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Aliases for ACY1 Gene

Aliases for ACY1 Gene

  • Aminoacylase 1 2 3 5
  • N-Acyl-L-Amino-Acid Amidohydrolase 3 4
  • ACY-1 3 4
  • Epididymis Secretory Protein Li 5 3
  • Aminoacylase-1 3
  • EC 4
  • HEL-S-5 3
  • Acylase 3
  • ACY1D 3

External Ids for ACY1 Gene

Previous GeneCards Identifiers for ACY1 Gene

  • GC03P051110
  • GC03P051270
  • GC03P051873
  • GC03P051976
  • GC03P051992
  • GC03P052009
  • GC03P052017

Summaries for ACY1 Gene

Entrez Gene Summary for ACY1 Gene

  • This gene encodes a cytosolic, homodimeric, zinc-binding enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of acylated L-amino acids to L-amino acids and an acyl group, and has been postulated to function in the catabolism and salvage of acylated amino acids. This gene is located on chromosome 3p21.1, a region reduced to homozygosity in small-cell lung cancer (SCLC), and its expression has been reported to be reduced or undetectable in SCLC cell lines and tumors. The amino acid sequence of human aminoacylase-1 is highly homologous to the porcine counterpart, and this enzyme is the first member of a new family of zinc-binding enzymes. Mutations in this gene cause aminoacylase-1 deficiency, a metabolic disorder characterized by central nervous system defects and increased urinary excretion of N-acetylated amino acids. Alternative splicing of this gene results in multiple transcript variants. Read-through transcription also exists between this gene and the upstream ABHD14A (abhydrolase domain containing 14A) gene, as represented in GeneID:100526760. A related pseudogene has been identified on chromosome 18. [provided by RefSeq, Nov 2010]

GeneCards Summary for ACY1 Gene

ACY1 (Aminoacylase 1) is a Protein Coding gene. Diseases associated with ACY1 include Aminoacylase 1 Deficiency and Syringomyelia. Among its related pathways are Metabolism and Arginine biosynthesis. Gene Ontology (GO) annotations related to this gene include hydrolase activity and aminoacylase activity. An important paralog of this gene is ABHD14A-ACY1.

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for ACY1 Gene

  • Involved in the hydrolysis of N-acylated or N-acetylated amino acids (except L-aspartate).

Gene Wiki entry for ACY1 Gene

Additional gene information for ACY1 Gene

No data available for CIViC summary , Tocris Summary , PharmGKB "VIP" Summary , fRNAdb sequence ontologies and piRNA Summary for ACY1 Gene

Genomics for ACY1 Gene

GeneHancer (GH) Regulatory Elements for ACY1 Gene

Promoters and enhancers for ACY1 Gene
GeneHancer (GH) Identifier GH Type GH
GH Sources Gene Association Score Total Score TSS distance (kb) Number of Genes Away Size (kb) Transcription Factor
Binding Sites
Gene Targets
GH03J051980 Promoter/Enhancer 2.3 EPDnew Ensembl ENCODE dbSUPER 650.7 +0.9 926 6.8 HDGF PKNOX1 SMAD1 MLX ZFP64 ARID4B SIN3A DMAP1 YY1 SLC30A9 ABHD14B ACY1 GPR62 PARP3 RPL29 ABHD14A-ACY1 ABHD14A
GH03J051988 Promoter 0.9 EPDnew 650.4 +5.3 5315 0.1 SP2 ZFHX2 ZNF366 POLR2A ZNF341 ZNF600 PRDM10 EGR2 ACY1 GPR62 ABHD14B RPL29 ABHD14A-ACY1
GH03J052153 Promoter/Enhancer 2.1 EPDnew Ensembl ENCODE 10.1 +171.2 171187 2.6 FOXA2 SMAD1 MLX ARID4B SIN3A DMAP1 ZNF2 YY1 SLC30A9 POLR2B POC1A RRP9 RAD54L2 PBRM1 RFT1 DUSP7 ABHD14A-ACY1 ABHD14B PCBP4 ACY1
GH03J052044 Promoter/Enhancer 2.8 EPDnew FANTOM5 Ensembl ENCODE dbSUPER 1.6 +68.3 68344 14 HDGF PKNOX1 CLOCK ARID4B SIN3A FEZF1 DMAP1 ZNF2 YY1 ZNF416 DUSP7 DCAF1 GPR62 RAD54L2 PHF7 NT5DC2 RPL29 PCBP4 WDR82 SFMBT1
GH03J051973 Promoter/Enhancer 2.3 EPDnew Ensembl ENCODE 0.4 -8.2 -8169 3.8 HDGF ARID4B SIN3A DMAP1 ZNF2 YY1 POLR2B ZNF143 SP3 SP5 ABHD14A ABHD14A-ACY1 ENSG00000272762 PCBP4 ABHD14B PARP3 NT5DC2 ACY1
- Elite GeneHancer and/or Elite GeneHancer-gene association Download GeneHancer data from 2017 publication | Request up-to-date GeneHancer data (full dataset)

