Free for academic non-profit institutions. Other users need a Commercial license

Aliases for ADORA2A Gene

Aliases for ADORA2A Gene

  • Adenosine A2a Receptor 2 3 5
  • ADORA2 3 4
  • Adenosine Receptor Subtype A2a 3
  • Adenosine Receptor A2a 3
  • A2aR 3
  • RDC8 3

External Ids for ADORA2A Gene

Previous HGNC Symbols for ADORA2A Gene

  • ADORA2

Previous GeneCards Identifiers for ADORA2A Gene

  • GC22P021519
  • GC22P023148
  • GC22P023153
  • GC22P022997
  • GC22P024813
  • GC22P007773

Summaries for ADORA2A Gene

Entrez Gene Summary for ADORA2A Gene

  • This gene encodes a member of the guanine nucleotide-binding protein (G protein)-coupled receptor (GPCR) superfamily, which is subdivided into classes and subtypes. The receptors are seven-pass transmembrane proteins that respond to extracellular cues and activate intracellular signal transduction pathways. This protein, an adenosine receptor of A2A subtype, uses adenosine as the preferred endogenous agonist and preferentially interacts with the G(s) and G(olf) family of G proteins to increase intracellular cAMP levels. It plays an important role in many biological functions, such as cardiac rhythm and circulation, cerebral and renal blood flow, immune function, pain regulation, and sleep. It has been implicated in pathophysiological conditions such as inflammatory diseases and neurodegenerative disorders. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. A read-through transcript composed of the upstream SPECC1L (sperm antigen with calponin homology and coiled-coil domains 1-like) and ADORA2A (adenosine A2a receptor) gene sequence has been identified, but it is thought to be non-coding. [provided by RefSeq, Jun 2013]

GeneCards Summary for ADORA2A Gene

ADORA2A (Adenosine A2a Receptor) is a Protein Coding gene. Diseases associated with ADORA2A include Acute Encephalopathy With Biphasic Seizures And Late Reduced Diffusion and Small Intestine Neuroendocrine Neoplasm. Among its related pathways are GPCRs, Other and Signaling by GPCR. Gene Ontology (GO) annotations related to this gene include G-protein coupled receptor activity and protein heterodimerization activity. An important paralog of this gene is ADORA2B.

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for ADORA2A Gene

  • Receptor for adenosine. The activity of this receptor is mediated by G proteins which activate adenylyl cyclase.

Tocris Summary for ADORA2A Gene

  • Adenosine A2A receptors are members of the adenosine receptor group of G-protein-coupled receptors that also includes A1, A2B and A3. A2A receptors display high expression levels in the spleen, thymus, leukocytes, blood platelets and the olfactory bulb.

Gene Wiki entry for ADORA2A Gene

Additional gene information for ADORA2A Gene

No data available for CIViC summary , PharmGKB "VIP" Summary , fRNAdb sequence ontologies and piRNA Summary for ADORA2A Gene

Genomics for ADORA2A Gene

GeneHancer (GH) Regulatory Elements for ADORA2A Gene

Promoters and enhancers for ADORA2A Gene
GeneHancer (GH) Identifier GH Type GH
GH Sources Gene Association Score Total Score TSS distance (kb) Number of Genes Away Size (kb) Transcription Factor
Binding Sites
Gene Targets
GH22J024425 Promoter/Enhancer 2 EPDnew FANTOM5 Ensembl ENCODE dbSUPER 657.7 +14.1 14079 13.9 HDGF PKNOX1 SMAD1 YY1 GLIS2 ZNF207 ZNF143 ATF7 RUNX3 RXRA ADORA2A PIR51261 POM121L9P SPECC1L ZNF70 ENSG00000232545 UPB1 ADORA2A-AS1 SMARCB1 SNRPD3
GH22J024423 Promoter/Enhancer 2 EPDnew Ensembl ENCODE dbSUPER 650.4 +6.2 6213 1 RB1 KLF17 KLF14 RAD21 GLIS2 ZNF143 SMARCA5 REST ZEB2 ZNF592 ADORA2A UPB1 SPECC1L POM121L9P PIR51261 SPECC1L-ADORA2A
GH22J024418 Enhancer 0.2 dbSUPER 650.7 +0.5 504 0.7 ADORA2A POM121L9P BCRP3 PIR51261 SPECC1L-ADORA2A
GH22J024548 Promoter/Enhancer 2.8 EPDnew FANTOM5 Ensembl ENCODE dbSUPER 15.4 +135.6 135583 8.9 MLX ZFP64 FEZF1 DMAP1 YY1 SLC30A9 ZNF213 E2F8 ZNF143 SP3 SNRPD3 GGT1 GUCD1 ENSG00000272973 SGSM1 ENSG00000272578 UPB1 ADORA2A ARL5AP4 LOC100421614
GH22J024510 Enhancer 1.4 FANTOM5 Ensembl ENCODE 21.7 +93.0 93007 1.6 ATF1 FOXA2 RAD21 YY1 EGR1 RXRA CEBPB REST NR2F2 MEF2D ADORA2A SPECC1L UPB1 POM121L9P GGT1 ENSG00000228923 ADORA2A-AS1
- Elite GeneHancer and/or Elite GeneHancer-gene association Download GeneHancer data from 2017 publication | Request up-to-date GeneHancer data (full dataset)

