The protein encoded by this gene is a negatively-charged serum glycoprotein that is synthesized by hepatocytes. The encoded protein consists of two polypeptide chains, which are both cleaved from a proprotein encoded from a single mRNA. It is involved in several processes, including endocytosis, brain development, and the formation of bone tissue. Defects in this gene are a cau... See more...

Aliases for AHSG Gene

Aliases for AHSG Gene

  • Alpha 2-HS Glycoprotein 2 3 5
  • Alpha-2-HS-Glycoprotein 3 4
  • Ba-Alpha-2-Glycoprotein 3 4
  • Alpha-2-Z-Globulin 3 4
  • Fetuin-A 3 4
  • FETUA 3 4
  • Fetuin A 2
  • APMR1 3
  • A2HS 3
  • HSGA 3
  • AHS 3

External Ids for AHSG Gene

Previous GeneCards Identifiers for AHSG Gene

  • GC03P183102
  • GC03P187587
  • GC03P187732
  • GC03P187651
  • GC03P187813
  • GC03P186330
  • GC03P183739

Summaries for AHSG Gene

Entrez Gene Summary for AHSG Gene

  • The protein encoded by this gene is a negatively-charged serum glycoprotein that is synthesized by hepatocytes. The encoded protein consists of two polypeptide chains, which are both cleaved from a proprotein encoded from a single mRNA. It is involved in several processes, including endocytosis, brain development, and the formation of bone tissue. Defects in this gene are a cause of susceptibility to leanness. [provided by RefSeq, Aug 2017]

GeneCards Summary for AHSG Gene

AHSG (Alpha 2-HS Glycoprotein) is a Protein Coding gene. Diseases associated with AHSG include Alopecia-Mental Retardation Syndrome 1 and Alopecia-Intellectual Disability Syndrome. Among its related pathways are Innate Immune System and Signaling by BMP. Gene Ontology (GO) annotations related to this gene include cysteine-type endopeptidase inhibitor activity and kinase inhibitor activity. An important paralog of this gene is FETUB.

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Summary for AHSG Gene

  • Promotes endocytosis, possesses opsonic properties and influences the mineral phase of bone. Shows affinity for calcium and barium ions.

Gene Wiki entry for AHSG Gene

Additional gene information for AHSG Gene

No data available for CIViC Summary , Tocris Summary , PharmGKB "VIP" Summary , Rfam classification and piRNA Summary for AHSG Gene

Genomics for AHSG Gene

GeneHancer (GH) Regulatory Elements for AHSG Gene

Promoters and enhancers for AHSG Gene
GeneHancer (GH) Identifier GH Type GH
Score
GH Sources Gene Association Score Total Score TSS distance (kb) Number of Genes Away Size (kb) Transcription Factor
Binding Sites
Gene Targets
GH03J186613 Promoter 1.1 EPDnew 750.6 0.0 -17 0.1 LCORL MLX FOXA1 RBPJ NR2F6 ATF1 CREB1 HLF RAD21 RERE AHSG piR-50444-330 ENSG00000197099
GH03J186618 Enhancer 0.9 ENCODE 750.6 +2.0 1967 0.2 CTCF MLX SMARCE1 CREB1 MYC L3MBTL2 MAX RAD21 MNT ZNF280D AHSG TRA2B TBCCD1 RFC4 SNORA4 SNORA63B CRYGS lnc-TBCCD1-2 ENSG00000197099
GH03J186617 Enhancer 0.8 ENCODE 750.6 +1.7 1727 0.2 CTCF MLX SMARCE1 CREB1 MIXL1 L3MBTL2 MNT ELF3 CEBPG SP7 AHSG RFC4 lnc-TBCCD1-2 ENSG00000197099
GH03J186614 Enhancer 0.7 ENCODE 750.6 +1.6 1567 0.2 CTCF MIXL1 TFE3 KAT8 NFKBIZ KMT2B ZNF205 ZNF792 DRAP1 KLF9 AHSG lnc-TBCCD1-2 ENSG00000197099
GH03J186824 Promoter/Enhancer 1.6 Ensembl ENCODE CraniofacialAtlas 10.2 +213.6 213581 3.5 SMARCE1 POLR2A MIXL1 MYC L3MBTL2 MNT NKRF AHR TFE3 CBFA2T2 ENSG00000231982 LINC02043 lnc-ADIPOQ-1 SNORA63B RFC4 TRA2B TBCCD1 SNORA63 SNORA81 EIF4A2
- Elite GeneHancer and/or Elite GeneHancer-gene association Download GeneHancer data from 2017 publication | Request up-to-date GeneHancer data (full dataset)

