The specific function of this gene has not yet been determined; however, the protein it encodes is known to be a major constituent of the ARP2/3 complex. This complex is located at the cell surface and is essential to cell shape and motility through lamellipodial actin assembly and protrusion. Two transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [p... See more...

Aliases for ACTR2 Gene

Aliases for ACTR2 Gene

  • Actin Related Protein 2 2 3 5
  • ARP2 2 3 4
  • ARP2 Actin Related Protein 2 Homolog 2 3
  • Actin-Related Protein 2 3 4
  • Actin-Like Protein 2 3 4
  • ARP2 (Actin-Related Protein 2, Yeast) Homolog 2
  • ARP2 Actin-Related Protein 2 Homolog (Yeast) 2
  • ACTR2 5

External Ids for ACTR2 Gene

Previous GeneCards Identifiers for ACTR2 Gene

  • GC02P065588
  • GC02P065412
  • GC02P065429
  • GC02P065366
  • GC02P065308
  • GC02P065454
  • GC02P065189

Summaries for ACTR2 Gene

Entrez Gene Summary for ACTR2 Gene

  • The specific function of this gene has not yet been determined; however, the protein it encodes is known to be a major constituent of the ARP2/3 complex. This complex is located at the cell surface and is essential to cell shape and motility through lamellipodial actin assembly and protrusion. Two transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

GeneCards Summary for ACTR2 Gene

ACTR2 (Actin Related Protein 2) is a Protein Coding gene. Diseases associated with ACTR2 include Wiskott-Aldrich Syndrome and Myopathy, Centronuclear, 2. Among its related pathways are Association Between Physico-Chemical Features and Toxicity Associated Pathways and Development Slit-Robo signaling. Gene Ontology (GO) annotations related to this gene include actin filament binding and structural constituent of cytoskeleton. An important paralog of this gene is ACTC1.

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Summary for ACTR2 Gene

  • ATP-binding component of the Arp2/3 complex, a multiprotein complex that mediates actin polymerization upon stimulation by nucleation-promoting factor (NPF) (PubMed:9000076). The Arp2/3 complex mediates the formation of branched actin networks in the cytoplasm, providing the force for cell motility (PubMed:9000076). Seems to contact the pointed end of the daughter actin filament (PubMed:9000076). In podocytes, required for the formation of lamellipodia downstream of AVIL and PLCE1 regulation (PubMed:29058690). In addition to its role in the cytoplasmic cytoskeleton, the Arp2/3 complex also promotes actin polymerization in the nucleus, thereby regulating gene transcription and repair of damaged DNA (PubMed:17220302, PubMed:29925947). The Arp2/3 complex promotes homologous recombination (HR) repair in response to DNA damage by promoting nuclear actin polymerization, leading to drive motility of double-strand breaks (DSBs) (PubMed:29925947).

Gene Wiki entry for ACTR2 Gene

Additional gene information for ACTR2 Gene

No data available for CIViC Summary , Tocris Summary , PharmGKB "VIP" Summary , Rfam classification and piRNA Summary for ACTR2 Gene

Genomics for ACTR2 Gene

GeneHancer (GH) Regulatory Elements Pubs

Promoters and enhancers for ACTR2 Gene
- Elite GeneHancer and/or Elite GeneHancer-gene association Download GeneHancer data from 2017 publication | Request up-to-date GeneHancer data (full dataset)

GeneHancers around ACTR2 on the GeneHancer Hub at the UCSC Golden Path

Cistromic (ChIP-Seq) regulation report from SPP (The Signaling Pathways Project) for ACTR2

Top Transcription factor binding sites by QIAGEN in the ACTR2 gene promoter:
  • AP-1
  • c-Fos
  • c-Jun
  • FosB
  • Fra-1
  • JunB
  • JunD
  • p53
  • YY1

Genomic Locations for ACTR2 Gene

Genomic Locations for ACTR2 Gene
chr2:65,227,695-65,271,253
(GRCh38/hg38)
Size:
43,559 bases
Orientation:
Plus strand
chr2:65,454,829-65,498,387
(GRCh37/hg19)
Size:
43,559 bases
Orientation:
Plus strand

Genomic View for ACTR2 Gene

Genes around ACTR2 on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Cytogenetic band:
ACTR2 Gene in genomic location: bands according to Ensembl, locations according to GeneLoc (and/or Entrez Gene and/or Ensembl if different)
Genomic Location for ACTR2 Gene
GeneLoc Logo Genomic Neighborhood Exon StructureGene Density

