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Aliases for ACSS1 Gene

Aliases for ACSS1 Gene

  • Acyl-CoA Synthetase Short Chain Family Member 1 2 3 5
  • Acetate--CoA Ligase 2 3 4
  • ACAS2L 3 4
  • Acetyl-Coenzyme A Synthetase 2-Like, Mitochondrial 3
  • Acetyl-Coenzyme A Synthetase 2 (AMP Forming)-Like 2
  • Acyl-CoA Synthetase Short-Chain Family Member 1 4
  • Acetyl-CoA Synthetase 2 4
  • EC 4
  • KIAA1846 4
  • AceCS2L 3
  • ACECS1 3
  • AceCS2 4

External Ids for ACSS1 Gene

Previous HGNC Symbols for ACSS1 Gene

  • ACAS2L

Previous GeneCards Identifiers for ACSS1 Gene

  • GC20M024935

Summaries for ACSS1 Gene

Entrez Gene Summary for ACSS1 Gene

  • This gene encodes a mitochondrial acetyl-CoA synthetase enzyme. A similar protein in mice plays an important role in the tricarboxylic acid cycle by catalyzing the conversion of acetate to acetyl CoA. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding multiple isoforms have been observed for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Nov 2011]

GeneCards Summary for ACSS1 Gene

ACSS1 (Acyl-CoA Synthetase Short Chain Family Member 1) is a Protein Coding gene. Among its related pathways are Metabolism and Amino Acid metabolism. Gene Ontology (GO) annotations related to this gene include AMP binding and acetate-CoA ligase activity. An important paralog of this gene is ACSS2.

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for ACSS1 Gene

  • Important for maintaining normal body temperature during fasting and for energy homeostasis. Essential for energy expenditure under ketogenic conditions (By similarity). Converts acetate to acetyl-CoA so that it can be used for oxidation through the tricarboxylic cycle to produce ATP and CO(2).

Additional gene information for ACSS1 Gene

No data available for CIViC summary , Tocris Summary , Gene Wiki entry , PharmGKB "VIP" Summary , fRNAdb sequence ontologies and piRNA Summary for ACSS1 Gene

Genomics for ACSS1 Gene

GeneHancer (GH) Regulatory Elements for ACSS1 Gene

Promoters and enhancers for ACSS1 Gene
GeneHancer (GH) Identifier GH Type GH
GH Sources Gene Association Score Total Score TSS distance (kb) Number of Genes Away Size (kb) Transcription Factor
Binding Sites
Gene Targets
GH20J025051 Promoter/Enhancer 2.4 EPDnew Ensembl ENCODE dbSUPER 658.2 +3.1 3094 8.4 HDGF FOXA2 ZFP64 ARID4B SIN3A DMAP1 IRF4 YY1 ZNF207 ZNF143 ACSS1 VSX1 CST7 ENTPD6 FAM182B ZNF337 NINL PIR53263
GH20J024989 Promoter/Enhancer 2.3 EPDnew Ensembl ENCODE dbSUPER 12.2 +67.3 67331 5.2 PKNOX1 FOXA2 SMAD1 ZFP64 ARID4B SIN3A DMAP1 YY1 POLR2B E2F8 APMAP CST7 ACSS1 VN1R108P PYGB RNU6-1257P
GH20J025194 Promoter/Enhancer 2.2 EPDnew Ensembl ENCODE dbSUPER 11.3 -137.4 -137391 3.4 MLX ZFP64 ARID4B SIN3A DMAP1 YBX1 ZBTB7B YY1 POLR2B ZNF143 ENTPD6 LOC101926889 PYGB ABHD12 ACSS1 FAM182B VSX1 CST7 NINL
GH20J025029 Enhancer 1.3 Ensembl ENCODE dbSUPER 18.3 +26.7 26674 4.7 ELF3 FOXA2 MLX NFIB ARID4B DMAP1 RAD21 ZNF48 ZSCAN9 RARA ACSS1 CST7 APMAP FAM182B PIR53263
GH20J024948 Promoter/Enhancer 1.9 EPDnew FANTOM5 Ensembl ENCODE dbSUPER 10.8 +106.2 106201 8.4 MEIS2 PKNOX1 ZNF146 NFIB MAX EBF1 CEBPG ZIC2 RAD21 HIC1 CST7 APMAP ACSS1 VN1R108P PYGB PIR45392
- Elite GeneHancer and/or Elite GeneHancer-gene association Download GeneHancer data from 2017 publication | Request up-to-date GeneHancer data (full dataset)