GeneHancers around ADORA2A on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Top Transcription factor binding sites by QIAGEN in the ADORA2A gene promoter:
  • PPAR-alpha
  • STAT1
  • GATA-2
  • Pax-5
  • NF-kappaB
  • NF-kappaB1
  • NF-kappaB2
  • Zic1
  • SRF (504 AA)
  • SRF

Regulatory Element Products

Genomic Locations for ADORA2A Gene

Genomic Locations for ADORA2A Gene
24,482 bases
Plus strand
24,482 bases
Plus strand

Genomic View for ADORA2A Gene

Genes around ADORA2A on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Cytogenetic band:
ADORA2A Gene in genomic location: bands according to Ensembl, locations according to GeneLoc (and/or Entrez Gene and/or Ensembl if different)
Genomic Location for ADORA2A Gene
GeneLoc Logo Genomic Neighborhood Exon StructureGene Density

RefSeq DNA sequence for ADORA2A Gene

Proteins for ADORA2A Gene

  • Protein details for ADORA2A Gene (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)

    Protein Symbol:
    Recommended name:
    Adenosine receptor A2a
    Protein Accession:
    Secondary Accessions:
    • B2R7E0

    Protein attributes for ADORA2A Gene

    412 amino acids
    Molecular mass:
    44707 Da
    Quaternary structure:
    • Interacts (via cytoplasmic C-terminal domain) with USP4; the interaction is direct. May interact with DRD4. Interacts with NECAB2.
    • Sequence=AAA58356.1; Type=Erroneous initiation; Evidence={ECO:0000305};

    Three dimensional structures from OCA and Proteopedia for ADORA2A Gene

neXtProt entry for ADORA2A Gene

Post-translational modifications for ADORA2A Gene

  • Ubiquitinated. Deubiquitinated by USP4; leading to stabilization and expression at the cell surface.
  • Glycosylation at posLast=154154
  • Modification sites at PhosphoSitePlus

No data available for DME Specific Peptides for ADORA2A Gene

Domains & Families for ADORA2A Gene

Gene Families for ADORA2A Gene

Human Protein Atlas (HPA):
  • Cancer-related genes
  • FDA approved drug targets
  • G-protein coupled receptors
  • Predicted intracellular proteins
  • Predicted membrane proteins
  • Transporters

Suggested Antigen Peptide Sequences for ADORA2A Gene

GenScript: Design optimal peptide antigens:

Graphical View of Domain Structure for InterPro Entry



  • The cytoplasmic C-terminal domain is necessary for targeting the non-ubiquitinated form of this protein to the cell surface.
  • Belongs to the G-protein coupled receptor 1 family.
  • The cytoplasmic C-terminal domain is necessary for targeting the non-ubiquitinated form of this protein to the cell surface.
  • Belongs to the G-protein coupled receptor 1 family.
genes like me logo Genes that share domains with ADORA2A: view

Function for ADORA2A Gene

Molecular function for ADORA2A Gene

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Function:
Receptor for adenosine. The activity of this receptor is mediated by G proteins which activate adenylyl cyclase.
GENATLAS Biochemistry:
adenosine receptor A2A,mainly expressed in the basal ganglia and immune tissues,G protein coupled receptor superfamily,activating adenylate cyclase

Gene Ontology (GO) - Molecular Function for ADORA2A Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0001609 G-protein coupled adenosine receptor activity IDA 21393508
GO:0004871 obsolete signal transducer activity IEA --
GO:0004930 G-protein coupled receptor activity IEA --
GO:0005515 protein binding IPI 11571652
GO:0019899 enzyme binding IPI 16339847
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with ADORA2A: view
genes like me logo Genes that share phenotypes with ADORA2A: view

Animal Models for ADORA2A Gene

MGI Knock Outs for ADORA2A:

Animal Model Products

miRNA for ADORA2A Gene

miRTarBase miRNAs that target ADORA2A

Clone Products

  • R&D Systems cDNA Clones for ADORA2A (Adenosine A2a R)

No data available for Enzyme Numbers (IUBMB) , Phenotypes From GWAS Catalog , Human Phenotype Ontology , Transcription Factor Targets and HOMER Transcription for ADORA2A Gene

Localization for ADORA2A Gene

Subcellular locations from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for ADORA2A Gene

Cell membrane; Multi-pass membrane protein.

