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Aliases for ADH1A Gene

Aliases for ADH1A Gene

  • Alcohol Dehydrogenase 1A (Class I), Alpha Polypeptide 2 3 5
  • Alcohol Dehydrogenase Subunit Alpha 3 4
  • ADH1 3 4
  • Alcohol Dehydrogenase 1 (Class I), Alpha Polypeptide 3
  • Alcohol Dehydrogenase 1A 3
  • ADH, Alpha Subunit 3
  • Aldehyde Reductase 3
  • EC 4

External Ids for ADH1A Gene

Previous HGNC Symbols for ADH1A Gene

  • ADH1

Previous GeneCards Identifiers for ADH1A Gene

  • GC04M100444
  • GC04M100450
  • GC04M100655
  • GC04M100554
  • GC04M100197
  • GC04M095935

Summaries for ADH1A Gene

Entrez Gene Summary for ADH1A Gene

  • This gene encodes a member of the alcohol dehydrogenase family. The encoded protein is the alpha subunit of class I alcohol dehydrogenase, which consists of several homo- and heterodimers of alpha, beta and gamma subunits. Alcohol dehydrogenases catalyze the oxidation of alcohols to aldehydes. This gene is active in the liver in early fetal life but only weakly active in adult liver. This gene is found in a cluster with six additional alcohol dehydrogenase genes, including those encoding the beta and gamma subunits, on the long arm of chromosome 4. Mutations in this gene may contribute to variation in certain personality traits and substance dependence. [provided by RefSeq, Nov 2010]

GeneCards Summary for ADH1A Gene

ADH1A (Alcohol Dehydrogenase 1A (Class I), Alpha Polypeptide) is a Protein Coding gene. Diseases associated with ADH1A include Substance Dependence and Methanol Poisoning. Among its related pathways are Drug metabolism - cytochrome P450 and Metabolism. Gene Ontology (GO) annotations related to this gene include oxidoreductase activity and alcohol dehydrogenase (NAD) activity. An important paralog of this gene is ADH1B.

Gene Wiki entry for ADH1A Gene

PharmGKB "VIP" Summary for ADH1A Gene

Additional gene information for ADH1A Gene

No data available for CIViC summary , UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot , Tocris Summary , fRNAdb sequence ontologies and piRNA Summary for ADH1A Gene

Genomics for ADH1A Gene

GeneHancer (GH) Regulatory Elements for ADH1A Gene

Promoters and enhancers for ADH1A Gene
GeneHancer (GH) Identifier GH Type GH
GH Sources Gene Association Score Total Score TSS distance (kb) Number of Genes Away Size (kb) Transcription Factor
Binding Sites
Gene Targets
GH04J099290 Promoter 0.8 EPDnew 658.5 +0.0 23 0.1 SP1 GATAD2A ATF3 TAF1 RXRA HNF4A ADH1A ADH6 LOC100507053
GH04J099314 Promoter 0.5 EPDnew 661.9 -23.0 -23032 0.1 ADH1A PIR40463 LOC100507053 ADH1B
GH04J099321 Enhancer 0.9 Ensembl ENCODE 22.3 -32.7 -32700 4.2 FOXA2 TAF1 MAX RAD21 YY1 EGR1 HNF4G MAFK RXRA FOXA3 ADH1A LOC100507053 ADH1C ENSG00000272777 PIR40463 ADH1B
GH04J099381 Enhancer 0.5 FANTOM5 36.6 -90.1 -90118 0.2 SP1 YY1 ADH1A ADH4 ADH1C ADH1B ADH6 LOC100507053 LOC102723576
GH04J099143 Promoter/Enhancer 1.3 EPDnew ENCODE 10.5 +146.7 146660 1.5 ELF3 FOXA2 RAD21 YY1 ZNF614 CREM THAP11 HMG20B RXRA CEBPB ADH4 LOC100507053 ADH5 ADH1A ADH6 PIR42405
- Elite GeneHancer and/or Elite GeneHancer-gene association Download GeneHancer data from 2017 publication | Request up-to-date GeneHancer data (full dataset)