GeneHancers around AHSG on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Top Transcription factor binding sites by QIAGEN in the AHSG gene promoter:
  • AML1a
  • C/EBPalpha
  • E4BP4
  • FOXL1
  • GATA-1
  • NF-kappaB
  • NF-kappaB1
  • SRY
  • STAT3

Genomic Locations for AHSG Gene

Genomic Locations for AHSG Gene
chr3:186,613,060-186,621,318
(GRCh38/hg38)
Size:
8,259 bases
Orientation:
Plus strand
chr3:186,330,712-186,339,107
(GRCh37/hg19)
Size:
8,396 bases
Orientation:
Plus strand

Genomic View for AHSG Gene

Genes around AHSG on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Cytogenetic band:
AHSG Gene in genomic location: bands according to Ensembl, locations according to GeneLoc (and/or Entrez Gene and/or Ensembl if different)
Genomic Location for AHSG Gene
GeneLoc Logo Genomic Neighborhood Exon StructureGene Density

RefSeq DNA sequence for AHSG Gene

Proteins for AHSG Gene

  • Protein details for AHSG Gene (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)

    Protein Symbol:
    P02765-FETUA_HUMAN
    Recommended name:
    Alpha-2-HS-glycoprotein
    Protein Accession:
    P02765
    Secondary Accessions:
    • A8K9N6
    • B2R7G1
    • O14961
    • O14962
    • Q9P152

    Protein attributes for AHSG Gene

    Size:
    367 amino acids
    Molecular mass:
    39341 Da
    Quaternary structure:
    • Alpha-2-HS glycoprotein derives from this precursor, when the connecting peptide is cleaved off. The two chains A and B are held together by a single disulfide bond.

neXtProt entry for AHSG Gene

Post-translational modifications for AHSG Gene

  • Phosphorylated by FAM20C in the extracellular medium.
  • O- and N-glycosylated. O-glycosylated with core 1 or possibly core 8 glycans. N-glycan at Asn-156: Hex5HexNAc4; N-glycan heterogeneity at Asn-176: Hex5HexNAc4 (major) and Hex6HexNAc5 (minor).
  • Glycosylation at Asn156, Asn176, Thr270, Ser280, Ser293, Thr339, Thr341, and Ser346
  • Modification sites at PhosphoSitePlus
  • Glycosylation from GlyConnect
    • FETUA_HUMAN (23)

Other Protein References for AHSG Gene

Antibody Products

Protein Products

No data available for DME Specific Peptides for AHSG Gene

Domains & Families for AHSG Gene

Gene Families for AHSG Gene

HGNC:
Human Protein Atlas (HPA):
  • Cancer-related genes
  • Plasma proteins
  • Predicted secreted proteins

Protein Domains for AHSG Gene

Suggested Antigen Peptide Sequences for AHSG Gene

GenScript: Design optimal peptide antigens:
  • Fetuin-A (FETUA_HUMAN)

Graphical View of Domain Structure for InterPro Entry

P02765

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot:

FETUA_HUMAN :
  • Belongs to the fetuin family.
Family:
  • Belongs to the fetuin family.
genes like me logo Genes that share domains with AHSG: view

Function for AHSG Gene

Molecular function for AHSG Gene

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Function:
Promotes endocytosis, possesses opsonic properties and influences the mineral phase of bone. Shows affinity for calcium and barium ions.
GENATLAS Biochemistry:
HS-glycoprotein,alpha-2-,inhibitor of the insulin-receptor tyrosine kinase,pp63 (cystatin superfamily)

Phenotypes From GWAS Catalog for AHSG Gene

Gene Ontology (GO) - Molecular Function for AHSG Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0004869 cysteine-type endopeptidase inhibitor activity IEA --
GO:0019210 kinase inhibitor activity NAS 12203945
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with AHSG: view
genes like me logo Genes that share phenotypes with AHSG: view

Human Phenotype Ontology for AHSG Gene

HPO Id HPO Name Alternative Ids Definition Synonyms

Animal Models for AHSG Gene

MGI Knock Outs for AHSG:
  • Ahsg Ahsg<tm1.1(KOMP)Vlcg>
  • Ahsg Ahsg<tm1Mbl>

Animal Model Products

CRISPR Products

Clone Products

  • Addgene plasmids for AHSG

No data available for Enzyme Numbers (IUBMB) , miRNA , Transcription Factor Targets and HOMER Transcription for AHSG Gene

Localization for AHSG Gene

Subcellular locations from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for AHSG Gene

Secreted.