Subcellular locations from

Extracellular space Cytosol Plasma membrane Cytoskeleton Lysosome Endosome Peroxisome ER Golgi Apparatus Nucleus Mitochondrion 0 1 2 3 4 5 Confidence
COMPARTMENTS Subcellular localization image for ADORA2A gene
Compartment Confidence
plasma membrane 5
extracellular 2
cytoskeleton 2
mitochondrion 2
nucleus 1
cytosol 1

Gene Ontology (GO) - Cellular Components for ADORA2A Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0005882 intermediate filament IEA --
GO:0005886 plasma membrane TAS --
GO:0005887 integral component of plasma membrane IMP,TAS 21393508
GO:0012505 endomembrane system IEA --
GO:0014069 postsynaptic density IEA --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with ADORA2A: view

No data available for Subcellular locations from the Human Protein Atlas (HPA) for ADORA2A Gene

Pathways & Interactions for ADORA2A Gene

genes like me logo Genes that share pathways with ADORA2A: view

Gene Ontology (GO) - Biological Process for ADORA2A Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0001963 synaptic transmission, dopaminergic IEA --
GO:0001973 adenosine receptor signaling pathway IEA --
GO:0001975 response to amphetamine IEA --
GO:0006171 cAMP biosynthetic process TAS 10899090
GO:0006355 regulation of transcription, DNA-templated IEA --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with ADORA2A: view

No data available for SIGNOR curated interactions for ADORA2A Gene

Drugs & Compounds for ADORA2A Gene

(155) Drugs for ADORA2A Gene - From: DrugBank, PharmGKB, DGIdb, FDA Approved Drugs, IUPHAR, HMDB, Tocris, and Novoseek

Name Status Disease Links Group Role Mechanism of Action Clinical Trials
Caffeine Approved Nutra Antagonist, Activator, antagonist, Target, multitarget 434
Regadenoson Approved, Investigational Pharma Agonist, Target, agonist Highly selective and low affinity A2A adenosine agonist 75
Theophylline Approved Pharma Antagonist, antagonist, Target 67
Adenosine Approved, Investigational Pharma Agonist, Channel blocker, agonist, Target 551
Dyphylline Approved Pharma Target, antagonist 0

(41) Additional Compounds for ADORA2A Gene - From: IUPHAR, Novoseek, and Tocris

Name Synonyms Role CAS Number PubChem IDs PubMed IDs
CGS 21680 hydrochloride

(5) Tocris Compounds for ADORA2A Gene

Compound Action Cas Number
8-(3-Chlorostyryl)caffeine Selective A2A antagonist. Also MAO-B inhibitor 147700-11-6
CGS 21680 hydrochloride A2A agonist 124431-80-7
LUF 5834 Potent adenosine A2A and A2B receptor partial agonist 333962-91-7
PSB 0777 ammonium salt Potent adenosine A2A agonist
ZM 241385 Potent, highly selective A2A antagonist 139180-30-6
genes like me logo Genes that share compounds with ADORA2A: view

Transcripts for ADORA2A Gene

Unigene Clusters for ADORA2A Gene

Adenosine A2a receptor:
Representative Sequences:

Clone Products

  • R&D Systems cDNA Clones for ADORA2A (Adenosine A2a R)

Alternative Splicing Database (ASD) splice patterns (SP) for ADORA2A Gene

No ASD Table

Relevant External Links for ADORA2A Gene

GeneLoc Exon Structure for
ECgene alternative splicing isoforms for

Expression for ADORA2A Gene

mRNA expression in normal human tissues from GTEx, Illumina, BioGPS, and CGAP SAGE for ADORA2A Gene

mRNA differential expression in normal tissues according to GTEx for ADORA2A Gene

This gene is overexpressed in Liver (x6.2), Whole Blood (x4.7), Brain - Putamen (basal ganglia) (x4.7), and Brain - Nucleus accumbens (basal ganglia) (x4.5).

