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Aliases for AGR2 Gene

Aliases for AGR2 Gene

  • Anterior Gradient 2, Protein Disulphide Isomerase Family Member 2 3 5
  • Protein Disulfide Isomerase Family A, Member 17 2 3
  • Secreted Cement Gland Protein XAG-2 Homolog 3 4
  • HAG-2 3 4
  • AG-2 3 4
  • HPC8 3 4
  • AG2 3 4
  • Anterior Gradient 2 Homolog (Xenopus Laevis) 2
  • Anterior Gradient Protein 2 Homolog 3
  • Epididymis Secretory Protein Li 116 3
  • Secreted Cement Gland Homolog 3
  • Anterior Gradient Homolog 2 3
  • HEL-S-116 3
  • PDIA17 3
  • GOB-4 3
  • XAG-2 3

External Ids for AGR2 Gene

Previous GeneCards Identifiers for AGR2 Gene

  • GC07M016476
  • GC07M016575
  • GC07M016605
  • GC07M016797
  • GC07M016719

Summaries for AGR2 Gene

Entrez Gene Summary for AGR2 Gene

  • This gene encodes a member of the disulfide isomerase (PDI) family of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) proteins that catalyze protein folding and thiol-disulfide interchange reactions. The encoded protein has an N-terminal ER-signal sequence, a catalytically active thioredoxin domain, and a C-terminal ER-retention sequence. This protein plays a role in cell migration, cellular transformation and metastasis and is as a p53 inhibitor. As an ER-localized molecular chaperone, it plays a role in the folding, trafficking, and assembly of cysteine-rich transmembrane receptors and the cysteine-rich intestinal gylcoprotein mucin. This gene has been implicated in inflammatory bowel disease and cancer progression. [provided by RefSeq, Mar 2017]

CIViC summary for AGR2 Gene

GeneCards Summary for AGR2 Gene

AGR2 (Anterior Gradient 2, Protein Disulphide Isomerase Family Member) is a Protein Coding gene. Diseases associated with AGR2 include Inflammatory Bowel Disease and Pancreas Adenocarcinoma. Among its related pathways are Tyrosine Kinases / Adaptors and Adhesion. Gene Ontology (GO) annotations related to this gene include dystroglycan binding. An important paralog of this gene is AGR3.

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for AGR2 Gene

  • Required for MUC2 post-transcriptional synthesis and secretion. May play a role in the production of mucus by intestinal cells (By similarity). Proto-oncogene that may play a role in cell migration, cell differentiation and cell growth. Promotes cell adhesion (PubMed:23274113).

Gene Wiki entry for AGR2 Gene

Additional gene information for AGR2 Gene

No data available for Tocris Summary , PharmGKB "VIP" Summary , fRNAdb sequence ontologies and piRNA Summary for AGR2 Gene

Genomics for AGR2 Gene

GeneHancer (GH) Regulatory Elements for AGR2 Gene

Promoters and enhancers for AGR2 Gene
GeneHancer (GH) Identifier GH Type GH
GH Sources Gene Association Score Total Score TSS distance (kb) Number of Genes Away Size (kb) Transcription Factor
Binding Sites
Gene Targets
GH07J016801 Promoter/Enhancer 1.5 EPDnew Ensembl ENCODE 672.7 +29.4 29434 6 CLOCK FOXA2 NFIB SIN3A RAD21 RFX5 ZNF143 FOS ZNF654 CEBPB AGR2 AGR3 TSPAN13 LOC100287613
GH07J016810 Enhancer 0.8 Ensembl ENCODE 23.1 +22.0 21963 2.2 ZNF362 RFX1 RNF2 SIN3A BMI1 FOXA1 SP1 GATA3 CREB1 FOSL2 AGR2 AGR3 TSPAN13
GH07J016913 Enhancer 1.1 Ensembl ENCODE 14.8 -82.4 -82371 5.1 FOXA2 MLX ZNF143 FOS ATF7 NFKBIZ REST MIER2 KAT8 NFIL3 AHR AGR3 AGR2 TSPAN13 LOC100131425
GH07J016878 Promoter/Enhancer 1.2 EPDnew ENCODE 11.1 -47.2 -47226 4.4 NCOA3 NEUROD1 NFXL1 BMI1 CTBP1 GATA3 ZNF366 RFX1 DPF2 NR2F2 AGR3 AGR2 TSPAN13 RAD17P1
GH07J016739 Enhancer 1.2 Ensembl ENCODE 10.1 +92.8 92844 2.1 HDGF PKNOX1 SMAD1 ATF1 ARNT FEZF1 NCOA2 TCF12 ZNF766 CBX5 AGR2 BZW2 ANKMY2 GC07M016725 TSPAN13
- Elite GeneHancer and/or Elite GeneHancer-gene association Download GeneHancer data dump

