splice patterns (SP) for ALAS2 Gene

ExUns: 1a · 1b ^ 2 ^ 3 ^ 4 ^ 5 ^ 6a · 6b ^ 7a · 7b ^ 8a · 8b · 8c · 8d · 8e ^ 9a · 9b ^ 10a · 10b ^ 11 ^ 12 ^ 13
SP1: - - -
SP2: - - -
SP4: - -
SP5: - - -
SP6: - - - -
SP7: - - - - - -
SP8: - - - -
SP9: - - - - -
SP10: - - - - -

Relevant External Links for ALAS2 Gene

GeneLoc Exon Structure for
ECgene alternative splicing isoforms for

Expression for ALAS2 Gene

mRNA expression in normal human tissues from GTEx, Illumina, BioGPS, and CGAP SAGE for ALAS2 Gene

mRNA expression in embryonic tissues and stem cells from LifeMap Discovery

mRNA differential expression in normal tissues according to GTEx for ALAS2 Gene

This gene is overexpressed in Whole Blood (x51.5).

Protein differential expression in normal tissues from HIPED for ALAS2 Gene

This gene is overexpressed in Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (58.1) and Fetal Liver (10.9).

Integrated Proteomics: protein expression in normal tissues and cell lines from ProteomicsDB, MaxQB, and MOPED for ALAS2 Gene

Protein tissue co-expression partners for ALAS2 Gene

NURSA nuclear receptor signaling pathways regulating expression of ALAS2 Gene:


SOURCE GeneReport for Unigene cluster for ALAS2 Gene:


mRNA Expression by UniProt/SwissProt for ALAS2 Gene:

Tissue specificity: Erythroid specific.

Evidence on tissue expression from TISSUES for ALAS2 Gene

  • Blood(4.9)
  • Liver(4.7)
  • Lung(4.2)
  • Pancreas(4)
  • Bone marrow(3.3)

Phenotype-based relationships between genes and organs from Gene ORGANizer for ALAS2 Gene

Germ Layers:
  • ectoderm
  • endoderm
  • mesoderm
  • cardiovascular
  • digestive
  • immune
  • integumentary
  • nervous
Head and neck:
  • brain
  • ear
  • head
  • heart
  • abdominal wall
  • biliary tract
  • duodenum
  • gallbladder
  • intestine
  • liver
  • pancreas
  • small intestine
  • blood
  • blood vessel
  • bone marrow
  • red blood cell
  • skin
  • white blood cell
genes like me logo Genes that share expression patterns with ALAS2: view

Orthologs for ALAS2 Gene

This gene was present in the common ancestor of animals and fungi.