NURSA nuclear receptor signaling pathways regulating expression of ADORA2A Gene:


SOURCE GeneReport for Unigene cluster for ADORA2A Gene:


Evidence on tissue expression from TISSUES for ADORA2A Gene

  • Nervous system(4.8)
  • Adrenal gland(2.4)
  • Blood(2.4)
  • Liver(2.4)
  • Eye(2.1)
  • Heart(2.1)
  • Lung(2)
genes like me logo Genes that share expression patterns with ADORA2A: view

No data available for Protein differential expression in normal tissues , Protein expression , Protein tissue co-expression partners , mRNA Expression by UniProt/SwissProt and Phenotype-based relationships between genes and organs from Gene ORGANizer for ADORA2A Gene

Orthologs for ADORA2A Gene

This gene was present in the common ancestor of animals.

Orthologs for ADORA2A Gene

Organism Taxonomy Gene Similarity Type Details
(Pan troglodytes)
Mammalia ADORA2A 34 33
  • 99.51 (n)
(Canis familiaris)
Mammalia ADORA2A 34 33
  • 91.02 (n)
(Ornithorhynchus anatinus)
Mammalia -- 34
  • 87 (a)
-- 34
  • 71 (a)
(Mus musculus)
Mammalia Adora2a 16 34 33
  • 84.46 (n)
(Bos Taurus)
Mammalia ADORA2A 34 33
  • 84.44 (n)
(Rattus norvegicus)
Mammalia Adora2a 33
  • 83.62 (n)
(Monodelphis domestica)
Mammalia ADORA2A 34
  • 78 (a)
(Gallus gallus)
Aves ADORA2A 34 33
  • 71.94 (n)
(Anolis carolinensis)
Reptilia ADORA2A 34
  • 60 (a)
tropical clawed frog
(Silurana tropicalis)
Amphibia adora2a 33
  • 66.76 (n)
(Danio rerio)
Actinopterygii adora2ab 33
  • 67.81 (n)
adora2aa 34
  • 56 (a)
fruit fly
(Drosophila melanogaster)
Insecta CG9753 35
  • 36 (a)
AdoR 34
  • 18 (a)
(Caenorhabditis elegans)
Secernentea ador-1 34
  • 24 (a)
sea squirt
(Ciona savignyi)
Ascidiacea -- 34
  • 42 (a)
Cin.11260 33
sea squirt
(Ciona intestinalis)
Ascidiacea Cin.11260 33
Species where no ortholog for ADORA2A was found in the sources mined by GeneCards:
  • A. gosspyii yeast (Ashbya gossypii)
  • Actinobacteria (Mycobacterium tuberculosis)
  • African clawed frog (Xenopus laevis)
  • African malaria mosquito (Anopheles gambiae)
  • Alicante grape (Vitis vinifera)
  • alpha proteobacteria (Wolbachia pipientis)
  • amoeba (Dictyostelium discoideum)
  • Archea (Pyrococcus horikoshii)
  • baker's yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae)
  • barley (Hordeum vulgare)
  • beta proteobacteria (Neisseria meningitidis)
  • bread mold (Neurospora crassa)
  • Chromalveolata (Phytophthora infestans)
  • common water flea (Daphnia pulex)
  • corn (Zea mays)
  • E. coli (Escherichia coli)
  • filamentous fungi (Aspergillus nidulans)
  • Firmicute bacteria (Streptococcus pneumoniae)
  • fission yeast (Schizosaccharomyces pombe)
  • green algae (Chlamydomonas reinhardtii)
  • honey bee (Apis mellifera)
  • K. lactis yeast (Kluyveromyces lactis)
  • loblloly pine (Pinus taeda)
  • malaria parasite (Plasmodium falciparum)
  • medicago trunc (Medicago Truncatula)
  • moss (Physcomitrella patens)
  • orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus)
  • pig (Sus scrofa)
  • rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)
  • rice (Oryza sativa)
  • rice blast fungus (Magnaporthe grisea)
  • schistosome parasite (Schistosoma mansoni)
  • sea anemone (Nematostella vectensis)
  • sea urchin (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus)
  • sorghum (Sorghum bicolor)
  • soybean (Glycine max)
  • stem rust fungus (Puccinia graminis)
  • sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum)
  • thale cress (Arabidopsis thaliana)
  • tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum)
  • toxoplasmosis (Toxoplasma gondii)
  • Trichoplax (Trichoplax adhaerens)
  • wheat (Triticum aestivum)

Evolution for ADORA2A Gene

Gene Tree for ADORA2A (if available)
Gene Tree for ADORA2A (if available)
Evolutionary constrained regions (ECRs) for ADORA2A: view image