Subcellular locations from

COMPARTMENTS
Extracellular space Cytosol Plasma membrane Cytoskeleton Lysosome Endosome Peroxisome ER Golgi Apparatus Nucleus Mitochondrion 0 1 2 3 4 5 Confidence
COMPARTMENTS Subcellular localization image for AHSG gene
Compartment Confidence
extracellular 5
endoplasmic reticulum 4
golgi apparatus 4
cytosol 2
plasma membrane 1
cytoskeleton 1
mitochondrion 1
nucleus 1
peroxisome 0
lysosome 0

Subcellular locations from the

Human Protein Atlas (HPA)
  • Golgi apparatus (3)
See all subcellular structures

Gene Ontology (GO) - Cellular Components for AHSG Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0005576 extracellular region HDA,TAS --
GO:0005615 extracellular space NAS,IEA 11922920
GO:0005788 endoplasmic reticulum lumen TAS --
GO:0005794 Golgi apparatus IDA --
GO:0031093 platelet alpha granule lumen TAS --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with AHSG: view

Pathways & Interactions for AHSG Gene

genes like me logo Genes that share pathways with AHSG: view

Pathways by source for AHSG Gene

1 Cell Signaling Technology pathway for AHSG Gene

Gene Ontology (GO) - Biological Process for AHSG Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0001501 skeletal system development NAS 12153747
GO:0001503 ossification IEA --
GO:0002576 platelet degranulation TAS --
GO:0006907 pinocytosis NAS 12773197
GO:0006953 acute-phase response IDA 12153747
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with AHSG: view

No data available for SIGNOR curated interactions for AHSG Gene

Drugs & Compounds for AHSG Gene

(11) Drugs for AHSG Gene - From: DrugBank, HMDB, and Novoseek

Name Status Disease Links Group Role Mechanism of Action Clinical Trials
Calcium Approved Nutra 7773
Copper Approved, Investigational Pharma Target 227
Zinc Approved, Investigational Pharma Target 2741
zinc acetate Approved, Investigational Pharma Target 0
Zinc chloride Approved, Investigational Pharma Target 0

(9) Additional Compounds for AHSG Gene - From: Novoseek

Name Synonyms Role CAS Number PubChem IDs PubMed IDs
genes like me logo Genes that share compounds with AHSG: view

Transcripts for AHSG Gene

mRNA/cDNA for AHSG Gene

CRISPR Products

Clone Products

  • Addgene plasmids for AHSG

Alternative Splicing Database (ASD) splice patterns (SP) for AHSG Gene

ExUns: 1a · 1b ^ 2 ^ 3 ^ 4a · 4b ^ 5a · 5b ^ 6 ^ 7a · 7b · 7c
SP1: -
SP2: -
SP3: -
SP4: -
SP5:
SP6: -

Relevant External Links for AHSG Gene

GeneLoc Exon Structure for
AHSG
ECgene alternative splicing isoforms for
AHSG

Expression for AHSG Gene

mRNA expression in normal human tissues from GTEx, Illumina, BioGPS, and CGAP SAGE for AHSG Gene

mRNA differential expression in normal tissues according to GTEx for AHSG Gene

This gene is overexpressed in Liver (x52.7).

Protein differential expression in normal tissues from HIPED for AHSG Gene

This gene is overexpressed in Serum (13.6), Lavage (12.3), Plasma (9.8), Synovial fluid (9.1), and Monocytes (6.4).

Integrated Proteomics: protein expression in normal tissues and cell lines from ProteomicsDB and MOPED for AHSG Gene



Protein tissue co-expression partners for AHSG Gene

- Elite partner

NURSA nuclear receptor signaling pathways regulating expression of AHSG Gene:

AHSG

SOURCE GeneReport for Unigene cluster for AHSG Gene:

Hs.324746

mRNA Expression by UniProt/SwissProt for AHSG Gene:

P02765-FETUA_HUMAN
Tissue specificity: Synthesized in liver and selectively concentrated in bone matrix. Secreted in plasma. It is also found in dentin in much higher quantities than other plasma proteins.