GeneHancers around ACSS1 on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Top Transcription factor binding sites by QIAGEN in the ACSS1 gene promoter:
  • AREB6
  • p300
  • C/EBPalpha
  • C/EBPbeta
  • AML1a
  • Pax-4a
  • STAT5A
  • SREBP-1c
  • SREBP-1b

Genomic Locations for ACSS1 Gene

Genomic Locations for ACSS1 Gene
52,751 bases
Minus strand
52,749 bases
Minus strand

Genomic View for ACSS1 Gene

Genes around ACSS1 on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Cytogenetic band:
ACSS1 Gene in genomic location: bands according to Ensembl, locations according to GeneLoc (and/or Entrez Gene and/or Ensembl if different)
Genomic Location for ACSS1 Gene
GeneLoc Logo Genomic Neighborhood Exon StructureGene Density

RefSeq DNA sequence for ACSS1 Gene

Proteins for ACSS1 Gene

  • Protein details for ACSS1 Gene (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)

    Protein Symbol:
    Recommended name:
    Acetyl-coenzyme A synthetase 2-like, mitochondrial
    Protein Accession:
    Secondary Accessions:
    • B3KXL2
    • B4DJZ3
    • D3DW48
    • F5H6F4
    • F8W7Y1
    • Q5TF42
    • Q8IV99
    • Q8N234
    • Q96JI1
    • Q96JX6
    • Q9NU28

    Protein attributes for ACSS1 Gene

    689 amino acids
    Molecular mass:
    74857 Da
    Quaternary structure:
    • Interacts with SIRT3.
    • Sequence=BAB55390.1; Type=Erroneous initiation; Evidence={ECO:0000305}; Sequence=BAC03853.1; Type=Frameshift; Positions=250; Evidence={ECO:0000305}; Sequence=BAC03853.1; Type=Miscellaneous discrepancy; Note=Sequencing errors.; Evidence={ECO:0000305};

    Three dimensional structures from OCA and Proteopedia for ACSS1 Gene

    Alternative splice isoforms for ACSS1 Gene


neXtProt entry for ACSS1 Gene

Post-translational modifications for ACSS1 Gene

  • Reversibly acetylated on Lys-642. The acetyl-CoA synthase activity is inhibited by acetylation and activated by deacetylation.
  • Modification sites at PhosphoSitePlus
  • Modification sites at neXtProt

No data available for DME Specific Peptides for ACSS1 Gene

Domains & Families for ACSS1 Gene

Gene Families for ACSS1 Gene

Human Protein Atlas (HPA):
  • Enzymes
  • Predicted intracellular proteins
  • Predicted membrane proteins

Protein Domains for ACSS1 Gene

Graphical View of Domain Structure for InterPro Entry



  • Belongs to the ATP-dependent AMP-binding enzyme family.
  • Belongs to the ATP-dependent AMP-binding enzyme family.
genes like me logo Genes that share domains with ACSS1: view

Function for ACSS1 Gene

Molecular function for ACSS1 Gene

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Function:
Important for maintaining normal body temperature during fasting and for energy homeostasis. Essential for energy expenditure under ketogenic conditions (By similarity). Converts acetate to acetyl-CoA so that it can be used for oxidation through the tricarboxylic cycle to produce ATP and CO(2).
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot CatalyticActivity:
ATP + acetate + CoA = AMP + diphosphate + acetyl-CoA.
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot EnzymeRegulation:
Inhibited by acetylation at Lys-642 and activated by deacetylation.

Enzyme Numbers (IUBMB) for ACSS1 Gene

Phenotypes From GWAS Catalog for ACSS1 Gene

Gene Ontology (GO) - Molecular Function for ACSS1 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0003824 catalytic activity IEA --
GO:0003987 acetate-CoA ligase activity IDA,EXP 16788062
GO:0005515 protein binding IPI 16788062
GO:0005524 ATP binding IEA --
GO:0016208 AMP binding IEA --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with ACSS1: view
genes like me logo Genes that share phenotypes with ACSS1: view

Animal Models for ACSS1 Gene

MGI Knock Outs for ACSS1:

Animal Model Products

miRNA for ACSS1 Gene

Clone Products

No data available for Human Phenotype Ontology , Transcription Factor Targets and HOMER Transcription for ACSS1 Gene

Localization for ACSS1 Gene

Subcellular locations from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for ACSS1 Gene

Mitochondrion matrix.