GeneHancers around ACY1 on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Top Transcription factor binding sites by QIAGEN in the ACY1 gene promoter:
  • HNF-4alpha2
  • HNF-4alpha1
  • MZF-1
  • PPAR-alpha
  • MIF-1

Genomic Locations for ACY1 Gene

Genomic Locations for ACY1 Gene
5,925 bases
Plus strand
14,153 bases
Plus strand

Genomic View for ACY1 Gene

Genes around ACY1 on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Cytogenetic band:
ACY1 Gene in genomic location: bands according to Ensembl, locations according to GeneLoc (and/or Entrez Gene and/or Ensembl if different)
Genomic Location for ACY1 Gene
GeneLoc Logo Genomic Neighborhood Exon StructureGene Density

RefSeq DNA sequence for ACY1 Gene

Proteins for ACY1 Gene

  • Protein details for ACY1 Gene (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)

    Protein Symbol:
    Recommended name:
    Protein Accession:
    Secondary Accessions:
    • C9J6I6
    • C9J9D8
    • C9JWD4

    Protein attributes for ACY1 Gene

    408 amino acids
    Molecular mass:
    45885 Da
    Name=Zn(2+); Xref=ChEBI:CHEBI:29105;
    Quaternary structure:
    • Homodimer. Interacts with SPHK1 (By similarity).

    Three dimensional structures from OCA and Proteopedia for ACY1 Gene

    Alternative splice isoforms for ACY1 Gene


neXtProt entry for ACY1 Gene

Post-translational modifications for ACY1 Gene

  • Ubiquitination at posLast=332332
  • Modification sites at PhosphoSitePlus

No data available for DME Specific Peptides for ACY1 Gene

Domains & Families for ACY1 Gene

Gene Families for ACY1 Gene

Human Protein Atlas (HPA):
  • Disease related genes
  • Enzymes
  • Plasma proteins
  • Potential drug targets
  • Predicted intracellular proteins

Suggested Antigen Peptide Sequences for ACY1 Gene

GenScript: Design optimal peptide antigens:

Graphical View of Domain Structure for InterPro Entry



  • Belongs to the peptidase M20A family.
  • Belongs to the peptidase M20A family.
genes like me logo Genes that share domains with ACY1: view

Function for ACY1 Gene

Molecular function for ACY1 Gene

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Function:
Involved in the hydrolysis of N-acylated or N-acetylated amino acids (except L-aspartate).
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot CatalyticActivity:
An N-acyl-aliphatic-L-amino acid + H(2)O = an aliphatic L-amino acid + a carboxylate.
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot CatalyticActivity:
An N-acetyl-L-cysteine-S-conjugate + H(2)O = an L-cysteine-S-conjugate + acetate.
GENATLAS Biochemistry:
aminoacylase 1

Enzyme Numbers (IUBMB) for ACY1 Gene

Gene Ontology (GO) - Molecular Function for ACY1 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0004046 aminoacylase activity TAS --
GO:0005515 protein binding IPI 21044950
GO:0008237 metallopeptidase activity IEA --
GO:0016787 hydrolase activity IEA --
GO:0042802 identical protein binding IPI 16189514
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with ACY1: view
genes like me logo Genes that share phenotypes with ACY1: view

Human Phenotype Ontology for ACY1 Gene

HPO Id HPO Name Alternative Ids Definition Synonyms

Animal Model Products

Clone Products

No data available for Phenotypes From GWAS Catalog , Animal Models , Transcription Factor Targets and HOMER Transcription for ACY1 Gene

Localization for ACY1 Gene

Subcellular locations from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for ACY1 Gene


Subcellular locations from

Extracellular space Cytosol Plasma membrane Cytoskeleton Lysosome Endosome Peroxisome ER Golgi Apparatus Nucleus Mitochondrion 0 1 2 3 4 5 Confidence
COMPARTMENTS Subcellular localization image for ACY1 gene
Compartment Confidence
extracellular 5
cytosol 5
nucleus 3
peroxisome 1

