This gene encodes a member of the alcohol dehydrogenase family. The encoded protein is the alpha subunit of class I alcohol dehydrogenase, which consists of several homo- and heterodimers of alpha, beta and gamma subunits. Alcohol dehydrogenases catalyze the oxidation of alcohols to aldehydes. This gene is active in the liver in early fetal life but only weakly active in adult ... See more...

Aliases for ADH1A Gene

Aliases for ADH1A Gene

  • Alcohol Dehydrogenase 1A (Class I), Alpha Polypeptide 2 3 5
  • Alcohol Dehydrogenase Subunit Alpha 3 4
  • Alcohol Dehydrogenase 1A 3 4
  • EC 4 51
  • ADH1 3 4
  • Alcohol Dehydrogenase 1 (Class I), Alpha Polypeptide 3
  • ADH, Alpha Subunit 3
  • Aldehyde Reductase 3
  • EC 1.1.1 51
  • ADH1A 5

External Ids for ADH1A Gene

Previous HGNC Symbols for ADH1A Gene

  • ADH1

Previous GeneCards Identifiers for ADH1A Gene

  • GC04M100444
  • GC04M100450
  • GC04M100655
  • GC04M100554
  • GC04M100197
  • GC04M095935

Summaries for ADH1A Gene

Entrez Gene Summary for ADH1A Gene

  • This gene encodes a member of the alcohol dehydrogenase family. The encoded protein is the alpha subunit of class I alcohol dehydrogenase, which consists of several homo- and heterodimers of alpha, beta and gamma subunits. Alcohol dehydrogenases catalyze the oxidation of alcohols to aldehydes. This gene is active in the liver in early fetal life but only weakly active in adult liver. This gene is found in a cluster with six additional alcohol dehydrogenase genes, including those encoding the beta and gamma subunits, on the long arm of chromosome 4. Mutations in this gene may contribute to variation in certain personality traits and substance dependence. [provided by RefSeq, Nov 2010]

GeneCards Summary for ADH1A Gene

ADH1A (Alcohol Dehydrogenase 1A (Class I), Alpha Polypeptide) is a Protein Coding gene. Diseases associated with ADH1A include Substance Dependence and Fetal Alcohol Syndrome. Among its related pathways are Signaling by GPCR and Drug metabolism - cytochrome P450. Gene Ontology (GO) annotations related to this gene include oxidoreductase activity and alcohol dehydrogenase (NAD) activity. An important paralog of this gene is ADH1B.

Gene Wiki entry for ADH1A Gene

PharmGKB "VIP" Summary for ADH1A Gene

No data available for CIViC Summary , UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Summary , Tocris Summary , Rfam classification and piRNA Summary for ADH1A Gene

Genomics for ADH1A Gene

GeneHancer (GH) Regulatory Elements Pubs

Promoters and enhancers for ADH1A Gene
GeneHancer (GH) Identifier GH Type GH
GH Sources Gene Association Score Total Score TSS distance (kb) Number of Genes Away Size (kb) Transcription Factor
Binding Sites
Gene Targets
GH04J099290 Promoter 0.7 EPDnew 258.4 0.0 -2 0.1 RXRA KAT2B HNF4A GATAD2A REST TAF1 ATF3 SP1 ADH1A lnc-C4orf17-3 ADH1C LOC100507053
GH04J099314 Promoter 0.3 EPDnew 261.9 -23.1 -23057 0.1 ADH1A piR-47464 LOC100507053 lnc-C4orf17-3 ADH1B ADH1C
GH04J099321 Promoter/Enhancer 1.5 EPDnew Ensembl ENCODE 22.3 -32.6 -32599 4.4 CEBPA FOXA2 MAFF RXRA ZBTB33 JUND SPI1 MAFK HNF4A FOXA1 ADH1B ADH1A LOC100507053 ADH1C ENSG00000272777 piR-54987-096 piR-47464 lnc-C4orf17-3
GH04J099381 Enhancer 0.4 FANTOM5 36.6 -90.1 -90143 0.2 SP1 YY1 ADH1A ADH4 ADH1C ADH1B ADH6 LOC100507053 piR-57133-461 LOC102723576 lnc-ADH7-1 ADH7
GH04J099352 Promoter/Enhancer 1.1 EPDnew Ensembl ENCODE 12.3 -62.2 -62203 1.2 RXRA RAD21 MAX SP1 REST TAF1 ADH1C ADH1B lnc-ADH1A-2 ADH1A ADH5 piR-59928-097 ADH7
- Elite GeneHancer and/or Elite GeneHancer-gene association Download GeneHancer data from 2017 publication | Request up-to-date GeneHancer data (full dataset)