GeneHancers around AGR2 on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Top Transcription factor binding sites by QIAGEN in the AGR2 gene promoter:

Genomic Locations for AGR2 Gene

Genomic Locations for AGR2 Gene
41,623 bases
Minus strand

Genomic View for AGR2 Gene

Genes around AGR2 on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Cytogenetic band:
AGR2 Gene in genomic location: bands according to Ensembl, locations according to GeneLoc (and/or Entrez Gene and/or Ensembl if different)
Genomic Location for AGR2 Gene
GeneLoc Logo Genomic Neighborhood Exon StructureGene Density

RefSeq DNA sequence for AGR2 Gene

Proteins for AGR2 Gene

  • Protein details for AGR2 Gene (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)

    Protein Symbol:
    Recommended name:
    Anterior gradient protein 2 homolog
    Protein Accession:

    Protein attributes for AGR2 Gene

    175 amino acids
    Molecular mass:
    19979 Da
    Quaternary structure:
    • Monomer and homodimer (PubMed:23274113). Interacts with LYPD3 and DAG1 (alphaDAG1). Interacts with MUC2; disulfide-linked.

    Three dimensional structures from OCA and Proteopedia for AGR2 Gene

neXtProt entry for AGR2 Gene

Post-translational modifications for AGR2 Gene

  • Modification sites at PhosphoSitePlus
  • Modification sites at neXtProt

Other Protein References for AGR2 Gene

No data available for DME Specific Peptides for AGR2 Gene

Domains & Families for AGR2 Gene

Gene Families for AGR2 Gene

Human Protein Atlas (HPA):
  • Predicted intracellular proteins
  • Predicted secreted proteins

Protein Domains for AGR2 Gene


Graphical View of Domain Structure for InterPro Entry



  • Belongs to the AGR family.
  • Belongs to the AGR family.
genes like me logo Genes that share domains with AGR2: view

Function for AGR2 Gene

Molecular function for AGR2 Gene

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Function:
Required for MUC2 post-transcriptional synthesis and secretion. May play a role in the production of mucus by intestinal cells (By similarity). Proto-oncogene that may play a role in cell migration, cell differentiation and cell growth. Promotes cell adhesion (PubMed:23274113).

Phenotypes From GWAS Catalog for AGR2 Gene

Gene Ontology (GO) - Molecular Function for AGR2 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0002162 dystroglycan binding IDA 12592373
GO:0005154 epidermal growth factor receptor binding IPI 25666625
GO:0005515 protein binding IPI 12592373
GO:0042803 protein homodimerization activity IMP 23220234
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with AGR2: view
genes like me logo Genes that share phenotypes with AGR2: view

Animal Models for AGR2 Gene

MGI Knock Outs for AGR2:
  • Agr2 Agr2<tm1.1Lex>
  • Agr2 Agr2<tm1.2Lpkn>
  • Agr2 Agr2<tm1.2Erle>

Animal Model Products

  • Taconic Biosciences Mouse Models for AGR2

miRNA for AGR2 Gene

miRTarBase miRNAs that target AGR2

Clone Products

  • Addgene plasmids for AGR2

No data available for Enzyme Numbers (IUBMB) , Human Phenotype Ontology , Transcription Factor Targets and HOMER Transcription for AGR2 Gene

Localization for AGR2 Gene

Subcellular locations from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for AGR2 Gene

Secreted. Endoplasmic reticulum.