Gene Ontology (GO) - Cellular Components for ACY1 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0005737 cytoplasm IEA --
GO:0005829 cytosol TAS --
GO:0070062 extracellular exosome IDA 21082674
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with ACY1: view

No data available for Subcellular locations from the Human Protein Atlas (HPA) for ACY1 Gene

Pathways & Interactions for ACY1 Gene

genes like me logo Genes that share pathways with ACY1: view

Pathways by source for ACY1 Gene

Gene Ontology (GO) - Biological Process for ACY1 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0006508 proteolysis IEA --
GO:0006520 cellular amino acid metabolic process IEA --
GO:0006805 xenobiotic metabolic process TAS --
GO:0008152 metabolic process IEA --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with ACY1: view

No data available for SIGNOR curated interactions for ACY1 Gene

Drugs & Compounds for ACY1 Gene

(14) Drugs for ACY1 Gene - From: DrugBank, HMDB, and Novoseek

Name Status Disease Links Group Role Mechanism of Action Clinical Trials
L-Aspartic acid Approved Nutra Target 0
Acetylcysteine Approved, Investigational Pharma Target, ligand Antioxidant;mucolytic agent 352
Copper Approved, Investigational Pharma Target 202
Palmitic Acid Approved, Experimental Pharma Full agonist, Agonist 23
Stearic acid Approved, Experimental Pharma 0

(12) Additional Compounds for ACY1 Gene - From: HMDB and Novoseek

Name Synonyms Role CAS Number PubChem IDs PubMed IDs
  • N2-Acetyl-L-ornithine
  • (2S)-2-acetamido-5-Aminopentanoate
  • (2S)-2-acetamido-5-Aminopentanoic acid
  • Acetyl-ornithine
  • AOR
Arachidic acid
  • Arachidinic acid
  • Arachinsaeure
  • C20:0
  • CH3-[CH2]18-COOH
  • Eicosanoic acid
Heptadecanoic acid
  • 17:0
  • C17:0
  • CH3-[CH2]15-COOH
  • Heptadecoic acid
  • Heptadecylic acid
Heptadecanoyl CoA
  • Heptadecanoyl-coenzyme A
  • Heptadecanoate
  • Heptadecanoic acid
  • Heptadecanoic acid CoA
  • Heptadecanoyl coenzyme A
Pentadecanoic acid
  • 15:00
  • C15
  • C15:0
  • N-Pentadecanoic acid
  • Pentadecylic acid
genes like me logo Genes that share compounds with ACY1: view

Transcripts for ACY1 Gene

mRNA/cDNA for ACY1 Gene

Unigene Clusters for ACY1 Gene

Aminoacylase 1:
Representative Sequences:

Clone Products

Alternative Splicing Database (ASD) splice patterns (SP) for ACY1 Gene

No ASD Table

Relevant External Links for ACY1 Gene

GeneLoc Exon Structure for
ECgene alternative splicing isoforms for

Expression for ACY1 Gene

mRNA expression in normal human tissues from GTEx, Illumina, BioGPS, and CGAP SAGE for ACY1 Gene

mRNA expression in embryonic tissues and stem cells from LifeMap Discovery

Protein differential expression in normal tissues from HIPED for ACY1 Gene

This gene is overexpressed in Kidney (21.9) and Liver, secretome (21.7).

Integrated Proteomics: protein expression in normal tissues and cell lines from ProteomicsDB, MaxQB, and MOPED for ACY1 Gene

Protein tissue co-expression partners for ACY1 Gene

NURSA nuclear receptor signaling pathways regulating expression of ACY1 Gene:


SOURCE GeneReport for Unigene cluster for ACY1 Gene:


mRNA Expression by UniProt/SwissProt for ACY1 Gene:

Tissue specificity: Expression is highest in kidney, strong in brain and weaker in placenta and spleen.

Evidence on tissue expression from TISSUES for ACY1 Gene

  • Liver(4.6)
  • Lung(4.4)
  • Nervous system(4.4)
  • Skin(4.3)
  • Kidney(3.8)
  • Intestine(2.4)

Phenotype-based relationships between genes and organs from Gene ORGANizer for ACY1 Gene

Germ Layers:
  • ectoderm
  • mesoderm
  • nervous
  • skeletal muscle
  • skeleton
Head and neck:
  • brain
  • cerebellum
  • eye
  • face
  • head
  • nose
  • skull
  • spinal cord
genes like me logo Genes that share expression patterns with ACY1: view

No data available for mRNA differential expression in normal tissues for ACY1 Gene

Orthologs for ACY1 Gene

This gene was present in the common ancestor of eukaryotes.