RefSeq DNA sequence for ACTR2 Gene

Proteins for ACTR2 Gene

  • Protein details for ACTR2 Gene (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)

    Protein Symbol:
    P61160-ARP2_HUMAN
    Recommended name:
    Actin-related protein 2
    Protein Accession:
    P61160
    Secondary Accessions:
    • B2RCP5
    • D6W5F4
    • E9PF41
    • O15142
    • Q96C82

    Protein attributes for ACTR2 Gene

    Size:
    394 amino acids
    Molecular mass:
    44761 Da
    Quaternary structure:
    • Component of the Arp2/3 complex composed of ACTR2/ARP2, ACTR3/ARP3, ARPC1B/p41-ARC, ARPC2/p34-ARC, ARPC3/p21-ARC, ARPC4/p20-ARC and ARPC5/p16-ARC. Interacts with AVIL (PubMed:29058690).

    Alternative splice isoforms for ACTR2 Gene

    UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot:

neXtProt entry for ACTR2 Gene

Post-translational modifications for ACTR2 Gene

  • Ubiquitination at Lys7, Lys19, Lys46, Lys53, Lys86, Lys97, Lys106, Lys118, Lys195, Lys219, Lys299, Lys322, Lys336, Lys366, Lys368, Lys381, and Lys388
  • Modification sites at PhosphoSitePlus

Other Protein References for ACTR2 Gene

No data available for DME Specific Peptides for ACTR2 Gene

Domains & Families for ACTR2 Gene

Gene Families for ACTR2 Gene

HGNC:
Human Protein Atlas (HPA):
  • Plasma proteins
  • Predicted intracellular proteins

Protein Domains for ACTR2 Gene

Suggested Antigen Peptide Sequences for ACTR2 Gene

GenScript: Design optimal peptide antigens:
  • Actin-like protein 2 (ARP2_HUMAN)
  • ACTR2 protein (Q8IY98_HUMAN)

Graphical View of Domain Structure for InterPro Entry

P61160

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot:

ARP2_HUMAN :
  • Belongs to the actin family. ARP2 subfamily.
Family:
  • Belongs to the actin family. ARP2 subfamily.
genes like me logo Genes that share domains with ACTR2: view

Function for ACTR2 Gene

Molecular function for ACTR2 Gene

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Function:
ATP-binding component of the Arp2/3 complex, a multiprotein complex that mediates actin polymerization upon stimulation by nucleation-promoting factor (NPF) (PubMed:9000076). The Arp2/3 complex mediates the formation of branched actin networks in the cytoplasm, providing the force for cell motility (PubMed:9000076). Seems to contact the pointed end of the daughter actin filament (PubMed:9000076). In podocytes, required for the formation of lamellipodia downstream of AVIL and PLCE1 regulation (PubMed:29058690). In addition to its role in the cytoplasmic cytoskeleton, the Arp2/3 complex also promotes actin polymerization in the nucleus, thereby regulating gene transcription and repair of damaged DNA (PubMed:17220302, PubMed:29925947). The Arp2/3 complex promotes homologous recombination (HR) repair in response to DNA damage by promoting nuclear actin polymerization, leading to drive motility of double-strand breaks (DSBs) (PubMed:29925947).

Phenotypes From GWAS Catalog for ACTR2 Gene

Gene Ontology (GO) - Molecular Function for ACTR2 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0000166 nucleotide binding IEA --
GO:0003779 actin binding IEA --
GO:0005200 structural constituent of cytoskeleton IDA 11741539
GO:0005515 protein binding IPI 29058690
GO:0005524 ATP binding IEA --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with ACTR2: view
genes like me logo Genes that share phenotypes with ACTR2: view

Animal Model Products

CRISPR Products

miRNA for ACTR2 Gene

miRTarBase miRNAs that target ACTR2

Inhibitory RNA Products

  • Search GeneCopoeia for shRNA, lentivirus and/or AAV clone products for ACTR2

No data available for Enzyme Numbers (IUBMB) , Human Phenotype Ontology , Animal Models , Transcription Factor Targets and HOMER Transcription for ACTR2 Gene

Localization for ACTR2 Gene

Subcellular locations from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for ACTR2 Gene

Cytoplasm, cytoskeleton. Cell projection. Nucleus.