Subcellular locations from

Extracellular space Cytosol Plasma membrane Cytoskeleton Lysosome Endosome Peroxisome ER Golgi Apparatus Nucleus Mitochondrion 0 1 2 3 4 5 Confidence
COMPARTMENTS Subcellular localization image for ACSS1 gene
Compartment Confidence
mitochondrion 5
cytosol 2
plasma membrane 1
peroxisome 1
nucleus 1

Gene Ontology (GO) - Cellular Components for ACSS1 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0005739 mitochondrion IEA --
GO:0005759 mitochondrial matrix TAS --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with ACSS1: view

No data available for Subcellular locations from the Human Protein Atlas (HPA) for ACSS1 Gene

Pathways & Interactions for ACSS1 Gene

genes like me logo Genes that share pathways with ACSS1: view

Gene Ontology (GO) - Biological Process for ACSS1 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0006069 ethanol oxidation TAS --
GO:0006085 acetyl-CoA biosynthetic process IDA 16788062
GO:0008152 metabolic process IEA --
GO:0019413 acetate biosynthetic process IEA --
GO:0019427 acetyl-CoA biosynthetic process from acetate IEA --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with ACSS1: view

No data available for SIGNOR curated interactions for ACSS1 Gene

Drugs & Compounds for ACSS1 Gene

(7) Drugs for ACSS1 Gene - From: DrugBank and HMDB

Name Status Disease Links Group Role Mechanism of Action Clinical Trials
Adenosine monophosphate Approved, Investigational Nutra Target, product of 0
Phosphoric acid Approved Pharma 0
propanoic acid Approved, Vet_approved Pharma Full agonist, Agonist 0
acetic acid Approved Nutra Full agonist, Agonist 116
Propanoyl-CoA Experimental Pharma 0

(5) Additional Compounds for ACSS1 Gene - From: HMDB

Name Synonyms Role CAS Number PubChem IDs PubMed IDs
Acetyl adenylate
  • 5'-O-[Acetoxy(hydroxy)phosphoryl]adenosine
  • Acetyl AMP
  • Acetyladenylate
  • [[(2R,3S,4R,5R)-5-(6-Aminopurin-9-yl)-3,4-dihydroxy-tetrahydrofuran-2-yl]methoxy-hydroxy-phosphoryl] acetate
  • AcCoA
  • Acetyl coenzyme A
  • S-Acetyl-CoA
  • S-Acetyl-coenzyme A
  • Ac-CoA
Adenosine tetraphosphate
  • Adenosine 5'-tetraphosphate
  • Adenosine 5'-tetraphosphoric acid
  • Adenosine tetraphosphoric acid
  • Ap4
  • ATPP
Propinol adenylate
  • 5'-Adenylic acid propanoic acid anhydride
  • 5'-Adenylic acid propionic acid anhydride
  • 5'-O-[Hydroxy(propionyloxy)phosphoryl]adenosine
  • Propanoyl-adenosine monophosphate
  • Propionyl-adenosine monophosphate
  • [(ho)2P(O)OP(O)(OH)2]
  • Acide diphosphorique
  • Diphosphorsaeure
  • H4P2O7
  • PYROphosphATE
genes like me logo Genes that share compounds with ACSS1: view

Transcripts for ACSS1 Gene

Unigene Clusters for ACSS1 Gene

Acyl-CoA synthetase short-chain family member 1:
Representative Sequences:

Clone Products

Alternative Splicing Database (ASD) splice patterns (SP) for ACSS1 Gene

ExUns: 1a · 1b · 1c · 1d ^ 2 ^ 3 ^ 4 ^ 5a · 5b ^ 6a · 6b ^ 7 ^ 8a · 8b · 8c ^ 9a · 9b ^ 10a · 10b ^ 11 ^ 12a · 12b ^ 13a · 13b · 13c ^ 14a ·
SP1: - - - - - - - - -
SP2: - - - - - - - - -
SP3: - - - - -
SP4: - - - - - - - - -
SP5: - -
SP6: - - -
SP8: -
SP9: -
SP10: -
SP11: - - -

ExUns: 14b · 14c · 14d ^ 15a · 15b ^ 16a · 16b ^ 17 ^ 18 ^ 19a · 19b · 19c ^ 20a · 20b · 20c · 20d · 20e ^ 21 ^ 22
SP1: - - - - - - -
SP2: - - - - - - -
SP3: - - - - - - -
SP4: - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
SP7: - - - - - - - - - - - -
SP12: - - - - - -
SP13: - - - -
SP14: - - -
SP16: - - -
SP17: -

