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Aliases for ADK Gene

Aliases for ADK Gene

  • Adenosine Kinase 2 3 3 5
  • Adenosine 5-Phosphotransferase 2 3 4
  • AK 3 4
  • Testicular Tissue Protein Li 14 3
  • EC 4

External Ids for ADK Gene

Previous GeneCards Identifiers for ADK Gene

  • GC10P074865
  • GC10P075014
  • GC10P075803
  • GC10P075255
  • GC10P075580
  • GC10P075910
  • GC10P069907

Summaries for ADK Gene

Entrez Gene Summary for ADK Gene

  • This gene an enzyme which catalyzes the transfer of the gamma-phosphate from ATP to adenosine, thereby serving as a regulator of concentrations of both extracellular adenosine and intracellular adenine nucleotides. Adenosine has widespread effects on the cardiovascular, nervous, respiratory, and immune systems and inhibitors of the enzyme could play an important pharmacological role in increasing intravascular adenosine concentrations and acting as anti-inflammatory agents. Multiple transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jan 2011]

GeneCards Summary for ADK Gene

ADK (Adenosine Kinase) is a Protein Coding gene. Diseases associated with ADK include Hypermethioninemia Due To Adenosine Kinase Deficiency and Hypermethioninemia. Among its related pathways are Pyrimidine metabolism (KEGG) and Metabolism. Gene Ontology (GO) annotations related to this gene include adenosine kinase activity.

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for ADK Gene

  • ATP dependent phosphorylation of adenosine and other related nucleoside analogs to monophosphate derivatives. Serves as a potential regulator of concentrations of extracellular adenosine and intracellular adenine nucleotides.

Tocris Summary for ADK Gene

  • Adenosine kinase (ADK) is a highly conserved monomeric enzyme that constitutes the primary route of adenosine metabolism under normal conditions. ADK decreases intracellular adenosine levels by catalyzing its conversion into AMP and ADP, using ATP as a phosphate donor.

Gene Wiki entry for ADK Gene

Additional gene information for ADK Gene

No data available for CIViC summary , PharmGKB "VIP" Summary , fRNAdb sequence ontologies and piRNA Summary for ADK Gene

Genomics for ADK Gene

GeneHancer (GH) Regulatory Elements for ADK Gene

Promoters and enhancers for ADK Gene
GeneHancer (GH) Identifier GH Type GH
GH Sources Gene Association Score Total Score TSS distance (kb) Number of Genes Away Size (kb) Transcription Factor
Binding Sites
Gene Targets
GH10J074174 Promoter/Enhancer 2.5 EPDnew Ensembl ENCODE dbSUPER 683.5 +25.9 25853 5.5 CLOCK FEZF1 DMAP1 YY1 ZNF213 E2F8 ZNF143 ZNF263 SP3 NFYC ADK SEC24C ZSWIM8 AP3M1 NDST2 GLUD1P3 DUSP8P5 ENSG00000272140 ZSWIM8-AS1 KAT6B
GH10J074149 Promoter/Enhancer 2.3 EPDnew Ensembl ENCODE dbSUPER 667.1 +0.0 32 3.2 HDGF PKNOX1 ARNT ARID4B SIN3A DMAP1 ZNF2 ZBTB7B YY1 SLC30A9 ADK AP3M1 SEC24C ENSG00000272140 NDST2 ZSWIM8 GLUD1P3 DUSP8P5 VCL ECD
GH10J074164 Enhancer 1.5 FANTOM5 Ensembl ENCODE dbSUPER 51.5 +16.1 16100 5.8 HDGF HDAC1 PKNOX1 NFXL1 ZBTB40 YY1 TCF12 SCRT2 IKZF2 SMARCA5 ADK CFAP70 NDST2 GC10P074285
GH10J074054 Enhancer 1.3 Ensembl ENCODE dbSUPER 33.8 -94.3 -94348 4.3 CLOCK FOXA2 ARNT IRF4 ARID2 ATF7 FOS RUNX3 JUNB REST GC10P074056 ADK VCL C10orf55 CAMK2G ENSG00000229990 GC10M074121
GH10J074188 Enhancer 1.3 Ensembl ENCODE dbSUPER 33 +39.2 39191 3.8 PKNOX1 FOXA2 NEUROD1 SIN3A FEZF1 ZNF2 ZNF121 ZFP91 FOS REST ADK AP3M1 CFAP70 GC10P074285
- Elite GeneHancer and/or Elite GeneHancer-gene association Download GeneHancer data from 2017 publication | Request up-to-date GeneHancer data (full dataset)