Orthologs for ACY1 Gene

Organism Taxonomy Gene Similarity Type Details
(Pan troglodytes)
Mammalia ACY1 33
  • 99.51 (n)
(Bos Taurus)
Mammalia ACY1 34 33
  • 88.74 (n)
(Canis familiaris)
Mammalia -- 34
  • 88 (a)
ACY1 33
  • 87.96 (n)
(Mus musculus)
Mammalia Acy1 16 34 33
  • 86.19 (n)
(Rattus norvegicus)
Mammalia Acy1 33
  • 86.19 (n)
(Monodelphis domestica)
Mammalia -- 34
  • 74 (a)
(Ornithorhynchus anatinus)
Mammalia -- 34
  • 61 (a)
(Gallus gallus)
Aves ACY1 33
  • 72 (n)
-- 34
  • 68 (a)
(Anolis carolinensis)
Reptilia -- 34
  • 65 (a)
tropical clawed frog
(Silurana tropicalis)
Amphibia acy1.1 33
  • 61.5 (n)
African clawed frog
(Xenopus laevis)
Amphibia MGC68640 33
(Danio rerio)
Actinopterygii acy1 34 33
  • 64.16 (n)
CU896698.1 34
  • 58 (a)
zgc55605 33
African malaria mosquito
(Anopheles gambiae)
Insecta AgaP_AGAP000679 33
  • 56.15 (n)
fruit fly
(Drosophila melanogaster)
Insecta CG6465 34 35 33
  • 55.87 (n)
CG6726 34 35
  • 47 (a)
CG17110 34 35
  • 46 (a)
CG6733 34 35
  • 44 (a)
CG17109 34 35
  • 44 (a)
CG6738 34 35
  • 43 (a)
(Caenorhabditis elegans)
Secernentea C06A6.4 34 35 33
  • 51.87 (n)
C10C5.5 34 35
  • 47 (a)
C10C5.4 34 35
  • 47 (a)
C10C5.3 34 35
  • 46 (a)
thale cress
(Arabidopsis thaliana)
eudicotyledons AT4G38220 33
  • 53.02 (n)
(Hordeum vulgare)
Liliopsida Hv.5352 33
(Triticum aestivum)
Liliopsida Ta.9380 33
sea squirt
(Ciona savignyi)
Ascidiacea CSA.8209 34
  • 50 (a)
Cin.566 33
sea squirt
(Ciona intestinalis)
Ascidiacea Cin.566 33
Species where no ortholog for ACY1 was found in the sources mined by GeneCards:
  • A. gosspyii yeast (Ashbya gossypii)
  • Actinobacteria (Mycobacterium tuberculosis)
  • Alicante grape (Vitis vinifera)
  • alpha proteobacteria (Wolbachia pipientis)
  • amoeba (Dictyostelium discoideum)
  • Archea (Pyrococcus horikoshii)
  • baker's yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae)
  • beta proteobacteria (Neisseria meningitidis)
  • bread mold (Neurospora crassa)
  • Chromalveolata (Phytophthora infestans)
  • common water flea (Daphnia pulex)
  • corn (Zea mays)
  • E. coli (Escherichia coli)
  • filamentous fungi (Aspergillus nidulans)
  • Firmicute bacteria (Streptococcus pneumoniae)
  • fission yeast (Schizosaccharomyces pombe)
  • green algae (Chlamydomonas reinhardtii)
  • honey bee (Apis mellifera)
  • K. lactis yeast (Kluyveromyces lactis)
  • loblloly pine (Pinus taeda)
  • malaria parasite (Plasmodium falciparum)
  • medicago trunc (Medicago Truncatula)
  • moss (Physcomitrella patens)
  • orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus)
  • pig (Sus scrofa)
  • rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)
  • rice (Oryza sativa)
  • rice blast fungus (Magnaporthe grisea)
  • schistosome parasite (Schistosoma mansoni)
  • sea anemone (Nematostella vectensis)
  • sea urchin (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus)
  • sorghum (Sorghum bicolor)
  • soybean (Glycine max)
  • stem rust fungus (Puccinia graminis)
  • sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum)
  • tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum)
  • toxoplasmosis (Toxoplasma gondii)
  • Trichoplax (Trichoplax adhaerens)

Evolution for ACY1 Gene

Gene Tree for ACY1 (if available)
Gene Tree for ACY1 (if available)
Evolutionary constrained regions (ECRs) for ACY1: view image