GeneHancers around ADH1A on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Top Transcription factor binding sites by QIAGEN in the ADH1A gene promoter:
  • ATF-2
  • GR-alpha
  • GR
  • IRF-2
  • CUTL1
  • HEN1
  • CP2
  • POU2F1

Genomic Locations for ADH1A Gene

Genomic Locations for ADH1A Gene
14,663 bases
Minus strand
14,663 bases
Minus strand

Genomic View for ADH1A Gene

Genes around ADH1A on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Cytogenetic band:
ADH1A Gene in genomic location: bands according to Ensembl, locations according to GeneLoc (and/or Entrez Gene and/or Ensembl if different)
Genomic Location for ADH1A Gene
GeneLoc Logo Genomic Neighborhood Exon StructureGene Density

RefSeq DNA sequence for ADH1A Gene

Proteins for ADH1A Gene

  • Protein details for ADH1A Gene (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)

    Protein Symbol:
    Recommended name:
    Alcohol dehydrogenase 1A
    Protein Accession:
    Secondary Accessions:
    • A8K3E3
    • Q17R68

    Protein attributes for ADH1A Gene

    375 amino acids
    Molecular mass:
    39859 Da
    Name=Zn(2+); Xref=ChEBI:CHEBI:29105;
    Quaternary structure:
    • Dimer of identical or non-identical chains of three types; alpha, beta and gamma.
    • There are 7 different ADHs isozymes in human: three belongs to class-I: alpha, beta, and gamma, one to class-II: pi, one to class-III: chi, one to class-IV: ADH7 and one to class-V: ADH6.

    Three dimensional structures from OCA and Proteopedia for ADH1A Gene

neXtProt entry for ADH1A Gene

Post-translational modifications for ADH1A Gene

  • Modification sites at PhosphoSitePlus
  • Modification sites at neXtProt

Other Protein References for ADH1A Gene

ENSEMBL proteins:
REFSEQ proteins:

No data available for DME Specific Peptides for ADH1A Gene

Domains & Families for ADH1A Gene

Gene Families for ADH1A Gene

Human Protein Atlas (HPA):
  • Enzymes
  • FDA approved drug targets
  • Plasma proteins
  • Predicted intracellular proteins

Suggested Antigen Peptide Sequences for ADH1A Gene

GenScript: Design optimal peptide antigens:

Graphical View of Domain Structure for InterPro Entry



  • Belongs to the zinc-containing alcohol dehydrogenase family.
  • Belongs to the zinc-containing alcohol dehydrogenase family.
genes like me logo Genes that share domains with ADH1A: view

Function for ADH1A Gene

Molecular function for ADH1A Gene

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot CatalyticActivity:
A primary alcohol + NAD(+) = an aldehyde + NADH.
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot CatalyticActivity:
A secondary alcohol + NAD(+) = a ketone + NADH.

Enzyme Numbers (IUBMB) for ADH1A Gene

Phenotypes From GWAS Catalog for ADH1A Gene

Gene Ontology (GO) - Molecular Function for ADH1A Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0004022 alcohol dehydrogenase (NAD) activity TAS --
GO:0004024 alcohol dehydrogenase activity, zinc-dependent IDA 9982
GO:0004745 retinol dehydrogenase activity TAS --
GO:0005515 protein binding IPI 16153155
GO:0008270 zinc ion binding IEA --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with ADH1A: view
genes like me logo Genes that share phenotypes with ADH1A: view

Animal Model Products

miRNA for ADH1A Gene

miRTarBase miRNAs that target ADH1A

Clone Products

No data available for Human Phenotype Ontology , Animal Models , Transcription Factor Targets and HOMER Transcription for ADH1A Gene

Localization for ADH1A Gene

Subcellular locations from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for ADH1A Gene


Subcellular locations from

Extracellular space Cytosol Plasma membrane Cytoskeleton Lysosome Endosome Peroxisome ER Golgi Apparatus Nucleus Mitochondrion 0 1 2 3 4 5 Confidence
COMPARTMENTS Subcellular localization image for ADH1A gene
Compartment Confidence
nucleus 5
cytosol 5
plasma membrane 4
mitochondrion 2
peroxisome 1