GeneHancers around ADK on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Top Transcription factor binding sites by QIAGEN in the ADK gene promoter:
  • PPAR-gamma1
  • PPAR-gamma2
  • GR-beta
  • GR-alpha
  • GR
  • Pax-5
  • TBP

Genomic Locations for ADK Gene

Genomic Locations for ADK Gene
558,119 bases
Plus strand
558,119 bases
Plus strand

Genomic View for ADK Gene

Genes around ADK on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Cytogenetic band:
ADK Gene in genomic location: bands according to Ensembl, locations according to GeneLoc (and/or Entrez Gene and/or Ensembl if different)
Genomic Location for ADK Gene
GeneLoc Logo Genomic Neighborhood Exon StructureGene Density

RefSeq DNA sequence for ADK Gene

Proteins for ADK Gene

  • Protein details for ADK Gene (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)

    Protein Symbol:
    Recommended name:
    Adenosine kinase
    Protein Accession:
    Secondary Accessions:
    • B7Z783
    • B7Z800
    • O00741
    • O00742
    • Q16710
    • Q5JQ10
    • Q5JQ11
    • Q9BTN2

    Protein attributes for ADK Gene

    362 amino acids
    Molecular mass:
    40545 Da
    Name=Mg(2+); Xref=ChEBI:CHEBI:18420;
    Quaternary structure:
    • Monomer.
    • Sequence=AAB01689.1; Type=Frameshift; Positions=17; Evidence={ECO:0000305};

    Three dimensional structures from OCA and Proteopedia for ADK Gene

    Alternative splice isoforms for ADK Gene


neXtProt entry for ADK Gene

Post-translational modifications for ADK Gene

  • Modification sites at PhosphoSitePlus
  • Modification sites at neXtProt

No data available for DME Specific Peptides for ADK Gene

Domains & Families for ADK Gene

Gene Families for ADK Gene

Human Protein Atlas (HPA):
  • Disease related genes
  • Enzymes
  • FDA approved drug targets
  • Predicted intracellular proteins

Graphical View of Domain Structure for InterPro Entry



  • Belongs to the carbohydrate kinase PfkB family.
  • Belongs to the carbohydrate kinase PfkB family.
genes like me logo Genes that share domains with ADK: view

Function for ADK Gene

Molecular function for ADK Gene

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Function:
ATP dependent phosphorylation of adenosine and other related nucleoside analogs to monophosphate derivatives. Serves as a potential regulator of concentrations of extracellular adenosine and intracellular adenine nucleotides.
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot CatalyticActivity:
ATP + adenosine = ADP + AMP.
GENATLAS Biochemistry:
adenosine kinase,38.7kDa

Enzyme Numbers (IUBMB) for ADK Gene

Phenotypes From GWAS Catalog for ADK Gene

Gene Ontology (GO) - Molecular Function for ADK Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0003723 RNA binding HDA 22658674
GO:0004001 adenosine kinase activity TAS,IBA --
GO:0005524 ATP binding IEA --
GO:0016301 kinase activity IEA --
GO:0016740 transferase activity IEA --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with ADK: view
genes like me logo Genes that share phenotypes with ADK: view

Human Phenotype Ontology for ADK Gene

HPO Id HPO Name Alternative Ids Definition Synonyms

Animal Models for ADK Gene

MGI Knock Outs for ADK:
  • Adk Adk<tm1Bois>

Animal Model Products

  • Taconic Biosciences Mouse Models for ADK

Clone Products

No data available for Transcription Factor Targets and HOMER Transcription for ADK Gene

Localization for ADK Gene

Subcellular locations from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for ADK Gene

Isoform 1: Nucleus.
Isoform 2: Cytoplasm.