Evidence on tissue expression from TISSUES for AHSG Gene

  • Liver(5)
  • Blood(4.7)
  • Nervous system(4.4)
  • Bone marrow(4.2)
  • Saliva(4.2)
  • Lung(2.5)
  • Kidney(2.3)
  • Heart(2.2)
  • Bone(2)
genes like me logo Genes that share expression patterns with AHSG: view

No data available for Phenotype-based relationships between genes and organs from Gene ORGANizer for AHSG Gene

Orthologs for AHSG Gene

This gene was present in the common ancestor of chordates.

Orthologs for AHSG Gene

Organism Taxonomy Gene Similarity Type Details
chimpanzee
(Pan troglodytes)
Mammalia AHSG 33 32
  • 98.91 (n)
OneToOne
dog
(Canis familiaris)
Mammalia AHSG 33 32
  • 79.09 (n)
OneToOne
cow
(Bos Taurus)
Mammalia AHSG 33 32
  • 75.49 (n)
OneToOne
mouse
(Mus musculus)
Mammalia Ahsg 17 33 32
  • 73.08 (n)
rat
(Rattus norvegicus)
Mammalia Ahsg 32
  • 72.81 (n)
oppossum
(Monodelphis domestica)
Mammalia AHSG 33
  • 49 (a)
OneToOne
platypus
(Ornithorhynchus anatinus)
Mammalia AHSG 33
  • 48 (a)
OneToOne
chicken
(Gallus gallus)
Aves AHSG 33 32
  • 52.22 (n)
OneToOne
lizard
(Anolis carolinensis)
Reptilia AHSG 33
  • 36 (a)
OneToOne
tropical clawed frog
(Silurana tropicalis)
Amphibia ahsg 32
  • 50.94 (n)
zebrafish
(Danio rerio)
Actinopterygii ahsg 32
  • 47.66 (n)
AHSG 33
  • 26 (a)
OneToOne
Species where no ortholog for AHSG was found in the sources mined by GeneCards:
  • A. gosspyii yeast (Ashbya gossypii)
  • Actinobacteria (Mycobacterium tuberculosis)
  • African clawed frog (Xenopus laevis)
  • African malaria mosquito (Anopheles gambiae)
  • Alicante grape (Vitis vinifera)
  • alpha proteobacteria (Wolbachia pipientis)
  • amoeba (Dictyostelium discoideum)
  • Archea (Pyrococcus horikoshii)
  • baker's yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae)
  • barley (Hordeum vulgare)
  • beta proteobacteria (Neisseria meningitidis)
  • bread mold (Neurospora crassa)
  • Chromalveolata (Phytophthora infestans)
  • common water flea (Daphnia pulex)
  • corn (Zea mays)
  • E. coli (Escherichia coli)
  • filamentous fungi (Aspergillus nidulans)
  • Firmicute bacteria (Streptococcus pneumoniae)
  • fission yeast (Schizosaccharomyces pombe)
  • fruit fly (Drosophila melanogaster)
  • green algae (Chlamydomonas reinhardtii)
  • honey bee (Apis mellifera)
  • K. lactis yeast (Kluyveromyces lactis)
  • loblloly pine (Pinus taeda)
  • malaria parasite (Plasmodium falciparum)
  • medicago trunc (Medicago Truncatula)
  • moss (Physcomitrella patens)
  • orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus)
  • pig (Sus scrofa)
  • rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)
  • rice (Oryza sativa)
  • rice blast fungus (Magnaporthe grisea)
  • schistosome parasite (Schistosoma mansoni)
  • sea anemone (Nematostella vectensis)
  • sea squirt (Ciona intestinalis)
  • sea squirt (Ciona savignyi)
  • sea urchin (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus)
  • sorghum (Sorghum bicolor)
  • soybean (Glycine max)
  • stem rust fungus (Puccinia graminis)
  • sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum)
  • thale cress (Arabidopsis thaliana)
  • tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum)
  • toxoplasmosis (Toxoplasma gondii)
  • Trichoplax (Trichoplax adhaerens)
  • wheat (Triticum aestivum)
  • worm (Caenorhabditis elegans)

Evolution for AHSG Gene

ENSEMBL:
Gene Tree for AHSG (if available)
TreeFam:
Gene Tree for AHSG (if available)
Aminode:
Evolutionary constrained regions (ECRs) for AHSG: view image

Paralogs for AHSG Gene

Paralogs for AHSG Gene

genes like me logo Genes that share paralogs with AHSG: view

Variants for AHSG Gene

Polymorphic Variants from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for AHSG Gene

FETUA_HUMAN-P02765
There are two common alleles, AHSG*1 and AHSG*2. AHSG*1 has Thr-248/Thr-256; AHSG*2 has Met-248/Ser-256.