Subcellular locations from the

Human Protein Atlas (HPA)
  • Cytosol (2)
  • Plasma membrane (2)
See all subcellular structures

Gene Ontology (GO) - Cellular Components for ADH1A Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0005654 nucleoplasm IDA --
GO:0005737 cytoplasm IEA --
GO:0005829 cytosol TAS --
GO:0005886 plasma membrane IDA --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with ADH1A: view

Pathways & Interactions for ADH1A Gene

genes like me logo Genes that share pathways with ADH1A: view

Gene Ontology (GO) - Biological Process for ADH1A Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0006066 alcohol metabolic process NAS 2347582
GO:0006069 ethanol oxidation TAS --
GO:0017144 drug metabolic process TAS --
GO:0055114 oxidation-reduction process IEA --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with ADH1A: view

No data available for SIGNOR curated interactions for ADH1A Gene

Drugs & Compounds for ADH1A Gene

(17) Drugs for ADH1A Gene - From: DrugBank, DGIdb, HMDB, and Novoseek

Name Status Disease Links Group Role Mechanism of Action Clinical Trials
Fomepizole Approved, Vet_approved Pharma inhibitor, Target 3
Ethanol Approved Pharma Enzyme 2326
NADH Approved Nutra Target, Enzyme, substrate 0
Vitamin A Approved, Vet_approved Nutra 529
Chloral hydrate Approved, Illicit, Investigational, Vet_approved Pharma 17

(22) Additional Compounds for ADH1A Gene - From: HMDB and Novoseek

Name Synonyms Role CAS Number PubChem IDs PubMed IDs
  • 1-Hexyl alcohol
  • 1-Hydroxyhexane
  • Caproic alcohol
  • Hexanol
  • N-Hexyl alcohol
  • 1-Pentol
  • 1-Pentyl alcohol
  • Alcool amylique
  • Amyl alcohol, normal
  • Amylalkohol
  • 2,2,2-trichloro-1-Ethanol
  • Trichloroethanol
  • (Hydroxymethyl)trichloromethane
  • 2, 2,2-Trichloroethanol
  • 2,2,2-trichloro-Ethanol
2-Phenyl-1,3-propanediol monocarbamate
  • 3,4-Dihydroxymandelic aldehyde
  • 3,4-Dihydroxyphenylglycolaldehyde
  • 3,4-Dihydroxyphenylglycolic aldehyde
  • alpha,3,4-Trihydroxybenzeneacetaldehyde
  • alpha,3,4-Trihydroxyphenylacetaldehyde
genes like me logo Genes that share compounds with ADH1A: view

Transcripts for ADH1A Gene

mRNA/cDNA for ADH1A Gene

(1) REFSEQ mRNAs :
(8) Additional mRNA sequences :
(475) Selected AceView cDNA sequences:
(3) Ensembl transcripts including schematic representations, and UCSC links where relevant :

Unigene Clusters for ADH1A Gene

Alcohol dehydrogenase 1A (class I), alpha polypeptide:
Representative Sequences:

Clone Products

Alternative Splicing Database (ASD) splice patterns (SP) for ADH1A Gene

ExUns: 1a · 1b · 1c ^ 2 ^ 3 ^ 4a · 4b ^ 5 ^ 6a · 6b ^ 7 ^ 8 ^ 9a · 9b · 9c
SP1: - - - - - -
SP2: -
SP3: -

Relevant External Links for ADH1A Gene

GeneLoc Exon Structure for
ECgene alternative splicing isoforms for

Expression for ADH1A Gene

mRNA expression in normal human tissues from GTEx, Illumina, BioGPS, and CGAP SAGE for ADH1A Gene

mRNA differential expression in normal tissues according to GTEx for ADH1A Gene

This gene is overexpressed in Liver (x45.9).

Protein differential expression in normal tissues from HIPED for ADH1A Gene

This gene is overexpressed in Liver, secretome (49.8) and Liver (8.4).