Subcellular locations from

Extracellular space Cytosol Plasma membrane Cytoskeleton Lysosome Endosome Peroxisome ER Golgi Apparatus Nucleus Mitochondrion 0 1 2 3 4 5 Confidence
COMPARTMENTS Subcellular localization image for AGR2 gene
Compartment Confidence
extracellular 5
endoplasmic reticulum 5
mitochondrion 2
cytoskeleton 1

Subcellular locations from the

Human Protein Atlas (HPA)

Gene Ontology (GO) - Cellular Components for AGR2 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0005576 extracellular region IEA --
GO:0005615 extracellular space IDA 22184114
GO:0005739 mitochondrion IEA --
GO:0005783 endoplasmic reticulum ISS --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with AGR2: view

Pathways & Interactions for AGR2 Gene

genes like me logo Genes that share pathways with AGR2: view

Pathways by source for AGR2 Gene

2 Cell Signaling Technology pathways for AGR2 Gene

Gene Ontology (GO) - Biological Process for AGR2 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0010628 positive regulation of gene expression IMP 22184114
GO:0010811 positive regulation of cell-substrate adhesion IMP 23274113
GO:0030154 cell differentiation IBA --
GO:0034976 NOT response to endoplasmic reticulum stress IMP 25666625
GO:0045742 positive regulation of epidermal growth factor receptor signaling pathway IMP 25666625
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with AGR2: view

No data available for SIGNOR curated interactions for AGR2 Gene

Drugs & Compounds for AGR2 Gene

(1) Drugs for AGR2 Gene - From: Novoseek

Name Status Disease Links Group Role Mechanism of Action Clinical Trials
genes like me logo Genes that share compounds with AGR2: view

Transcripts for AGR2 Gene

mRNA/cDNA for AGR2 Gene

Unigene Clusters for AGR2 Gene

Anterior gradient 2 homolog (Xenopus laevis):
Representative Sequences:

Clone Products

  • Addgene plasmids for AGR2

Alternative Splicing Database (ASD) splice patterns (SP) for AGR2 Gene

ExUns: 1a · 1b · 1c · 1d ^ 2 ^ 3 ^ 4 ^ 5a · 5b · 5c ^ 6 ^ 7 ^ 8a · 8b ^ 9a · 9b · 9c
SP1: - - -
SP2: - - - -
SP3: -
SP4: - - -
SP6: - - - -

Relevant External Links for AGR2 Gene

GeneLoc Exon Structure for
ECgene alternative splicing isoforms for

Expression for AGR2 Gene

mRNA expression in normal human tissues from GTEx, Illumina, BioGPS, and CGAP SAGE for AGR2 Gene

mRNA expression in embryonic tissues and stem cells from LifeMap Discovery

mRNA differential expression in normal tissues according to GTEx for AGR2 Gene

This gene is overexpressed in Stomach (x15.9), Colon - Transverse (x13.8), and Small Intestine - Terminal Ileum (x6.3).

Protein differential expression in normal tissues from HIPED for AGR2 Gene

This gene is overexpressed in Oral epithelium (25.4) and Stomach (10.0).

Integrated Proteomics: protein expression in normal tissues and cell lines from ProteomicsDB, MaxQB, and MOPED for AGR2 Gene

Protein tissue co-expression partners for AGR2 Gene

- Elite partner

NURSA nuclear receptor signaling pathways regulating expression of AGR2 Gene:


SOURCE GeneReport for Unigene cluster for AGR2 Gene:


mRNA Expression by UniProt/SwissProt for AGR2 Gene:

Tissue specificity: Expressed strongly in trachea, lung, stomach, colon, prostate and small intestine. Expressed weakly in pituitary gland, salivary gland, mammary gland, bladder, appendix, ovary, fetal lung, uterus, pancreas, kidney, fetal kidney, testis, placenta, thyroid gland and in estrogen receptor (ER)-positive breast cancer cell lines.

