Aliases for AHR Gene
External Ids for AHR Gene
Previous GeneCards Identifiers for AHR Gene
The protein encoded by this gene is a ligand-activated helix-loop-helix transcription factor involved in the regulation of biological responses to planar aromatic hydrocarbons. This receptor has been shown to regulate xenobiotic-metabolizing enzymes such as cytochrome P450. Before ligand binding, the encoded protein is sequestered in the cytoplasm; upon ligand binding, this protein moves to the nucleus and stimulates transcription of target genes. [provided by RefSeq, Sep 2015]
GeneCards Summary for AHR Gene
AHR (Aryl Hydrocarbon Receptor) is a Protein Coding gene. Diseases associated with AHR include Retinitis Pigmentosa 85 and Retinitis Pigmentosa. Among its related pathways are Innate Lymphoid Cell Differentiation Pathways and AHR Pathway. Gene Ontology (GO) annotations related to this gene include DNA-binding transcription factor activity and protein heterodimerization activity. An important paralog of this gene is ENSG00000283321.
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Summary for AHR Gene
Ligand-activated transcription factor that enables cells to adapt to changing conditions by sensing compounds from the environment, diet, microbiome and cellular metabolism, and which plays important roles in development, immunity and cancer (PubMed:30373764, PubMed:23275542, PubMed:7961644, PubMed:32818467). Upon ligand binding, translocates into the nucleus, where it heterodimerizes with ARNT and induces transcription by binding to xenobiotic response elements (XRE) (PubMed:30373764, PubMed:23275542, PubMed:7961644). Regulates a variety of biological processes, including angiogenesis, hematopoiesis, drug and lipid metabolism, cell motility and immune modulation (PubMed:12213388). Xenobiotics can act as ligands: upon xenobiotic-binding, activates the expression of multiple phase I and II xenobiotic chemical metabolizing enzyme genes (such as the CYP1A1 gene) (PubMed:7961644). Mediates biochemical and toxic effects of halogenated aromatic hydrocarbons (PubMed:7961644). Next to xenobiotics, natural ligands derived from plants, microbiota, and endogenous metabolism are potent AHR agonists (PubMed:18076143). Tryptophan (Trp) derivatives constitute an important class of endogenous AHR ligands (PubMed:32866000, PubMed:32818467). Acts as a negative regulator of anti-tumor immunity: indoles and kynurenic acid generated by Trp catabolism act as ligand and activate AHR, thereby promoting AHR-driven cancer cell motility and suppressing adaptive immunity (PubMed:32818467). Regulates the circadian clock by inhibiting the basal and circadian expression of the core circadian component PER1 (PubMed:28602820). Inhibits PER1 by repressing the CLOCK-ARNTL/BMAL1 heterodimer mediated transcriptional activation of PER1 (PubMed:28602820). The heterodimer ARNT:AHR binds to core DNA sequence 5'-TGCGTG-3' within the dioxin response element (DRE) of target gene promoters and activates their transcription (PubMed:28602820).
Aryl hydrocarbon receptors (AHRs) are cytosolic transcription factors that exist bound to co-chaperones in the resting state. Ligand binding causes the co-chaperones to dissociate, allowing AHR to translocate to the nucleus, dimerize and alter transcription of target genes.