Integrated Proteomics: protein expression in normal tissues and cell lines from ProteomicsDB and MOPED for ADH1A Gene

Protein tissue co-expression partners for ADH1A Gene

NURSA nuclear receptor signaling pathways regulating expression of ADH1A Gene:


SOURCE GeneReport for Unigene cluster for ADH1A Gene:


Evidence on tissue expression from TISSUES for ADH1A Gene

  • Liver(4.9)
  • Heart(4.3)
  • Nervous system(4.2)
  • Intestine(3.9)
genes like me logo Genes that share expression patterns with ADH1A: view

No data available for mRNA expression in embryonic tissues and stem cells from LifeMap Discovery , mRNA Expression by UniProt/SwissProt and Phenotype-based relationships between genes and organs from Gene ORGANizer for ADH1A Gene

Orthologs for ADH1A Gene

This gene was present in the common ancestor of animals and fungi.

Orthologs for ADH1A Gene

Organism Taxonomy Gene Similarity Type Details
(Pan troglodytes)
Mammalia ADH1A 33
  • 99.2 (n)
ADH1B 34
  • 99 (a)
(Canis familiaris)
Mammalia -- 34
  • 86 (a)
(Mus musculus)
Mammalia Adh1 34
  • 83 (a)
(Ornithorhynchus anatinus)
Mammalia -- 34
  • 74 (a)
(Bos Taurus)
Mammalia -- 34
  • 74 (a)
(Monodelphis domestica)
Mammalia -- 34
  • 68 (a)
(Gallus gallus)
Aves -- 34
  • 69 (a)
(Anolis carolinensis)
Reptilia -- 34
  • 72 (a)
-- 34
  • 70 (a)
-- 34
  • 67 (a)
-- 34
  • 67 (a)
-- 34
  • 66 (a)
-- 34
  • 65 (a)
-- 34
  • 65 (a)
tropical clawed frog
(Silurana tropicalis)
Amphibia adh1 33
  • 65.69 (n)
(Danio rerio)
Actinopterygii zgc:77938 34
  • 58 (a)
zgc:63568 34
  • 57 (a)
adh8a 34
  • 55 (a)
adh8b 34
  • 52 (a)
fruit fly
(Drosophila melanogaster)
Insecta Fdh 34
  • 53 (a)
(Caenorhabditis elegans)
Secernentea H24K24.3 34
  • 51 (a)
Y50D4C.2 34
  • 32 (a)
baker's yeast
(Saccharomyces cerevisiae)
Saccharomycetes SFA1 34
  • 45 (a)
ADH7 36
sea squirt
(Ciona savignyi)
Ascidiacea CSA.1497 34
  • 55 (a)
Species where no ortholog for ADH1A was found in the sources mined by GeneCards:
  • A. gosspyii yeast (Ashbya gossypii)
  • Actinobacteria (Mycobacterium tuberculosis)
  • African clawed frog (Xenopus laevis)
  • African malaria mosquito (Anopheles gambiae)
  • Alicante grape (Vitis vinifera)
  • alpha proteobacteria (Wolbachia pipientis)
  • amoeba (Dictyostelium discoideum)
  • Archea (Pyrococcus horikoshii)
  • barley (Hordeum vulgare)
  • beta proteobacteria (Neisseria meningitidis)
  • bread mold (Neurospora crassa)
  • Chromalveolata (Phytophthora infestans)
  • common water flea (Daphnia pulex)
  • corn (Zea mays)
  • E. coli (Escherichia coli)
  • filamentous fungi (Aspergillus nidulans)
  • Firmicute bacteria (Streptococcus pneumoniae)
  • fission yeast (Schizosaccharomyces pombe)
  • green algae (Chlamydomonas reinhardtii)
  • honey bee (Apis mellifera)
  • K. lactis yeast (Kluyveromyces lactis)
  • loblloly pine (Pinus taeda)
  • malaria parasite (Plasmodium falciparum)
  • medicago trunc (Medicago Truncatula)
  • moss (Physcomitrella patens)
  • orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus)
  • pig (Sus scrofa)
  • rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)
  • rat (Rattus norvegicus)
  • rice (Oryza sativa)
  • rice blast fungus (Magnaporthe grisea)
  • schistosome parasite (Schistosoma mansoni)
  • sea anemone (Nematostella vectensis)
  • sea urchin (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus)
  • sorghum (Sorghum bicolor)
  • soybean (Glycine max)
  • stem rust fungus (Puccinia graminis)
  • sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum)
  • thale cress (Arabidopsis thaliana)
  • tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum)
  • toxoplasmosis (Toxoplasma gondii)
  • Trichoplax (Trichoplax adhaerens)
  • wheat (Triticum aestivum)