Paralogs for ADORA2A Gene

Paralogs for ADORA2A Gene

(20) SIMAP similar genes for ADORA2A Gene using alignment to 8 proteins:

  • C9J0Z4_HUMAN
  • C9J3T2_HUMAN
  • S4R2Z8_HUMAN
  • S4R3A7_HUMAN
  • S4R429_HUMAN
genes like me logo Genes that share paralogs with ADORA2A: view

Variants for ADORA2A Gene

Sequence variations from dbSNP and Humsavar for ADORA2A Gene

SNP ID Clin Chr 22 pos Variation AA Info Type
rs2298383 drug-response, caffeine response - Toxicity/ADR 24,429,543(+) C/A/T genic_upstream_transcript_variant, intron_variant
rs1000221784 -- 24,434,542(+) TCAGAGGCCTTCTGC/ intron_variant
rs1000247210 -- 24,436,637(+) A/G intron_variant
rs1000360483 -- 24,436,902(+) G/A intron_variant
rs1000380359 -- 24,430,731(+) G/A genic_upstream_transcript_variant, intron_variant, upstream_transcript_variant

Structural Variations from Database of Genomic Variants (DGV) for ADORA2A Gene

Variant ID Type Subtype PubMed ID
dgv4528n100 CNV gain 25217958
dgv8039n54 CNV gain 21841781
esv2724041 CNV deletion 23290073
esv2724068 CNV deletion 23290073
esv3575443 CNV gain 25503493
esv3893463 CNV gain 25118596
nsv1055830 CNV gain 25217958
nsv1057819 CNV gain 25217958
nsv1110863 OTHER inversion 24896259
nsv526567 CNV gain 19592680
nsv588744 CNV gain 21841781
nsv7350 OTHER inversion 18451855
nsv834160 CNV gain 17160897
nsv953061 CNV deletion 24416366
nsv9884 CNV gain+loss 18304495

Variation tolerance for ADORA2A Gene

Residual Variation Intolerance Score: 24.6% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)
Gene Damage Index Score: 2.66; 45.81% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)

Additional Variant Information for ADORA2A Gene

Human Gene Mutation Database (HGMD)
SNPedia medical, phenotypic, and genealogical associations of SNPs for

No data available for Polymorphic Variants from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for ADORA2A Gene

Disorders for ADORA2A Gene

MalaCards: The human disease database

(8) MalaCards diseases for ADORA2A Gene - From: HGMD, Orphanet, DISEASES, Novoseek, and GeneCards

Disorder Aliases PubMed IDs
acute encephalopathy with biphasic seizures and late reduced diffusion
  • aesd
small intestine neuroendocrine neoplasm
  • small intestine neuroendocrine tumor
panic disorder
  • panic disorder 1
conduct disorder
basal ganglia disease
  • basal ganglia diseases
- elite association - COSMIC cancer census association via MalaCards

Additional Disease Information for ADORA2A

Genetic Association Database
Human Genome Epidemiology Navigator
ATLAS of Genetics and Cytogenetics in Oncology and Haematology
genes like me logo Genes that share disorders with ADORA2A: view

No data available for UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot and Genatlas for ADORA2A Gene

Publications for ADORA2A Gene

  1. Genetic polymorphism of the adenosine A2A receptor is associated with habitual caffeine consumption. (PMID: 17616786) Cornelis MC … Campos H (The American journal of clinical nutrition 2007) 3 22 25 44 58
  2. The 2.6 angstrom crystal structure of a human A2A adenosine receptor bound to an antagonist. (PMID: 18832607) Jaakola VP … Stevens RC (Science (New York, N.Y.) 2008) 3 4 22 58
  3. Association between ADORA2A and DRD2 polymorphisms and caffeine-induced anxiety. (PMID: 18305461) Childs E … de Wit H (Neuropsychopharmacology : official publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology 2008) 3 22 44 58
  4. A genetic variation in the adenosine A2A receptor gene (ADORA2A) contributes to individual sensitivity to caffeine effects on sleep. (PMID: 17329997) Rétey JV … Landolt HP (Clinical pharmacology and therapeutics 2007) 3 22 44 58
  5. The 1976C>T polymorphism in the adenosine A2A receptor gene does not affect the vasodilator response to adenosine in humans in vivo. (PMID: 17558310) Riksen NP … Rongen GA (Pharmacogenetics and genomics 2007) 3 22 25 58

Products for ADORA2A Gene

Sources for ADORA2A Gene

Loading form....