Subcellular locations from

COMPARTMENTS
Extracellular space Cytosol Plasma membrane Cytoskeleton Lysosome Endosome Peroxisome ER Golgi Apparatus Nucleus Mitochondrion 0 1 2 3 4 5 Confidence
COMPARTMENTS Subcellular localization image for ACTR2 gene
Compartment Confidence
cytoskeleton 5
nucleus 5
cytosol 5
extracellular 4
lysosome 4
plasma membrane 2
mitochondrion 2
endoplasmic reticulum 2
endosome 2
golgi apparatus 2
peroxisome 1

Subcellular locations from the

Human Protein Atlas (HPA)

Gene Ontology (GO) - Cellular Components for ACTR2 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0005576 extracellular region TAS --
GO:0005623 cell IEA --
GO:0005634 nucleus IEA,IDA 17220302
GO:0005737 cytoplasm IEA,IDA 17220302
GO:0005829 cytosol TAS --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with ACTR2: view

Pathways & Interactions for ACTR2 Gene

PathCards logo

SuperPathways for ACTR2 Gene

SuperPathway Contained pathways
1 Actin Nucleation by ARP-WASP Complex
.66
.66
.41
.35
2 G-protein signaling RAC1 in cellular process
.37
.37
3 EPH-Ephrin signaling
.35
4 Regulation of actin dynamics for phagocytic cup formation
5 Innate Immune System
genes like me logo Genes that share pathways with ACTR2: view

Pathways by source for ACTR2 Gene

14 GeneGo (Thomson Reuters) pathways for ACTR2 Gene
  • Cell adhesion Integrin-mediated cell adhesion and migration
  • Cell adhesion_Cadherin-mediated cell adhesion
  • Cytoskeleton remodeling CDC42 in cellular processes
  • Cytoskeleton remodeling Fibronectin-binding integrins in cell motility
  • Cytoskeleton remodeling Integrin outside-in signaling
20 Qiagen pathways for ACTR2 Gene
  • Actin Nucleation and Branching
  • Actin Nucleation by ARP-WASP Complex
  • Actin-Based Motility by Rho Family GTPases
  • CD28 Signaling in T-Helper Cell
  • CDC42 Pathway
1 Cell Signaling Technology pathway for ACTR2 Gene

SIGNOR curated interactions for ACTR2 Gene

Is activated by:

Gene Ontology (GO) - Biological Process for ACTR2 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0007015 actin filament organization IEA --
GO:0007163 establishment or maintenance of cell polarity IEA --
GO:0008306 associative learning IEA --
GO:0008356 asymmetric cell division IEA --
GO:0010592 positive regulation of lamellipodium assembly IDA 29058690
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with ACTR2: view

Drugs & Compounds for ACTR2 Gene

(3) Drugs for ACTR2 Gene - From: DrugBank and Novoseek

Name Status Disease Links Group Role Mechanism of Action Clinical Trials
(2S)-2-(3-bromophenyl)-3-(5-chloro-2-hydroxyphenyl)-1,3-thiazolidin-4-one Experimental Pharma Target 0
N-[2-(2-methyl-1H-indol-3-yl)ethyl]thiophene-2-carboxamide Experimental Pharma Target 0
genes like me logo Genes that share compounds with ACTR2: view

Transcripts for ACTR2 Gene

mRNA/cDNA for ACTR2 Gene

2 REFSEQ mRNAs :
16 NCBI additional mRNA sequence :
5 Ensembl transcripts including schematic representations, and UCSC links to gene/alias where relevant :

CRISPR Products

Inhibitory RNA Products

  • Search GeneCopoeia for shRNA, lentivirus and/or AAV clone products for ACTR2

Alternative Splicing Database (ASD) splice patterns (SP) for ACTR2 Gene

No ASD Table

Relevant External Links for ACTR2 Gene

GeneLoc Exon Structure for
ACTR2

Expression for ACTR2 Gene

mRNA expression in normal human tissues from GTEx, Illumina, BioGPS, and SAGE for ACTR2 Gene

mRNA expression in embryonic tissues and stem cells from LifeMap Discovery

mRNA differential expression in normal tissues according to GTEx for ACTR2 Gene

This gene is overexpressed in Whole Blood (x4.4).

Protein differential expression in normal tissues from HIPED for ACTR2 Gene

This gene is overexpressed in Spleen (6.6).