Orthologs for ALAS2 Gene

Organism Taxonomy Gene Similarity Type Details
(Pan troglodytes)
Mammalia ALAS2 33
  • 92.12 (n)
(Bos Taurus)
Mammalia ALAS2 34 33
  • 91.03 (n)
(Canis familiaris)
Mammalia ALAS2 34 33
  • 91.02 (n)
(Mus musculus)
Mammalia Alas2 16 34 33
  • 87.45 (n)
(Rattus norvegicus)
Mammalia Alas2 33
  • 86.37 (n)
(Monodelphis domestica)
Mammalia ALAS2 34
  • 80 (a)
(Ornithorhynchus anatinus)
Mammalia ALAS2 34
  • 74 (a)
(Anolis carolinensis)
Reptilia ALAS2 34
  • 64 (a)
tropical clawed frog
(Silurana tropicalis)
Amphibia alas2 33
  • 69.59 (n)
(Danio rerio)
Actinopterygii alas2 34 33 33
  • 64.54 (n)
fruit fly
(Drosophila melanogaster)
Insecta Alas 34 35 33
  • 59.5 (n)
African malaria mosquito
(Anopheles gambiae)
Insecta AgaP_AGAP003184 33
  • 57.86 (n)
K. lactis yeast
(Kluyveromyces lactis)
Saccharomycetes KLLA0C15059g 33
  • 53.6 (n)
A. gosspyii yeast
(Ashbya gossypii)
Saccharomycetes AGOS_ABL104C 33
  • 52.97 (n)
baker's yeast
(Saccharomyces cerevisiae)
Saccharomycetes HEM1 36 34 33
  • 52.09 (n)
bread mold
(Neurospora crassa)
Ascomycetes NCU06189 33
  • 59.6 (n)
fission yeast
(Schizosaccharomyces pombe)
Schizosaccharomycetes hem1 33
  • 53.03 (n)
sea squirt
(Ciona savignyi)
Ascidiacea CSA.8623 34
  • 52 (a)
Species where no ortholog for ALAS2 was found in the sources mined by GeneCards:
  • Actinobacteria (Mycobacterium tuberculosis)
  • African clawed frog (Xenopus laevis)
  • Alicante grape (Vitis vinifera)
  • alpha proteobacteria (Wolbachia pipientis)
  • amoeba (Dictyostelium discoideum)
  • Archea (Pyrococcus horikoshii)
  • barley (Hordeum vulgare)
  • beta proteobacteria (Neisseria meningitidis)
  • chicken (Gallus gallus)
  • Chromalveolata (Phytophthora infestans)
  • common water flea (Daphnia pulex)
  • corn (Zea mays)
  • E. coli (Escherichia coli)
  • filamentous fungi (Aspergillus nidulans)
  • Firmicute bacteria (Streptococcus pneumoniae)
  • green algae (Chlamydomonas reinhardtii)
  • honey bee (Apis mellifera)
  • loblloly pine (Pinus taeda)
  • malaria parasite (Plasmodium falciparum)
  • medicago trunc (Medicago Truncatula)
  • moss (Physcomitrella patens)
  • orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus)
  • pig (Sus scrofa)
  • rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)
  • rice (Oryza sativa)
  • rice blast fungus (Magnaporthe grisea)
  • schistosome parasite (Schistosoma mansoni)
  • sea anemone (Nematostella vectensis)
  • sea urchin (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus)
  • sorghum (Sorghum bicolor)
  • soybean (Glycine max)
  • stem rust fungus (Puccinia graminis)
  • sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum)
  • thale cress (Arabidopsis thaliana)
  • tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum)
  • toxoplasmosis (Toxoplasma gondii)
  • Trichoplax (Trichoplax adhaerens)
  • wheat (Triticum aestivum)
  • worm (Caenorhabditis elegans)

Evolution for ALAS2 Gene

Gene Tree for ALAS2 (if available)
Gene Tree for ALAS2 (if available)
Evolutionary constrained regions (ECRs) for ALAS2: view image

Paralogs for ALAS2 Gene

Paralogs for ALAS2 Gene

(2) SIMAP similar genes for ALAS2 Gene using alignment to 4 proteins:

  • H0Y6R3_HUMAN
  • Q86YM3_HUMAN
genes like me logo Genes that share paralogs with ALAS2: view

Variants for ALAS2 Gene

Sequence variations from dbSNP and Humsavar for ALAS2 Gene

SNP ID Clin Chr 0X pos Variation AA Info Type
rs1057515971 uncertain-significance, Sideroblastic Anemia and Ataxia 55,020,402(-) G/A 5_prime_UTR_variant, coding_sequence_variant, synonymous_variant
rs137852299 pathogenic, Hereditary sideroblastic anemia, Anemia, sideroblastic, 1 (SIDBA1) [MIM:300751] 55,014,757(-) A/T coding_sequence_variant, missense_variant
rs137852300 pathogenic, Hereditary sideroblastic anemia, Anemia, sideroblastic, 1 (SIDBA1) [MIM:300751] 55,015,583(-) G/C coding_sequence_variant, missense_variant
rs137852301 pathogenic, Hereditary sideroblastic anemia, Anemia, sideroblastic, 1 (SIDBA1) [MIM:300751] 55,021,195(-) G/T coding_sequence_variant, intron_variant, missense_variant
rs137852302 pathogenic, Hereditary sideroblastic anemia 55,017,618(-) C/T coding_sequence_variant, missense_variant

Structural Variations from Database of Genomic Variants (DGV) for ALAS2 Gene

Variant ID Type Subtype PubMed ID
esv2740175 CNV deletion 23290073
nsv435891 CNV deletion 17901297

Variation tolerance for ALAS2 Gene

Residual Variation Intolerance Score: 70.1% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)
Gene Damage Index Score: 1.03; 21.15% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)