Relevant External Links for ACSS1 Gene

GeneLoc Exon Structure for
ECgene alternative splicing isoforms for

Expression for ACSS1 Gene

mRNA expression in normal human tissues from GTEx, Illumina, BioGPS, and CGAP SAGE for ACSS1 Gene

Protein differential expression in normal tissues from HIPED for ACSS1 Gene

This gene is overexpressed in Heart (12.4), Placenta (8.3), and Testis (6.9).

Integrated Proteomics: protein expression in normal tissues and cell lines from ProteomicsDB, MaxQB, and MOPED for ACSS1 Gene

Protein tissue co-expression partners for ACSS1 Gene

NURSA nuclear receptor signaling pathways regulating expression of ACSS1 Gene:


SOURCE GeneReport for Unigene cluster for ACSS1 Gene:


Evidence on tissue expression from TISSUES for ACSS1 Gene

  • Nervous system(4.9)
  • Heart(2.1)
  • Liver(2)
  • Muscle(2)
genes like me logo Genes that share expression patterns with ACSS1: view

No data available for mRNA expression in embryonic tissues and stem cells from LifeMap Discovery , mRNA differential expression in normal tissues , mRNA Expression by UniProt/SwissProt and Phenotype-based relationships between genes and organs from Gene ORGANizer for ACSS1 Gene

Orthologs for ACSS1 Gene

This gene was present in the common ancestor of animals and fungi.

Orthologs for ACSS1 Gene

Organism Taxonomy Gene Similarity Type Details
(Pan troglodytes)
Mammalia ACSS1 34 33
  • 99.42 (n)
(Canis familiaris)
Mammalia ACSS1 34 33
  • 86.73 (n)
(Ornithorhynchus anatinus)
Mammalia ACSS1 34
  • 85 (a)
(Rattus norvegicus)
Mammalia Acss1 33
  • 84.41 (n)
(Bos Taurus)
Mammalia ACSS1 34 33
  • 84.28 (n)
(Mus musculus)
Mammalia Acss1 16 34 33
  • 84.26 (n)
(Monodelphis domestica)
Mammalia ACSS1 34
  • 81 (a)
(Gallus gallus)
Aves ACSS1 34 33
  • 74.84 (n)
(Anolis carolinensis)
Reptilia ACSS1 34
  • 71 (a)
tropical clawed frog
(Silurana tropicalis)
Amphibia acss1 33
  • 69.84 (n)
(Danio rerio)
Actinopterygii acss1 34 33
  • 68.81 (n)
sbcb395 33
A. gosspyii yeast
(Ashbya gossypii)
Saccharomycetes AGOS_AGL148C 33
  • 52.89 (n)
K. lactis yeast
(Kluyveromyces lactis)
Saccharomycetes KLLA0D17336g 33
  • 51.82 (n)
baker's yeast
(Saccharomyces cerevisiae)
Saccharomycetes ACS2 33
  • 50.68 (n)
ACS1 36 34
  • 42 (a)
bread mold
(Neurospora crassa)
Ascomycetes NCU06836 33
  • 57.37 (n)
sea squirt
(Ciona savignyi)
Ascidiacea -- 34
  • 55 (a)
CSA.5469 34
  • 41 (a)
fission yeast
(Schizosaccharomyces pombe)
Schizosaccharomycetes SPCC191.02c 33
  • 52.92 (n)
Species where no ortholog for ACSS1 was found in the sources mined by GeneCards:
  • Actinobacteria (Mycobacterium tuberculosis)
  • African clawed frog (Xenopus laevis)
  • African malaria mosquito (Anopheles gambiae)
  • Alicante grape (Vitis vinifera)
  • alpha proteobacteria (Wolbachia pipientis)
  • amoeba (Dictyostelium discoideum)
  • Archea (Pyrococcus horikoshii)
  • barley (Hordeum vulgare)
  • beta proteobacteria (Neisseria meningitidis)
  • Chromalveolata (Phytophthora infestans)
  • common water flea (Daphnia pulex)
  • corn (Zea mays)
  • E. coli (Escherichia coli)
  • filamentous fungi (Aspergillus nidulans)
  • Firmicute bacteria (Streptococcus pneumoniae)
  • fruit fly (Drosophila melanogaster)
  • green algae (Chlamydomonas reinhardtii)
  • honey bee (Apis mellifera)
  • loblloly pine (Pinus taeda)
  • malaria parasite (Plasmodium falciparum)
  • medicago trunc (Medicago Truncatula)
  • moss (Physcomitrella patens)
  • orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus)
  • pig (Sus scrofa)
  • rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)
  • rice (Oryza sativa)
  • rice blast fungus (Magnaporthe grisea)
  • schistosome parasite (Schistosoma mansoni)
  • sea anemone (Nematostella vectensis)
  • sea urchin (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus)
  • sorghum (Sorghum bicolor)
  • soybean (Glycine max)
  • stem rust fungus (Puccinia graminis)
  • sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum)
  • thale cress (Arabidopsis thaliana)
  • tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum)
  • toxoplasmosis (Toxoplasma gondii)
  • Trichoplax (Trichoplax adhaerens)
  • wheat (Triticum aestivum)
  • worm (Caenorhabditis elegans)