GeneHancers around ADH1A on the GeneHancer Hub at the UCSC Golden Path

Cistromic (ChIP-Seq) regulation report from SPP (The Signaling Pathways Project) for ADH1A

Top Transcription factor binding sites by QIAGEN in the ADH1A gene promoter:
  • ATF-2
  • CP2
  • CUTL1
  • GR
  • GR-alpha
  • HEN1
  • IRF-2
  • POU2F1

Genomic Locations for ADH1A Gene

Latest Assembly
14,635 bases
Minus strand

Previous Assembly
(GRCh37/hg19 by Entrez Gene)
14,617 bases
Minus strand

(GRCh37/hg19 by Ensembl)
14,662 bases
Minus strand

Genomic View for ADH1A Gene

Genes around ADH1A on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Cytogenetic band:
ADH1A Gene in genomic location: bands according to Ensembl, locations according to GeneLoc (and/or Entrez Gene and/or Ensembl if different)
Genomic Location for ADH1A Gene
GeneLoc Logo Genomic Neighborhood Exon StructureGene Density

RefSeq DNA sequence for ADH1A Gene

Proteins for ADH1A Gene

  • Protein details for ADH1A Gene (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)

    Protein Symbol:
    Recommended name:
    Alcohol dehydrogenase 1A
    Protein Accession:
    Secondary Accessions:
    • A8K3E3
    • Q17R68

    Protein attributes for ADH1A Gene

    375 amino acids
    Molecular mass:
    39859 Da
    Name=Zn(2+); Xref=ChEBI:CHEBI:29105;
    Quaternary structure:
    • Dimer of identical or non-identical chains of three types; alpha, beta and gamma.
    • There are 7 different ADH's isozymes in human: three belongs to class-I: alpha, beta, and gamma, one to class-II: pi, one to class-III: chi, one to class-IV: ADH7 and one to class-V: ADH6.

    Three dimensional structures from OCA and Proteopedia for ADH1A Gene

neXtProt entry for ADH1A Gene

Selected DME Specific Peptides for ADH1A Gene


Post-translational modifications for ADH1A Gene

  • Modification sites at PhosphoSitePlus
  • Modification sites at neXtProt

Other Protein References for ADH1A Gene

ENSEMBL proteins:
REFSEQ proteins:

Domains & Families for ADH1A Gene

Gene Families for ADH1A Gene

Human Protein Atlas (HPA):
  • Enzymes
  • FDA approved drug targets
  • Plasma proteins
  • Predicted intracellular proteins

Protein Domains for ADH1A Gene

  • Alcohol dehydrogenase GroES-like
  • Zinc-containing alcohol dehydrogenase

Suggested Antigen Peptide Sequences for ADH1A Gene

GenScript: Design optimal peptide antigens:
  • Alcohol dehydrogenase subunit alpha (ADH1A_HUMAN)

Graphical View of Domain Structure for InterPro Entry



  • Belongs to the zinc-containing alcohol dehydrogenase family.
  • Belongs to the zinc-containing alcohol dehydrogenase family.
genes like me logo Genes that share domains with ADH1A: view

Function for ADH1A Gene

Molecular function for ADH1A Gene

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot CatalyticActivity:
Reaction=a primary alcohol + NAD(+) = an aldehyde + H(+) + NADH; Xref=Rhea:RHEA:10736, ChEBI:CHEBI:15378, ChEBI:CHEBI:15734, ChEBI:CHEBI:17478, ChEBI:CHEBI:57540, ChEBI:CHEBI:57945; EC=;.
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot CatalyticActivity:
Reaction=a secondary alcohol + NAD(+) = a ketone + H(+) + NADH; Xref=Rhea:RHEA:10740, ChEBI:CHEBI:15378, ChEBI:CHEBI:17087, ChEBI:CHEBI:35681, ChEBI:CHEBI:57540, ChEBI:CHEBI:57945; EC=;.