Additional Variant Information for ALAS2 Gene

Human Gene Mutation Database (HGMD)
SNPedia medical, phenotypic, and genealogical associations of SNPs for

SNP Genotyping and Copy Number Assay Products

No data available for Polymorphic Variants from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for ALAS2 Gene

Disorders for ALAS2 Gene

MalaCards: The human disease database

(18) MalaCards diseases for ALAS2 Gene - From: HGMD, OMIM, ClinVar, GTR, Orphanet, Swiss-Prot, DISEASES, Novoseek, and GeneCards

- elite association - COSMIC cancer census association via MalaCards
Search ALAS2 in MalaCards View complete list of genes associated with diseases


  • Anemia, sideroblastic, 1 (SIDBA1) [MIM:300751]: A form of sideroblastic anemia that shows a variable hematologic response to pharmacologic doses of pyridoxine. Sideroblastic anemia is characterized by anemia of varying severity, hypochromic peripheral erythrocytes, systemic iron overload secondary to chronic ineffective erythropoiesis, and the presence of bone marrow ringed sideroblasts. Sideroblasts are characterized by iron-loaded mitochondria clustered around the nucleus. {ECO:0000269 PubMed:10029606, ECO:0000269 PubMed:10577279, ECO:0000269 PubMed:12031592, ECO:0000269 PubMed:12393718, ECO:0000269 PubMed:1570328, ECO:0000269 PubMed:19731322, ECO:0000269 PubMed:21252495, ECO:0000269 PubMed:21309041, ECO:0000269 PubMed:8107717, ECO:0000269 PubMed:9858242}. Note=The disease is caused by mutations affecting the gene represented in this entry.
  • Erythropoietic protoporphyria, X-linked dominant (XLDPT) [MIM:300752]: A form of porphyria. Porphyrias are inherited defects in the biosynthesis of heme, resulting in the accumulation and increased excretion of porphyrins or porphyrin precursors. They are classified as erythropoietic or hepatic, depending on whether the enzyme deficiency occurs in red blood cells or in the liver. XLDPT is characterized biochemically by a high proportion of zinc-protoporphyrin in erythrocytes, in which a mismatch between protoporphyrin production and the heme requirement of differentiating erythroid cells leads to overproduction of protoporphyrin in amounts sufficient to cause photosensitivity and liver disease. {ECO:0000269 PubMed:18760763}. Note=The disease is caused by mutations affecting the gene represented in this entry. Gain of function mutations in ALS2 are responsible for XLDPT, but they can also be a possible aggravating factor in congenital erythropoietic porphyria and other erythropoietic disorders caused by mutations in other genes (PubMed:21309041). {ECO:0000269 PubMed:21309041}.

Additional Disease Information for ALAS2

genes like me logo Genes that share disorders with ALAS2: view

No data available for Genatlas for ALAS2 Gene

Publications for ALAS2 Gene

  1. Systematic molecular genetic analysis of congenital sideroblastic anemia: evidence for genetic heterogeneity and identification of novel mutations. (PMID: 19731322) Bergmann AK … Neufeld EJ (Pediatric blood & cancer 2010) 3 4 22 58
  2. C-terminal deletions in the ALAS2 gene lead to gain of function and cause X-linked dominant protoporphyria without anemia or iron overload. (PMID: 18760763) Whatley SD … Puy H (American journal of human genetics 2008) 3 4 22 58
  3. The major splice variant of human 5-aminolevulinate synthase-2 contributes significantly to erythroid heme biosynthesis. (PMID: 14643893) Cox TC … May BK (The international journal of biochemistry & cell biology 2004) 3 4 22 58
  4. Absent phenotypic expression of X-linked sideroblastic anemia in one of 2 brothers with a novel ALAS2 mutation. (PMID: 12393718) Cazzola M … Bishop DF (Blood 2002) 3 4 22 58
  5. Four new mutations in the erythroid-specific 5-aminolevulinate synthase (ALAS2) gene causing X-linked sideroblastic anemia: increased pyridoxine responsiveness after removal of iron overload by phlebotomy and coinheritance of hereditary hemochromatosis. (PMID: 10029606) Cotter PD … Bishop DF (Blood 1999) 3 4 22 58

Products for ALAS2 Gene

Sources for ALAS2 Gene

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