Subcellular locations from

Extracellular space Cytosol Plasma membrane Cytoskeleton Lysosome Endosome Peroxisome ER Golgi Apparatus Nucleus Mitochondrion 0 1 2 3 4 5 Confidence
COMPARTMENTS Subcellular localization image for ADK gene
Compartment Confidence
nucleus 5
cytosol 5
mitochondrion 3
plasma membrane 2
extracellular 2
peroxisome 2

Subcellular locations from the

Human Protein Atlas (HPA)
  • Cytosol (3)
  • Nucleoplasm (3)
See all subcellular structures

Gene Ontology (GO) - Cellular Components for ADK Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0005634 nucleus IBA --
GO:0005654 nucleoplasm IDA --
GO:0005737 cytoplasm IEA,IBA --
GO:0005829 cytosol TAS,IBA --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with ADK: view

Pathways & Interactions for ADK Gene

genes like me logo Genes that share pathways with ADK: view

Pathways by source for ADK Gene

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot P55263-ADK_HUMAN

  • Pathway: Purine metabolism; AMP biosynthesis via salvage pathway; AMP from adenosine: step 1/1.

Gene Ontology (GO) - Biological Process for ADK Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0006166 purine ribonucleoside salvage IEA --
GO:0006167 AMP biosynthetic process IEA --
GO:0006169 adenosine salvage IBA --
GO:0006175 dATP biosynthetic process IEA --
GO:0009156 ribonucleoside monophosphate biosynthetic process TAS 9070863
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with ADK: view

No data available for SIGNOR curated interactions for ADK Gene

Drugs & Compounds for ADK Gene

(55) Drugs for ADK Gene - From: DrugBank, DGIdb, IUPHAR, HMDB, Tocris, and Novoseek

Name Status Disease Links Group Role Mechanism of Action Clinical Trials
Ribavirin Approved Pharma Target, Enzyme, activator, substrate 1017
Adenosine Approved, Investigational Pharma Agonist, Channel blocker, Enzyme, substrate 551
Adenosine monophosphate Approved, Investigational Nutra Target, product of 0
Abacavir Approved, Investigational Pharma Enzyme, substrate 222
Propranolol Approved, Investigational Pharma Antagonist, Inhibition, Inhibitor Beta blocker 247

(30) Additional Compounds for ADK Gene - From: Novoseek and HMDB

Name Synonyms Role CAS Number PubChem IDs PubMed IDs
  • 5'-Adenylphosphoric acid
  • Adenosine 5'-diphosphate
  • ADENOSINE-5'-diphosphATE
  • H3ADP
  • 5'-Adenylphosphate
Full agonist, Agonist, Partial agonist, Antagonist, Gating inhibitor 58-64-0

(2) Tocris Compounds for ADK Gene

Compound Action Cas Number
5-Iodotubercidin Potent adenosine kinase inhibitor; also inhibits nucleoside transporters and a range of other kinases 24386-93-4
ABT 702 dihydrochloride Adenosine kinase inhibitor; orally active 1188890-28-9
genes like me logo Genes that share compounds with ADK: view

Drug Products

Transcripts for ADK Gene

Unigene Clusters for ADK Gene

Adenosine kinase:
Representative Sequences:

Clone Products

Alternative Splicing Database (ASD) splice patterns (SP) for ADK Gene

No ASD Table

Relevant External Links for ADK Gene

GeneLoc Exon Structure for
ECgene alternative splicing isoforms for

Expression for ADK Gene

mRNA expression in normal human tissues from GTEx, Illumina, BioGPS, and CGAP SAGE for ADK Gene

mRNA expression in embryonic tissues and stem cells from LifeMap Discovery

mRNA differential expression in normal tissues according to GTEx for ADK Gene

This gene is overexpressed in Liver (x4.4).