Integrated Proteomics: protein expression in normal tissues and cell lines from ProteomicsDB, MaxQB, and MOPED for ACTR2 Gene



Protein tissue co-expression partners for ACTR2 Gene

- Elite partner

Transcriptomic regulation report from SPP (The Signaling Pathways Project) for ACTR2

SOURCE GeneReport for Unigene cluster for ACTR2 Gene:

Hs.744913

Evidence on tissue expression from TISSUES for ACTR2 Gene

  • Nervous system(4.7)
  • Muscle(4.7)
  • Liver(4.5)
  • Skin(3.1)
  • Spleen(3.1)
  • Blood(3)
  • Kidney(2.9)
  • Lymph node(2.9)
  • Heart(2.9)
  • Intestine(2.9)
  • Lung(2.8)
  • Eye(2.7)
  • Bone(2.6)
  • Stomach(2.4)
  • Bone marrow(2.4)
  • Adrenal gland(2.2)
  • Thyroid gland(2.1)
genes like me logo Genes that share expression patterns with ACTR2: view

No data available for mRNA Expression by UniProt/SwissProt and Phenotype-based relationships between genes and organs from Gene ORGANizer for ACTR2 Gene

Orthologs for ACTR2 Gene

This gene was present in the common ancestor of eukaryotes.

Orthologs for ACTR2 Gene

Organism Taxonomy Gene Similarity Type Details
Oppossum
(Monodelphis domestica)
Mammalia ACTR2 31
  • 100 (a)
OneToOne
Chimpanzee
(Pan troglodytes)
Mammalia ACTR2 30 31
  • 99.83 (n)
OneToOne
Dog
(Canis familiaris)
Mammalia ACTR2 30 31
  • 94.99 (n)
OneToOne
Cow
(Bos Taurus)
Mammalia ACTR2 30 31
  • 93.99 (n)
OneToOne
Mouse
(Mus musculus)
Mammalia Actr2 30 17 31
  • 92.22 (n)
OneToOne
Rat
(Rattus norvegicus)
Mammalia Actr2 30
  • 90.78 (n)
Platypus
(Ornithorhynchus anatinus)
Mammalia ACTR2 31
  • 88 (a)
OneToOne
Chicken
(Gallus gallus)
Aves ACTR2 30 31
  • 85.45 (n)
OneToOne
Lizard
(Anolis carolinensis)
Reptilia ACTR2 31
  • 92 (a)
OneToOne
Tropical Clawed Frog
(Silurana tropicalis)
Amphibia actr2 30
  • 82.15 (n)
Zebrafish
(Danio rerio)
Actinopterygii actr2b 31
  • 96 (a)
OneToOne
actr2a 30
  • 77.92 (n)
Fruit Fly
(Drosophila melanogaster)
Insecta Arp14D 31 32
  • 80 (a)
OneToOne
Arp2 30
  • 67.17 (n)
African malaria mosquito
(Anopheles gambiae)
Insecta AgaP_AGAP000985 30
  • 68.38 (n)
Worm
(Caenorhabditis elegans)
Secernentea arx-2 30 31
  • 66.84 (n)
OneToOne
Baker's yeast
(Saccharomyces cerevisiae)
Saccharomycetes ARP2 30 31 33
  • 63.01 (n)
OneToMany
K. Lactis Yeast
(Kluyveromyces lactis)
Saccharomycetes KLLA0C03850g 30
  • 62.84 (n)
A. gosspyii yeast
(Eremothecium gossypii)
Saccharomycetes AGOS_ADR316W 30
  • 59.47 (n)
Thale Cress
(Arabidopsis thaliana)
eudicotyledons ARP2 30
  • 60.07 (n)
Alicante grape
(Vitis vinifera)
eudicotyledons Vvi.11919 30
Soybean
(Glycine max)
eudicotyledons Gma.7173 30
Rice
(Oryza sativa)
Liliopsida Os08g0369300 30
  • 60.75 (n)
Sea Squirt
(Ciona savignyi)
Ascidiacea CSA.11313 31
  • 78 (a)
OneToOne
Fission Yeast
(Schizosaccharomyces pombe)
Schizosaccharomycetes arp2 30
  • 62.47 (n)
Bread mold
(Neurospora crassa)
Ascomycetes NCU07171 30
  • 62.03 (n)
Species where no ortholog for ACTR2 was found in the sources mined by GeneCards:
  • Actinobacteria (Mycobacterium tuberculosis)
  • African clawed frog (Xenopus laevis)
  • Alpha proteobacteria (Wolbachia pipientis)
  • Amoeba (Dictyostelium discoideum)
  • Archea (Pyrococcus horikoshii)
  • Barley (Hordeum vulgare)
  • Beta proteobacteria (Neisseria meningitidis)
  • Chromalveolata (Phytophthora infestans)
  • Common water flea (Daphnia pulex)
  • Corn (Zea mays)
  • E. coli (Escherichia coli)
  • Filamentous fungi (Aspergillus nidulans)
  • Firmicute Bacteria (Streptococcus pneumoniae)
  • Green Algae (Chlamydomonas reinhardtii)
  • Honey Bee (Apis mellifera)
  • Loblloly Pine (Pinus taeda)
  • Malaria Parasite (Plasmodium falciparum)
  • Medicago Trunc (Medicago Truncatula)
  • Moss (Physcomitrella patens)
  • Orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus)
  • Pig (Sus scrofa)
  • Rainbow Trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)
  • Rice Blast Fungus (Magnaporthe grisea)
  • Schistosome Parasite (Schistosoma mansoni)
  • Sea Anemone (Nematostella vectensis)
  • Sea Vase (Ciona intestinalis)
  • Sea Urchin (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus)
  • Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor)
  • Stem Rust Fungus (Puccinia graminis)
  • Sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum)
  • Tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum)
  • Toxoplasmosis (Toxoplasma gondii)
  • Trichoplax (Trichoplax adhaerens)
  • Wheat (Triticum aestivum)