Enzyme Numbers (IUBMB) for ADH1A Gene

Phenotypes From GWAS Catalog for ADH1A Gene

Gene Ontology (GO) - Molecular Function for ADH1A Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0004022 alcohol dehydrogenase (NAD) activity IEA --
GO:0004024 alcohol dehydrogenase activity, zinc-dependent IDA 9982
GO:0004745 retinol dehydrogenase activity IBA 21873635
GO:0005515 protein binding IPI 16153155
GO:0008270 zinc ion binding IBA 21873635
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with ADH1A: view
genes like me logo Genes that share phenotypes with ADH1A: view

miRNA for ADH1A Gene

miRTarBase miRNAs that target ADH1A

Inhibitory RNAs for research

  • Search GeneCopoeia for shRNA, lentivirus and/or AAV clone products for ADH1A

No data available for Human Phenotype Ontology , Animal Models , Transcription Factor Targets and HOMER Transcription for ADH1A Gene

Localization for ADH1A Gene

Subcellular locations from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for ADH1A Gene


Subcellular locations from

Extracellular space Cytosol Plasma membrane Cytoskeleton Lysosome Endosome Peroxisome ER Golgi Apparatus Nucleus Mitochondrion 0 1 2 3 4 5 Confidence
COMPARTMENTS Subcellular localization image for ADH1A gene
Compartment Confidence
cytosol 5
plasma membrane 4
nucleus 4
extracellular 2
cytoskeleton 2
mitochondrion 2
peroxisome 2
endoplasmic reticulum 1
endosome 1
lysosome 1
golgi apparatus 1

Subcellular locations from the

Human Protein Atlas (HPA)
  • Cytosol (2)
  • Plasma membrane (2)
See all subcellular structures

Gene Ontology (GO) - Cellular Components for ADH1A Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0005654 nucleoplasm IDA --
GO:0005737 cytoplasm IEA --
GO:0005829 cytosol TAS --
GO:0005886 plasma membrane IDA --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with ADH1A: view

Pathways & Interactions for ADH1A Gene

genes like me logo Genes that share pathways with ADH1A: view

Gene Ontology (GO) - Biological Process for ADH1A Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0006066 alcohol metabolic process NAS 2347582
GO:0006069 ethanol oxidation TAS --
GO:0017144 drug metabolic process TAS --
GO:0042572 retinol metabolic process IBA 21873635
GO:0042573 retinoic acid metabolic process IBA 21873635
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with ADH1A: view

No data available for SIGNOR curated interactions for ADH1A Gene

Drugs & Compounds for ADH1A Gene

(20) Drugs for ADH1A Gene - From: DrugBank, PharmGKB, ApexBio, DGIdb, HMDB, and Novoseek

Name Status Disease Links Group Role Mechanism of Action Clinical Trials
Fomepizole Approved, Vet_approved Pharma Target, inhibitor 5
Ethanol Approved Pharma Enzyme, substrate 3481
NADH Approved Nutra Target, Enzyme, substrate 0
Vitamin A Approved, Vet_approved Nutra 732
Chloral hydrate Approved, Illicit, Investigational, Vet_approved Pharma 18

(19) Additional Compounds for ADH1A Gene - From: HMDB and Novoseek

Name Synonyms Role CAS Number PubChem IDs PubMed IDs
  • 1-Hexyl alcohol
  • 1-Hydroxyhexane
  • Caproic alcohol
  • Hexanol
  • N-Hexyl alcohol
  • 1-Pentol
  • 1-Pentyl alcohol
  • Alcool amylique
  • Amyl alcohol, normal
  • Amylalkohol
  • 2,2,2-Trichloro-1-ethanol
  • Trichloroethanol
  • (Hydroxymethyl)trichloromethane
  • 2, 2,2-Trichloroethanol
  • 2,2,2-Trichloro-ethanol
2-Phenyl-1,3-propanediol monocarbamate
  • 2-Phenyl-1,3-propanediol monocarbamic acid
  • 3,4-Dihydroxymandelic aldehyde
  • 3,4-Dihydroxyphenylglycolaldehyde
  • 3,4-Dihydroxyphenylglycolic aldehyde
  • alpha,3,4-Trihydroxybenzeneacetaldehyde
  • alpha,3,4-Trihydroxyphenylacetaldehyde

(1) ApexBio Compounds for ADH1A Gene

Compound Action Cas Number
Isovaleramide 541-46-8
genes like me logo Genes that share compounds with ADH1A: view

Drug products for research

Transcripts for ADH1A Gene

mRNA/cDNA for ADH1A Gene

10 NCBI additional mRNA sequence :
3 Ensembl transcripts including schematic representations, and UCSC links to gene/alias where relevant :

Inhibitory RNAs for research

  • Search GeneCopoeia for shRNA, lentivirus and/or AAV clone products for ADH1A

Alternative Splicing Database (ASD) splice patterns (SP) for ADH1A Gene

ExUns: 1a · 1b · 1c ^ 2 ^ 3 ^ 4a · 4b ^ 5 ^ 6a · 6b ^ 7 ^ 8 ^ 9a · 9b · 9c
SP1: - - - - - -
SP2: -
SP3: -

Relevant External Links for ADH1A Gene

GeneLoc Exon Structure for

Expression for ADH1A Gene

mRNA expression in normal human tissues from GTEx, Illumina, BioGPS, and SAGE for ADH1A Gene

mRNA expression in embryonic tissues and stem cells from LifeMap Discovery

  • Liver (Hepatobiliary System)

mRNA differential expression in normal tissues according to GTEx for ADH1A Gene

This gene is overexpressed in Liver (x45.9).