Protein differential expression in normal tissues from HIPED for ADK Gene

This gene is overexpressed in Oral epithelium (8.6).

Integrated Proteomics: protein expression in normal tissues and cell lines from ProteomicsDB, MaxQB, and MOPED for ADK Gene

Protein tissue co-expression partners for ADK Gene

NURSA nuclear receptor signaling pathways regulating expression of ADK Gene:


SOURCE GeneReport for Unigene cluster for ADK Gene:


mRNA Expression by UniProt/SwissProt for ADK Gene:

Tissue specificity: Widely expressed. Highest level in placenta, liver, muscle and kidney.

Evidence on tissue expression from TISSUES for ADK Gene

  • Liver(4.5)
  • Skin(4.4)
  • Nervous system(3.8)
  • Heart(2.4)
  • Muscle(2.2)
  • Kidney(2.1)
  • Blood(2)
  • Lung(2)

Phenotype-based relationships between genes and organs from Gene ORGANizer for ADK Gene

Germ Layers:
  • ectoderm
  • endoderm
  • mesoderm
  • cardiovascular
  • digestive
  • integumentary
  • nervous
  • skeletal muscle
  • skeleton
Head and neck:
  • brain
  • eye
  • face
  • forehead
  • head
  • mouth
  • skull
  • abdominal wall
  • biliary tract
  • gallbladder
  • liver
  • pancreas
  • foot
  • lower limb
  • blood
  • peripheral nerve
  • peripheral nervous system
  • red blood cell
  • skin
genes like me logo Genes that share expression patterns with ADK: view

Orthologs for ADK Gene

This gene was present in the common ancestor of eukaryotes.

Orthologs for ADK Gene

Organism Taxonomy Gene Similarity Type Details
(Pan troglodytes)
Mammalia ADK 34 33
  • 99.72 (n)
(Bos Taurus)
Mammalia -- 34
  • 94 (a)
ADK 33
  • 92.71 (n)
-- 34
  • 85 (a)
(Canis familiaris)
Mammalia ADK 34 33
  • 92.63 (n)
(Mus musculus)
Mammalia Adk 16 34 33
  • 89.44 (n)
(Rattus norvegicus)
Mammalia Adk 33
  • 87.22 (n)
(Monodelphis domestica)
Mammalia -- 34
  • 80 (a)
-- 34
  • 72 (a)
(Ornithorhynchus anatinus)
Mammalia ADK 34
  • 75 (a)
(Gallus gallus)
Aves ADK 34 33
  • 82.17 (n)
(Anolis carolinensis)
Reptilia ADK 34
  • 84 (a)
tropical clawed frog
(Silurana tropicalis)
Amphibia adk 33
  • 76.2 (n)
Str.1953 33
African clawed frog
(Xenopus laevis)
Amphibia Xl.28433 33
(Danio rerio)
Actinopterygii adkb 34 34
  • 79 (a)
adka 34 33
  • 72.35 (n)
Dr.4408 33
fruit fly
(Drosophila melanogaster)
Insecta CG11255 34 35 33
  • 55.36 (n)
CG3809 34 35
  • 36 (a)
Ady43A 34
  • 24 (a)
(Caenorhabditis elegans)
Secernentea R07H5.8 34 35 33
  • 55.85 (n)
baker's yeast
(Saccharomyces cerevisiae)
Saccharomycetes ADO1 36 34
  • 39 (a)
thale cress
(Arabidopsis thaliana)
eudicotyledons ADK1 33
  • 60.26 (n)
(Glycine max)
eudicotyledons Gma.7688 33
Alicante grape
(Vitis vinifera)
eudicotyledons Vvi.7628 33
(Oryza sativa)
Liliopsida Os04g0518000 33
  • 61.05 (n)
(Triticum aestivum)
Liliopsida Ta.3437 33
(Zea mays)
Liliopsida Zm.247 33
(Hordeum vulgare)
Liliopsida Hv.3882 33
sea squirt
(Ciona savignyi)
Ascidiacea CSA.2861 34
  • 51 (a)
Species where no ortholog for ADK was found in the sources mined by GeneCards:
  • A. gosspyii yeast (Ashbya gossypii)
  • Actinobacteria (Mycobacterium tuberculosis)
  • African malaria mosquito (Anopheles gambiae)
  • alpha proteobacteria (Wolbachia pipientis)
  • amoeba (Dictyostelium discoideum)
  • Archea (Pyrococcus horikoshii)
  • beta proteobacteria (Neisseria meningitidis)
  • bread mold (Neurospora crassa)
  • Chromalveolata (Phytophthora infestans)
  • common water flea (Daphnia pulex)
  • E. coli (Escherichia coli)
  • filamentous fungi (Aspergillus nidulans)
  • Firmicute bacteria (Streptococcus pneumoniae)
  • fission yeast (Schizosaccharomyces pombe)
  • green algae (Chlamydomonas reinhardtii)
  • honey bee (Apis mellifera)
  • K. lactis yeast (Kluyveromyces lactis)
  • loblloly pine (Pinus taeda)
  • malaria parasite (Plasmodium falciparum)
  • medicago trunc (Medicago Truncatula)
  • moss (Physcomitrella patens)
  • orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus)
  • pig (Sus scrofa)
  • rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)
  • rice blast fungus (Magnaporthe grisea)
  • schistosome parasite (Schistosoma mansoni)
  • sea anemone (Nematostella vectensis)
  • sea urchin (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus)
  • sorghum (Sorghum bicolor)
  • stem rust fungus (Puccinia graminis)
  • sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum)
  • tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum)
  • toxoplasmosis (Toxoplasma gondii)
  • Trichoplax (Trichoplax adhaerens)