Paralogs for ACY1 Gene

Paralogs for ACY1 Gene

(1) SIMAP similar genes for ACY1 Gene using alignment to 4 proteins:

  • F8WC59_HUMAN Pseudogenes for ACY1 Gene

genes like me logo Genes that share paralogs with ACY1: view

Variants for ACY1 Gene

Sequence variations from dbSNP and Humsavar for ACY1 Gene

SNP ID Clin Chr 03 pos Variation AA Info Type
rs121912698 pathogenic, uncertain-significance, Aminoacylase 1 deficiency, not specified, not provided, Aminoacylase-1 deficiency (ACY1D) [MIM:609924] 51,988,821(+) C/T coding_sequence_variant, missense_variant
rs121912699 pathogenic, Aminoacylase 1 deficiency, Aminoacylase-1 deficiency (ACY1D) [MIM:609924] 51,987,188(+) A/C coding_sequence_variant, intron_variant, missense_variant
rs121912700 pathogenic, Aminoacylase 1 deficiency, Aminoacylase-1 deficiency (ACY1D) [MIM:609924] 51,986,993(+) C/T coding_sequence_variant, missense_variant
rs121912701 pathogenic, benign, uncertain-significance, Aminoacylase 1 deficiency, not specified, not provided, Aminoacylase-1 deficiency (ACY1D) [MIM:609924] 51,989,026(+) G/A coding_sequence_variant, missense_variant
rs148346337 Aminoacylase-1 deficiency (ACY1D) [MIM:609924] 51,988,980(+) C/T coding_sequence_variant, missense_variant

Structural Variations from Database of Genomic Variants (DGV) for ACY1 Gene

Variant ID Type Subtype PubMed ID
nsv1003453 CNV gain 25217958
nsv508922 CNV insertion 20534489
nsv519445 CNV gain+loss 19592680
nsv520211 CNV gain 19592680
nsv954857 CNV deletion 24416366

Variation tolerance for ACY1 Gene

Residual Variation Intolerance Score: 77.3% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)
Gene Damage Index Score: 4.85; 67.27% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)

Additional Variant Information for ACY1 Gene

Human Gene Mutation Database (HGMD)
SNPedia medical, phenotypic, and genealogical associations of SNPs for

SNP Genotyping and Copy Number Assay Products

No data available for Polymorphic Variants from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for ACY1 Gene

Disorders for ACY1 Gene

MalaCards: The human disease database

(4) MalaCards diseases for ACY1 Gene - From: HGMD, OMIM, ClinVar, GTR, Orphanet, Swiss-Prot, DISEASES, Novoseek, and GeneCards

- elite association - COSMIC cancer census association via MalaCards
Search ACY1 in MalaCards View complete list of genes associated with diseases


  • Aminoacylase-1 deficiency (ACY1D) [MIM:609924]: An enzymatic deficiency resulting in encephalopathy, unspecific psychomotor delay, psychomotor delay with atrophy of the vermis and syringomyelia, marked muscular hypotonia or normal clinical features. Epileptic seizures are a frequent feature. All affected individuals exhibit markedly increased urinary excretion of several N-acetylated amino acids. {ECO:0000269 PubMed:16274666, ECO:0000269 PubMed:16465618, ECO:0000269 PubMed:17562838, ECO:0000269 PubMed:21414403}. Note=The disease is caused by mutations affecting the gene represented in this entry.

Additional Disease Information for ACY1

genes like me logo Genes that share disorders with ACY1: view

No data available for Genatlas for ACY1 Gene

Publications for ACY1 Gene

  1. Neurological findings in aminoacylase 1 deficiency. (PMID: 17562838) Sass JO … Omran H (Neurology 2007) 3 4 22 58
  2. Mutations in ACY1, the gene encoding aminoacylase 1, cause a novel inborn error of metabolism. (PMID: 16465618) Sass JO … Omran H (American journal of human genetics 2006) 3 4 22 58
  3. Aminoacylase I deficiency: a novel inborn error of metabolism. (PMID: 16274666) Van Coster RN … Lissens W (Biochemical and biophysical research communications 2005) 3 4 22 58
  4. Essential roles of zinc ligation and enzyme dimerization for catalysis in the aminoacylase-1/M20 family. (PMID: 12933810) Lindner HA … Ménard R (The Journal of biological chemistry 2003) 3 4 22 58
  5. The nucleotide sequence of human aminoacylase-1. (PMID: 8357837) Mitta M … Tsunasawa S (Biochimica et biophysica acta 1993) 3 4 22 58

Products for ACY1 Gene

Sources for ACY1 Gene

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