Protein differential expression in normal tissues from HIPED for ADH1A Gene

This gene is overexpressed in Liver, secretome (49.8) and Liver (8.4).

Integrated Proteomics: protein expression in normal tissues and cell lines from ProteomicsDB and MOPED for ADH1A Gene

Protein tissue co-expression partners for ADH1A Gene

Transcriptomic regulation report from SPP (The Signaling Pathways Project) for ADH1A

SOURCE GeneReport for Unigene cluster for ADH1A Gene:


Evidence on tissue expression from TISSUES for ADH1A Gene

  • Liver(4.9)
  • Heart(4.4)
  • Nervous system(4.4)
  • Intestine(4.1)
  • Kidney(2.2)
genes like me logo Genes that share expression patterns with ADH1A: view

No data available for mRNA Expression by UniProt/SwissProt and Phenotype-based relationships between genes and organs from Gene ORGANizer for ADH1A Gene

Orthologs for ADH1A Gene

This gene was present in the common ancestor of animals and fungi.

Orthologs for ADH1A Gene

Organism Taxonomy Gene Similarity Type Details
(Pan troglodytes)
Mammalia ADH1A 30
  • 99.2 (n)
ADH1B 31
  • 99 (a)
(Canis familiaris)
Mammalia -- 31
  • 86 (a)
(Mus musculus)
Mammalia Adh1 31
  • 83 (a)
(Bos Taurus)
Mammalia -- 31
  • 74 (a)
(Ornithorhynchus anatinus)
Mammalia -- 31
  • 74 (a)
(Monodelphis domestica)
Mammalia -- 31
  • 68 (a)
(Gallus gallus)
Aves -- 31
  • 69 (a)
(Anolis carolinensis)
Reptilia -- 31
  • 72 (a)
-- 31
  • 70 (a)
-- 31
  • 67 (a)
-- 31
  • 67 (a)
-- 31
  • 66 (a)
-- 31
  • 65 (a)
-- 31
  • 65 (a)
Tropical Clawed Frog
(Silurana tropicalis)
Amphibia adh1 30
  • 65.69 (n)
(Danio rerio)
Actinopterygii zgc:77938 31
  • 58 (a)
zgc:63568 31
  • 57 (a)
adh8a 31
  • 55 (a)
adh8b 31
  • 52 (a)
Fruit Fly
(Drosophila melanogaster)
Insecta Fdh 31
  • 53 (a)
(Caenorhabditis elegans)
Secernentea H24K24.3 31
  • 51 (a)
Y50D4C.2 31
  • 32 (a)
Baker's yeast
(Saccharomyces cerevisiae)
Saccharomycetes SFA1 31
  • 45 (a)
ADH7 33
Sea Squirt
(Ciona savignyi)
Ascidiacea CSA.1497 31
  • 55 (a)
Species where no ortholog for ADH1A was found in the sources mined by GeneCards:
  • A. gosspyii yeast (Eremothecium gossypii)
  • Actinobacteria (Mycobacterium tuberculosis)
  • African clawed frog (Xenopus laevis)
  • African malaria mosquito (Anopheles gambiae)
  • Alicante grape (Vitis vinifera)
  • Alpha proteobacteria (Wolbachia pipientis)
  • Amoeba (Dictyostelium discoideum)
  • Archea (Pyrococcus horikoshii)
  • Barley (Hordeum vulgare)
  • Beta proteobacteria (Neisseria meningitidis)
  • Bread mold (Neurospora crassa)
  • Chromalveolata (Phytophthora infestans)
  • Common water flea (Daphnia pulex)
  • Corn (Zea mays)
  • E. coli (Escherichia coli)
  • Filamentous fungi (Aspergillus nidulans)
  • Firmicute Bacteria (Streptococcus pneumoniae)
  • Fission Yeast (Schizosaccharomyces pombe)
  • Green Algae (Chlamydomonas reinhardtii)
  • Honey Bee (Apis mellifera)
  • K. Lactis Yeast (Kluyveromyces lactis)
  • Loblloly Pine (Pinus taeda)
  • Malaria Parasite (Plasmodium falciparum)
  • Medicago Trunc (Medicago Truncatula)
  • Moss (Physcomitrella patens)
  • Orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus)
  • Pig (Sus scrofa)
  • Rainbow Trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)
  • Rat (Rattus norvegicus)
  • Rice (Oryza sativa)
  • Rice Blast Fungus (Magnaporthe grisea)
  • Schistosome Parasite (Schistosoma mansoni)
  • Sea Anemone (Nematostella vectensis)
  • Sea Vase (Ciona intestinalis)
  • Sea Urchin (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus)
  • Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor)
  • Soybean (Glycine max)
  • Stem Rust Fungus (Puccinia graminis)
  • Sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum)
  • Thale Cress (Arabidopsis thaliana)
  • Tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum)
  • Toxoplasmosis (Toxoplasma gondii)
  • Trichoplax (Trichoplax adhaerens)
  • Wheat (Triticum aestivum)