Evolution for ADK Gene

Gene Tree for ADK (if available)
Gene Tree for ADK (if available)
Evolutionary constrained regions (ECRs) for ADK: view image

Paralogs for ADK Gene

No data available for Paralogs for ADK Gene

Variants for ADK Gene

Sequence variations from dbSNP and Humsavar for ADK Gene

SNP ID Clin Chr 10 pos Variation AA Info Type
rs1036838794 uncertain-significance, Hypermethioninemia 74,176,798(+) T/C 5_prime_UTR_variant, genic_upstream_transcript_variant, intron_variant
rs10824095 benign, Hypermethioninemia 74,176,853(+) C/T 5_prime_UTR_variant, genic_upstream_transcript_variant, intron_variant
rs1189553 benign, Hypermethioninemia 74,709,093(+) C/T 3_prime_UTR_variant, downstream_transcript_variant, genic_downstream_transcript_variant
rs12778270 likely-benign, Hypermethioninemia 74,589,271(+) T/C genic_downstream_transcript_variant, intron_variant
rs148819558 uncertain-significance, Hypermethioninemia 74,708,444(+) G/A 3_prime_UTR_variant, genic_downstream_transcript_variant, synonymous_variant, terminator_codon_variant

Structural Variations from Database of Genomic Variants (DGV) for ADK Gene

Variant ID Type Subtype PubMed ID
dgv112n27 CNV loss 19166990
dgv1265n54 CNV loss 21841781
dgv1266n54 CNV loss 21841781
dgv925n100 CNV loss 25217958
esv2466100 CNV deletion 19546169
esv2567854 CNV deletion 19546169
esv2641301 CNV deletion 19546169
esv2659855 CNV deletion 23128226
esv2661407 CNV deletion 23128226
esv2661426 CNV deletion 23128226
esv2669986 CNV deletion 23128226
esv2677955 CNV deletion 23128226
esv34143 CNV loss 18971310
esv3546514 CNV deletion 23714750
esv3578976 CNV loss 25503493
esv3623825 CNV loss 21293372
esv3623826 CNV gain 21293372
esv3623827 CNV loss 21293372
esv3623828 CNV loss 21293372
esv3623830 CNV loss 21293372
esv3623831 CNV loss 21293372
esv3623832 CNV gain 21293372
esv3623834 CNV loss 21293372
esv3891861 CNV loss 25118596
nsv1039128 CNV loss 25217958
nsv1046267 CNV gain 25217958
nsv1068703 CNV deletion 25765185
nsv1113313 CNV deletion 24896259
nsv1152988 CNV duplication 26484159
nsv475521 CNV novel sequence insertion 20440878
nsv507561 OTHER sequence alteration 20534489
nsv515824 CNV gain+loss 19592680
nsv551528 CNV loss 21841781
nsv7165 CNV insertion 18451855
nsv948071 CNV duplication 23825009
nsv948072 CNV duplication 23825009
nsv950977 CNV duplication 24416366
nsv971906 CNV deletion 23825009