Evolution for ACSS1 Gene

Gene Tree for ACSS1 (if available)
Gene Tree for ACSS1 (if available)
Evolutionary constrained regions (ECRs) for ACSS1: view image

Paralogs for ACSS1 Gene

Paralogs for ACSS1 Gene

(5) SIMAP similar genes for ACSS1 Gene using alignment to 5 proteins:

  • Q5TF43_HUMAN
  • Q6ZV30_HUMAN
  • Q7Z5G3_HUMAN
genes like me logo Genes that share paralogs with ACSS1: view

Variants for ACSS1 Gene

Sequence variations from dbSNP and Humsavar for ACSS1 Gene

SNP ID Clin Chr 20 pos Variation AA Info Type
rs1000006513 -- 25,011,382(-) G/C intron_variant
rs1000176140 -- 25,050,998(-) C/T genic_upstream_transcript_variant, intron_variant
rs1000268677 -- 25,046,013(-) C/T genic_upstream_transcript_variant, intron_variant
rs1000272760 -- 25,044,282(-) C/A genic_upstream_transcript_variant, intron_variant
rs1000371507 -- 25,028,098(-) A/G intron_variant

Structural Variations from Database of Genomic Variants (DGV) for ACSS1 Gene

Variant ID Type Subtype PubMed ID
esv3645552 CNV gain 21293372
esv3645567 CNV gain 21293372
esv3645573 CNV gain 21293372
nsv1056345 CNV gain 25217958
nsv522873 CNV gain 19592680
nsv585745 CNV loss 21841781

Variation tolerance for ACSS1 Gene

Residual Variation Intolerance Score: 23.1% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)
Gene Damage Index Score: 6.42; 77.20% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)

Additional Variant Information for ACSS1 Gene

SNPedia medical, phenotypic, and genealogical associations of SNPs for

SNP Genotyping and Copy Number Assay Products

No data available for Polymorphic Variants from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for ACSS1 Gene

Disorders for ACSS1 Gene

Additional Disease Information for ACSS1

Genetic Association Database
Human Genome Epidemiology Navigator
ATLAS of Genetics and Cytogenetics in Oncology and Haematology

No disorders were found for ACSS1 Gene.

No data available for MalaCards , UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot and Genatlas for ACSS1 Gene

Publications for ACSS1 Gene

  1. Crystal structures of human SIRT3 displaying substrate-induced conformational changes. (PMID: 19535340) Jin L … Perni RB (The Journal of biological chemistry 2009) 3 4 22 58
  2. Reversible lysine acetylation controls the activity of the mitochondrial enzyme acetyl-CoA synthetase 2. (PMID: 16788062) Schwer B … Verdin E (Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 2006) 3 4 22 58
  3. Assessment of a polymorphism of SDK1 with hypertension in Japanese Individuals. (PMID: 19851296) Oguri M … Yamada Y (American journal of hypertension 2010) 3 44 58
  4. Association of genetic variants with hemorrhagic stroke in Japanese individuals. (PMID: 20198315) Yoshida T … Yamada Y (International journal of molecular medicine 2010) 3 44 58
  5. Personalized smoking cessation: interactions between nicotine dose, dependence and quit-success genotype score. (PMID: 20379614) Rose JE … Uhl GR (Molecular medicine (Cambridge, Mass.) 2010) 3 44 58

Products for ACSS1 Gene

Sources for ACSS1 Gene

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