Evidence on tissue expression from TISSUES for AGR2 Gene

  • Intestine(4.9)
  • Stomach(4.8)
  • Pancreas(4.6)
  • Lung(2.7)
  • Gall bladder(2.4)
genes like me logo Genes that share expression patterns with AGR2: view

No data available for Phenotype-based relationships between genes and organs from Gene ORGANizer for AGR2 Gene

Orthologs for AGR2 Gene

This gene was present in the common ancestor of animals.

Orthologs for AGR2 Gene

Organism Taxonomy Gene Similarity Type Details
(Pan troglodytes)
Mammalia AGR2 34 33
  • 99.81 (n)
(Bos Taurus)
Mammalia AGR2 34 33
  • 92.57 (n)
(Canis familiaris)
Mammalia AGR2 34 33
  • 90.29 (n)
(Mus musculus)
Mammalia Agr2 16 34 33
  • 87.81 (n)
(Rattus norvegicus)
Mammalia Agr2 33
  • 87.81 (n)
(Ornithorhynchus anatinus)
Mammalia AGR2 34
  • 82 (a)
(Monodelphis domestica)
Mammalia AGR2 34
  • 62 (a)
(Gallus gallus)
Aves AGR2 34 33
  • 75.49 (n)
(Anolis carolinensis)
Reptilia AGR2 34
  • 79 (a)
tropical clawed frog
(Silurana tropicalis)
Amphibia agr2 33
  • 68.7 (n)
African clawed frog
(Xenopus laevis)
Amphibia MGC53762 33
(Danio rerio)
Actinopterygii agr2 34 33
  • 68.89 (n)
Dr.25277 33
rainbow trout
(Oncorhynchus mykiss)
Actinopterygii Omy.8969 33
(Caenorhabditis elegans)
Secernentea Y57A10A.23 34
  • 26 (a)
F49H12.5 34
  • 17 (a)
Species where no ortholog for AGR2 was found in the sources mined by GeneCards:
  • A. gosspyii yeast (Ashbya gossypii)
  • Actinobacteria (Mycobacterium tuberculosis)
  • African malaria mosquito (Anopheles gambiae)
  • Alicante grape (Vitis vinifera)
  • alpha proteobacteria (Wolbachia pipientis)
  • amoeba (Dictyostelium discoideum)
  • Archea (Pyrococcus horikoshii)
  • baker's yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae)
  • barley (Hordeum vulgare)
  • beta proteobacteria (Neisseria meningitidis)
  • bread mold (Neurospora crassa)
  • Chromalveolata (Phytophthora infestans)
  • common water flea (Daphnia pulex)
  • corn (Zea mays)
  • E. coli (Escherichia coli)
  • filamentous fungi (Aspergillus nidulans)
  • Firmicute bacteria (Streptococcus pneumoniae)
  • fission yeast (Schizosaccharomyces pombe)
  • fruit fly (Drosophila melanogaster)
  • green algae (Chlamydomonas reinhardtii)
  • honey bee (Apis mellifera)
  • K. lactis yeast (Kluyveromyces lactis)
  • loblloly pine (Pinus taeda)
  • malaria parasite (Plasmodium falciparum)
  • medicago trunc (Medicago Truncatula)
  • moss (Physcomitrella patens)
  • orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus)
  • pig (Sus scrofa)
  • rice (Oryza sativa)
  • rice blast fungus (Magnaporthe grisea)
  • schistosome parasite (Schistosoma mansoni)
  • sea anemone (Nematostella vectensis)
  • sea squirt (Ciona intestinalis)
  • sea squirt (Ciona savignyi)
  • sea urchin (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus)
  • sorghum (Sorghum bicolor)
  • soybean (Glycine max)
  • stem rust fungus (Puccinia graminis)
  • sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum)
  • thale cress (Arabidopsis thaliana)
  • tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum)
  • toxoplasmosis (Toxoplasma gondii)
  • Trichoplax (Trichoplax adhaerens)
  • wheat (Triticum aestivum)