Variation tolerance for ADK Gene

Residual Variation Intolerance Score: 22.5% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)
Gene Damage Index Score: 0.40; 8.83% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)

Additional Variant Information for ADK Gene

Human Gene Mutation Database (HGMD)
SNPedia medical, phenotypic, and genealogical associations of SNPs for

SNP Genotyping and Copy Number Assay Products

No data available for Polymorphic Variants from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for ADK Gene

Disorders for ADK Gene

MalaCards: The human disease database

(5) MalaCards diseases for ADK Gene - From: HGMD, OMIM, ClinVar, GTR, Orphanet, Swiss-Prot, DISEASES, and GeneCards

Disorder Aliases PubMed IDs
hypermethioninemia due to adenosine kinase deficiency
  • mental retardation, autosomal recessive 8, formerly; mrt8, formerly
  • mat deficiency
rasmussen encephalitis
  • rasmussen syndrome
skin sarcoidosis
  • cutaneous sarcoid
adenosine deaminase deficiency
  • severe combined immunodeficiency, autosomal recessive, t cell-negative, b cell-negative, nk cell-negative, due to adenosine deaminase deficiency
- elite association - COSMIC cancer census association via MalaCards
Search ADK in MalaCards View complete list of genes associated with diseases


  • Hypermethioninemia due to adenosine kinase deficiency (HMAKD) [MIM:614300]: A metabolic disorder characterized by global developmental delay, early-onset seizures, mild dysmorphic features, and characteristic biochemical anomalies, including persistent hypermethioninemia with increased levels of S-adenosylmethionine and S-adenosylhomocysteine. Homocysteine levels are typically normal. {ECO:0000269 PubMed:21963049}. Note=The disease is caused by mutations affecting the gene represented in this entry.

Additional Disease Information for ADK

Genetic Association Database
Human Genome Epidemiology Navigator
ATLAS of Genetics and Cytogenetics in Oncology and Haematology
genes like me logo Genes that share disorders with ADK: view

No data available for Genatlas for ADK Gene

Publications for ADK Gene

  1. Cloning of human adenosine kinase cDNA: sequence similarity to microbial ribokinases and fructokinases. (PMID: 8577746) Spychala J … Mitchell BS (Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 1996) 2 3 4 22 58
  2. Subcellular localization of adenosine kinase in mammalian cells: The long isoform of AdK is localized in the nucleus. (PMID: 19635462) Cui XA … Gupta RS (Biochemical and biophysical research communications 2009) 3 4 22 58
  3. Structure of human adenosine kinase at 1.5 A resolution. (PMID: 9843365) Mathews II … Ealick SE (Biochemistry 1998) 3 4 22 58
  4. Cloning and expression of the adenosine kinase gene from rat and human tissues. (PMID: 9070863) McNally T … Halbert DN (Biochemical and biophysical research communications 1997) 3 4 22 58
  5. Cloning and characterization of cDNA for adenosine kinase from mammalian (Chinese hamster, mouse, human and rat) species. High frequency mutants of Chinese hamster ovary cells involve structural alterations in the gene. (PMID: 8917457) Singh B … Gupta RS (European journal of biochemistry 1996) 3 4 22 58

Products for ADK Gene

Sources for ADK Gene

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