Sequence variations from dbSNP and Humsavar for AHSG Gene

SNP ID Clin Chr 03 pos Variation AA Info Type
rs201849460 pathogenic, Alopecia mental retardation syndrome 1, Alopecia-mental retardation syndrome 1 (APMR1) [MIM:203650] 186,620,776(+) G/A/T coding_sequence_variant, missense_variant
rs2070634 association, Calcium oxalate urolithiasis 186,618,238(+) T/G intron_variant
rs2070635 association, Calcium oxalate urolithiasis 186,618,387(+) A/G intron_variant
rs2593813 benign, Leanness, susceptibility to 186,614,782(+) G/A intron_variant
rs4917 benign, Leanness, susceptibility to, - 186,619,924(+) T/C coding_sequence_variant, intron_variant, missense_variant

Structural Variations from Database of Genomic Variants (DGV) for AHSG Gene

Variant ID Type Subtype PubMed ID
esv2759206 CNV loss 17122850
nsv508974 CNV insertion 20534489

Variation tolerance for AHSG Gene

Residual Variation Intolerance Score: 75% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)
Gene Damage Index Score: 2.22; 39.99% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)

Additional Variant Information for AHSG Gene

Human Gene Mutation Database (HGMD)
AHSG
SNPedia medical, phenotypic, and genealogical associations of SNPs for
AHSG

SNP Genotyping and Copy Number Assay Products

Disorders for AHSG Gene

MalaCards: The human disease database

(15) MalaCards diseases for AHSG Gene - From: HGMD, ClinVar, Orphanet, DISEASES, Novoseek, and GeneCards

- elite association - COSMIC cancer census association via MalaCards
Search AHSG in MalaCards View complete list of genes associated with diseases

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot

FETUA_HUMAN
  • Alopecia-mental retardation syndrome 1 (APMR1) [MIM:203650]: A rare autosomal recessive form of alopecia. APMR1 patients show loss of hair on the scalp, absence of eyebrows, eyelashes, axillary and pubic hair, and mild to severe mental retardation. {ECO:0000269 PubMed:28054173}. Note=The disease may be caused by mutations affecting the gene represented in this entry.

Additional Disease Information for AHSG

Genetic Association Database
(GAD)
Human Genome Epidemiology Navigator
(HuGE)
ATLAS of Genetics and Cytogenetics in Oncology and Haematology
genes like me logo Genes that share disorders with AHSG: view

No data available for Genatlas for AHSG Gene

Publications for AHSG Gene

  1. Structure of the gene encoding human alpha 2-HS glycoprotein (AHSG). (PMID: 9322749) Osawa M … Takeichi S (Gene 1997) 2 3 4 23 56
  2. Association of AHSG gene polymorphisms with fetuin-A plasma levels and cardiovascular diseases in the EPIC-Potsdam study. (PMID: 20031641) Fisher E … Weikert C (Circulation. Cardiovascular genetics 2009) 3 23 43 56
  3. AHSG tag single nucleotide polymorphisms associate with type 2 diabetes and dyslipidemia: studies of metabolic traits in 7,683 white Danish subjects. (PMID: 18316360) Andersen G … Pedersen O (Diabetes 2008) 3 23 43 56
  4. Is fetuin-A/alpha2-Heremans-Schmid glycoprotein associated with the metabolic syndrome in patients with chronic kidney disease? (PMID: 18337634) Axelsson J … Stenvinkel P (American journal of nephrology 2008) 3 23 43 56
  5. AHSG gene polymorphisms are associated with bone mineral density in Caucasian nuclear families. (PMID: 17557141) Yang YJ … Deng HW (European journal of epidemiology 2007) 3 23 43 56

Products for AHSG Gene

Sources for AHSG Gene