Evolution for ADH1A Gene

Gene Tree for ADH1A (if available)
Gene Tree for ADH1A (if available)
Evolutionary constrained regions (ECRs) for ADH1A: view image

Paralogs for ADH1A Gene

(6) SIMAP similar genes for ADH1A Gene using alignment to 1 proteins:

genes like me logo Genes that share paralogs with ADH1A: view

Variants for ADH1A Gene

Sequence variations, with clinical significance, from ClinVar and Humsavar, with links to dbSNP for ADH1A Gene

SNP ID Clinical significance and condition Chr 04 pos Variation AA Info Type
rs28364331 Benign: not provided 99,280,138(-) A/G

dbSNP identifiers (rs#s) for variants without ClinVar clinical significance for ADH1A Gene

All consequence types are included: molecular consequences (e.g. missense, synonymous), and location-based (e.g. intron, upstream).

Structural Variations from Database of Genomic Variants (DGV) for ADH1A Gene

Variant ID Type Subtype PubMed ID
dgv5345n100 CNV gain 25217958
esv2659036 CNV deletion 23128226
nsv980233 CNV duplication 23825009

Variation tolerance for ADH1A Gene

Residual Variation Intolerance Score: 69.3% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)
Gene Damage Index Score: 0.74; 15.64% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)

Additional Variant Information for ADH1A Gene

SNPedia medical, phenotypic, and genealogical associations of SNPs for

SNP Genotyping and Copy Number Assays for research

No data available for Polymorphic Variants from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for ADH1A Gene

Disorders for ADH1A Gene

MalaCards: The human disease database

(11) MalaCards diseases for ADH1A Gene - From: COP and GCD

- elite association - COSMIC cancer census association via MalaCards
Search ADH1A in MalaCards View complete list of genes associated with diseases

Additional Disease Information for ADH1A

Genetic Association Database
Human Genome Epidemiology Navigator
ATLAS of Genetics and Cytogenetics in Oncology and Haematology
Open Targets Platform
Open Targets Platform
genes like me logo Genes that share disorders with ADH1A: view

No data available for UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot and Genatlas for ADH1A Gene

Publications for ADH1A Gene

  1. Effects of polymorphisms in untranslated regions of the class I alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) genes on alcohol metabolism in Japanese subjects and transcriptional activity in HepG2 cells. (PMID: 19618839) Nishimura FT … Saijoh K (Nihon Arukoru Yakubutsu Igakkai zasshi = Japanese journal of alcohol studies & drug dependence 2009) 3 26 41
  2. Diplotype trend regression analysis of the ADH gene cluster and the ALDH2 gene: multiple significant associations with alcohol dependence. (PMID: 16685648) Luo X … Gelernter J (American journal of human genetics 2006) 3 23 41
  3. The human class I alcohol dehydrogenase gene cluster: three genes are tandemly organized in an 80-kb-long segment of the genome. (PMID: 2347582) Yasunami M … Yoshida A (Genomics 1990) 3 4 23
  4. Variation at the NFATC2 locus increases the risk of thiazolidinedione-induced edema in the Diabetes REduction Assessment with ramipril and rosiglitazone Medication (DREAM) study. (PMID: 20628086) Bailey SD … DREAM investigators (Diabetes care 2010) 3 41
  5. Maternal genes and facial clefts in offspring: a comprehensive search for genetic associations in two population-based cleft studies from Scandinavia. (PMID: 20634891) Jugessur A … Murray JC (PloS one 2010) 3 41

Products for ADH1A Gene

Sources for ADH1A Gene