Evolution for ACTR2 Gene

ENSEMBL:
Gene Tree for ACTR2 (if available)
TreeFam:
Gene Tree for ACTR2 (if available)
Aminode:
Evolutionary constrained regions (ECRs) for ACTR2: view image

Paralogs for ACTR2 Gene

(30) SIMAP similar genes for ACTR2 Gene using alignment to 3 proteins:

  • ARP2_HUMAN
  • F5H6T1_HUMAN
  • Q8IY98_HUMAN

Pseudogenes.org Pseudogenes for ACTR2 Gene

genes like me logo Genes that share paralogs with ACTR2: view

Variants for ACTR2 Gene

Additional dbSNP identifiers (rs#s) for ACTR2 Gene

Structural Variations from Database of Genomic Variants (DGV) for ACTR2 Gene

Variant ID Type Subtype PubMed ID
nsv1131470 CNV deletion 24896259
nsv527241 CNV loss 19592680
nsv961411 CNV duplication 23825009

Variation tolerance for ACTR2 Gene

Residual Variation Intolerance Score: 29.5% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)
Gene Damage Index Score: 0.07; 1.69% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)

Additional Variant Information for ACTR2 Gene

SNPedia medical, phenotypic, and genealogical associations of SNPs for
ACTR2

SNP Genotyping and Copy Number Assay Products

No data available for Polymorphic Variants from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot and Sequence variations, with clinical significance, from ClinVar and Humsavar, with links to dbSNP for ACTR2 Gene

Disorders for ACTR2 Gene

MalaCards: The human disease database

(3) MalaCards diseases for ACTR2 Gene - From: DISEASES, Novoseek, and GeneCards

- elite association - COSMIC cancer census association via MalaCards
Search ACTR2 in MalaCards View complete list of genes associated with diseases

Additional Disease Information for ACTR2

genes like me logo Genes that share disorders with ACTR2: view

No data available for UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot and Genatlas for ACTR2 Gene

Publications for ACTR2 Gene

  1. The human Arp2/3 complex is composed of evolutionarily conserved subunits and is localized to cellular regions of dynamic actin filament assembly. (PMID: 9230079) Welch MD … Mitchison TJ (The Journal of cell biology 1997) 2 3 4
  2. Nuclear ARP2/3 drives DNA break clustering for homology-directed repair. (PMID: 29925947) Schrank BR … Gautier J (Nature 2018) 3 4
  3. Advillin acts upstream of phospholipase C ϵ1 in steroid-resistant nephrotic syndrome. (PMID: 29058690) Rao J … Hildebrandt F (The Journal of clinical investigation 2017) 3 4
  4. A novel role of the actin-nucleating Arp2/3 complex in the regulation of RNA polymerase II-dependent transcription. (PMID: 17220302) Yoo Y … Guan JL (The Journal of biological chemistry 2007) 3 4
  5. Correlation between liver metastasis of the colocalization of actin-related protein 2 and 3 complex and WAVE2 in colorectal carcinoma. (PMID: 17459058) Iwaya K … Mukai K (Cancer science 2007) 3 23

Products for ACTR2 Gene

  • Signalway Proteins for ACTR2

Sources for ACTR2 Gene