Evolution for ADH1A Gene

Gene Tree for ADH1A (if available)
Gene Tree for ADH1A (if available)
Evolutionary constrained regions (ECRs) for ADH1A: view image

Paralogs for ADH1A Gene

Paralogs for ADH1A Gene

(6) SIMAP similar genes for ADH1A Gene using alignment to 1 proteins:

genes like me logo Genes that share paralogs with ADH1A: view

Variants for ADH1A Gene

Sequence variations from dbSNP and Humsavar for ADH1A Gene

SNP ID Clin Chr 04 pos Variation AA Info Type
rs1000054449 -- 99,279,931(-) G/A intron_variant
rs1000362821 -- 99,287,271(-) T/A intron_variant
rs1001678004 -- 99,281,340(-) G/A intron_variant
rs1001730198 -- 99,281,587(-) C/G intron_variant
rs1001865521 -- 99,286,880(-) C/T coding_sequence_variant, missense_variant, non_coding_transcript_variant

Structural Variations from Database of Genomic Variants (DGV) for ADH1A Gene

Variant ID Type Subtype PubMed ID
dgv5345n100 CNV gain 25217958
esv2659036 CNV deletion 23128226
nsv980233 CNV duplication 23825009

Variation tolerance for ADH1A Gene

Residual Variation Intolerance Score: 69.3% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)
Gene Damage Index Score: 0.74; 15.64% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)

Additional Variant Information for ADH1A Gene

SNPedia medical, phenotypic, and genealogical associations of SNPs for

SNP Genotyping and Copy Number Assay Products

No data available for Polymorphic Variants from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for ADH1A Gene

Disorders for ADH1A Gene

MalaCards: The human disease database

(3) MalaCards diseases for ADH1A Gene - From: DISEASES and GeneCards

Disorder Aliases PubMed IDs
substance dependence
methanol poisoning
alcohol dependence
  • alcoholism
- elite association - COSMIC cancer census association via MalaCards
Search ADH1A in MalaCards View complete list of genes associated with diseases

Additional Disease Information for ADH1A

Genetic Association Database
Human Genome Epidemiology Navigator
ATLAS of Genetics and Cytogenetics in Oncology and Haematology
genes like me logo Genes that share disorders with ADH1A: view

No data available for UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot and Genatlas for ADH1A Gene

Publications for ADH1A Gene

  1. Effects of polymorphisms in untranslated regions of the class I alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) genes on alcohol metabolism in Japanese subjects and transcriptional activity in HepG2 cells. (PMID: 19618839) Nishimura FT … Saijoh K (Nihon Arukoru Yakubutsu Igakkai zasshi = Japanese journal of alcohol studies & drug dependence 2009) 3 25 44 58
  2. Diplotype trend regression analysis of the ADH gene cluster and the ALDH2 gene: multiple significant associations with alcohol dependence. (PMID: 16685648) Luo X … Gelernter J (American journal of human genetics 2006) 3 22 44 58
  3. The human class I alcohol dehydrogenase gene cluster: three genes are tandemly organized in an 80-kb-long segment of the genome. (PMID: 2347582) Yasunami M … Yoshida A (Genomics 1990) 3 4 22 58
  4. ADH1A variation predisposes to personality traits and substance dependence. (PMID: 19526455) Zuo L … Luo X (American journal of medical genetics. Part B, Neuropsychiatric genetics : the official publication of the International Society of Psychiatric Genetics 2010) 3 44 58
  5. Variation at the NFATC2 locus increases the risk of thiazolidinedione-induced edema in the Diabetes REduction Assessment with ramipril and rosiglitazone Medication (DREAM) study. (PMID: 20628086) Bailey SD … DREAM investigators (Diabetes care 2010) 3 44 58

Products for ADH1A Gene

Sources for ADH1A Gene

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