Evolution for AGR2 Gene

Gene Tree for AGR2 (if available)
Gene Tree for AGR2 (if available)
Evolutionary constrained regions (ECRs) for AGR2: view image

Paralogs for AGR2 Gene

Paralogs for AGR2 Gene

(2) SIMAP similar genes for AGR2 Gene using alignment to 6 proteins:

  • B5MC07_HUMAN
  • C9J3E2_HUMAN
  • H7C3Z9_HUMAN
  • Q4JM46_HUMAN
  • Q4JM47_HUMAN
genes like me logo Genes that share paralogs with AGR2: view

Variants for AGR2 Gene

Sequence variations from dbSNP and Humsavar for AGR2 Gene

SNP ID Clin Chr 07 pos Variation AA Info Type
rs1000077862 -- 16,796,498(-) T/C intron_variant
rs1000139592 -- 16,796,759(-) T/A intron_variant
rs1001131862 -- 16,795,542(-) A/T intron_variant
rs1001250014 -- 16,800,255(-) G/A intron_variant
rs1001400215 -- 16,800,307(-) G/A intron_variant

Structural Variations from Database of Genomic Variants (DGV) for AGR2 Gene

Variant ID Type Subtype PubMed ID
dgv6289n100 CNV gain 25217958
esv3891076 CNV gain 25118596
nsv1028125 CNV gain 25217958

Variation tolerance for AGR2 Gene

Residual Variation Intolerance Score: 47.1% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)
Gene Damage Index Score: 1.07; 21.86% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)

Additional Variant Information for AGR2 Gene

SNPedia medical, phenotypic, and genealogical associations of SNPs for

SNP Genotyping and Copy Number Assay Products

No data available for Polymorphic Variants from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for AGR2 Gene

Disorders for AGR2 Gene

MalaCards: The human disease database

(2) MalaCards diseases for AGR2 Gene - From: DISEASES and GeneCards

Disorder Aliases PubMed IDs
inflammatory bowel disease
  • inflammatory bowel diseases
pancreas adenocarcinoma
  • pancreatic adenocarcinoma
- elite association - COSMIC cancer census association via MalaCards
Search AGR2 in MalaCards View complete list of genes associated with diseases

Additional Disease Information for AGR2

Genetic Association Database
Human Genome Epidemiology Navigator
ATLAS of Genetics and Cytogenetics in Oncology and Haematology
genes like me logo Genes that share disorders with AGR2: view

No data available for UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot and Genatlas for AGR2 Gene

Publications for AGR2 Gene

  1. hAG-2, the human homologue of the Xenopus laevis cement gland gene XAG-2, is coexpressed with estrogen receptor in breast cancer cell lines. (PMID: 9790916) Thompson DA … Weigel RJ (Biochemical and biophysical research communications 1998) 2 3 4 22 58
  2. hAG-2 and hAG-3, human homologues of genes involved in differentiation, are associated with oestrogen receptor-positive breast tumours and interact with metastasis gene C4.4a and dystroglycan. (PMID: 12592373) Fletcher GC … Terrett JA (British journal of cancer 2003) 3 4 22 58
  3. Metastasis-promoting anterior gradient 2 protein has a dimeric thioredoxin fold structure and a role in cell adhesion. (PMID: 23274113) Patel P … Lian LY (Journal of molecular biology 2013) 3 4 58
  4. Genetic variants in nuclear-encoded mitochondrial genes influence AIDS progression. (PMID: 20877624) Hendrickson SL … O'Brien SJ (PloS one 2010) 3 44 58
  5. The protein disulfide isomerase AGR2 is essential for production of intestinal mucus. (PMID: 19359471) Park SW … Erle DJ (Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 2009) 3 4 58

Products for AGR2 Gene

  • Addgene plasmids for AGR2

Sources for AGR2 Gene

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