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Aliases for ACR Gene

Aliases for ACR Gene

  • Acrosin 2 3 3 5
  • Acrosin Light And Heavy Chain Prepropeptide 2 3
  • Preproacrosin 2 3
  • EC 4
  • Proacrosin 3
  • ACRS 4

External Ids for ACR Gene

Previous GeneCards Identifiers for ACR Gene

  • GC22P047680
  • GC22P049309
  • GC22P049466
  • GC22P051176
  • GC22P034069

Summaries for ACR Gene

Entrez Gene Summary for ACR Gene

  • Acrosin is the major proteinase present in the acrosome of mature spermatozoa. It is a typical serine proteinase with trypsin-like specificity. It is stored in the acrosome in its precursor form, proacrosin. The active enzyme functions in the lysis of the zona pellucida, thus facilitating penetration of the sperm through the innermost glycoprotein layers of the ovum. The mRNA for proacrosin is synthesized only in the postmeiotic stages of spermatogenesis. In humans proacrosin first appears in the haploid spermatids. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

GeneCards Summary for ACR Gene

ACR (Acrosin) is a Protein Coding gene. Diseases associated with ACR include Male Infertility and Spermatogenic Failure 6. Among its related pathways are Fertilization. Gene Ontology (GO) annotations related to this gene include serine-type endopeptidase activity and drug binding. An important paralog of this gene is PRSS56.

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for ACR Gene

  • Acrosin is the major protease of mammalian spermatozoa. It is a serine protease of trypsin-like cleavage specificity, it is synthesized in a zymogen form, proacrosin and stored in the acrosome.

Gene Wiki entry for ACR Gene

Additional gene information for ACR Gene

No data available for CIViC summary , Tocris Summary , PharmGKB "VIP" Summary , fRNAdb sequence ontologies and piRNA Summary for ACR Gene

Genomics for ACR Gene

GeneHancer (GH) Regulatory Elements for ACR Gene

Promoters and enhancers for ACR Gene
GeneHancer (GH) Identifier GH Type GH
GH Sources Gene Association Score Total Score TSS distance (kb) Number of Genes Away Size (kb) Transcription Factor
Binding Sites
Gene Targets
GH22J050738 Promoter 0.5 EPDnew 650.7 0.0 -11 0.1 ACR LOC105373100
GH22J050670 Promoter/Enhancer 1.8 FANTOM5 Ensembl ENCODE dbSUPER 6.8 -65.2 -65192 4.8 ZFP64 ZSCAN4 KLF17 FEZF1 KLF14 ZNF2 ZNF335 GLIS2 EGR1 KLF7 SHANK3 BRD1 CPT1B ZBED4 ENSG00000272836 LOC105373095 LMF2 NCAPH2 TUBGCP6 CHKB
GH22J050717 Enhancer 0.3 dbSUPER 5 -19.9 -19878 1.6 RAD21 SYCE3 RPL23AP82 RABL2B ACR LOC105373100 GC22M050692 RNU6-409P SHANK3
GH22J050271 Enhancer 1.2 FANTOM5 ENCODE dbSUPER 1.2 -466.4 -466353 0.3 RB1 ARID4B SIN3A BMI1 KLF14 ZNF143 SP3 SP5 REST ZNF148 MAPK11 DENND6B MAPK8IP2 SHANK3 PPP6R2 MOV10L1 MLC1 SBF1 ACR PIR50517
- Elite GeneHancer and/or Elite GeneHancer-gene association Download GeneHancer data from 2017 publication | Request up-to-date GeneHancer data (full dataset)

GeneHancers around ACR on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Top Transcription factor binding sites by QIAGEN in the ACR gene promoter:
  • GR
  • GR-alpha
  • GR-beta
  • ITF-2
  • Tal-1beta

Genomic Locations for ACR Gene

Genomic Locations for ACR Gene
7,139 bases
Plus strand
7,139 bases
Plus strand

Genomic View for ACR Gene

Genes around ACR on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Cytogenetic band:
ACR Gene in genomic location: bands according to Ensembl, locations according to GeneLoc (and/or Entrez Gene and/or Ensembl if different)
Genomic Location for ACR Gene
GeneLoc Logo Genomic Neighborhood Exon StructureGene Density

RefSeq DNA sequence for ACR Gene

Proteins for ACR Gene

  • Protein details for ACR Gene (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)

    Protein Symbol:
    Recommended name:
    Protein Accession:
    Secondary Accessions:
    • Q6ICK2

    Protein attributes for ACR Gene

    421 amino acids
    Molecular mass:
    45847 Da
    Quaternary structure:
    • Heavy chain (catalytic) and a light chain linked by two disulfide bonds. Forms a heterodimer with SERPINA5.

neXtProt entry for ACR Gene

Post-translational modifications for ACR Gene

  • Glycosylation at posLast=210210 and Asn22

Other Protein References for ACR Gene

ENSEMBL proteins:
REFSEQ proteins:

No data available for DME Specific Peptides for ACR Gene

Domains & Families for ACR Gene

Gene Families for ACR Gene

Human Protein Atlas (HPA):
  • Enzymes
  • Predicted secreted proteins

Suggested Antigen Peptide Sequences for ACR Gene

GenScript: Design optimal peptide antigens:

Graphical View of Domain Structure for InterPro Entry



  • Belongs to the peptidase S1 family.
  • Belongs to the peptidase S1 family.
genes like me logo Genes that share domains with ACR: view

Function for ACR Gene

Molecular function for ACR Gene

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Function:
Acrosin is the major protease of mammalian spermatozoa. It is a serine protease of trypsin-like cleavage specificity, it is synthesized in a zymogen form, proacrosin and stored in the acrosome.
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot CatalyticActivity:
Preferential cleavage: Arg- -Xaa, Lys- -Xaa.
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot EnzymeRegulation:
Inhibited by SERPINA5.
GENATLAS Biochemistry:

Enzyme Numbers (IUBMB) for ACR Gene

Phenotypes From GWAS Catalog for ACR Gene

Gene Ontology (GO) - Molecular Function for ACR Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0002020 protease binding TAS --
GO:0003677 DNA binding NAS 1937464
GO:0004040 amidase activity ISS --
GO:0004252 serine-type endopeptidase activity IDA,IEA 6802470
GO:0005507 copper ion binding NAS 6815104
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with ACR: view
genes like me logo Genes that share phenotypes with ACR: view

Animal Models for ACR Gene

MGI Knock Outs for ACR:
  • Acr Acr<tm1Tba>
  • Acr Acr<tm1Wen>

Animal Model Products

miRNA for ACR Gene

miRTarBase miRNAs that target ACR

Clone Products

No data available for Human Phenotype Ontology , Transcription Factor Targets and HOMER Transcription for ACR Gene

Localization for ACR Gene

Subcellular locations from

Extracellular space Cytosol Plasma membrane Cytoskeleton Lysosome Endosome Peroxisome ER Golgi Apparatus Nucleus Mitochondrion 0 1 2 3 4 5 Confidence
COMPARTMENTS Subcellular localization image for ACR gene
Compartment Confidence
extracellular 5
nucleus 5
plasma membrane 2
golgi apparatus 2
endoplasmic reticulum 1

Gene Ontology (GO) - Cellular Components for ACR Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0005576 extracellular region TAS --
GO:0005634 nucleus HDA 21630459
GO:0005798 Golgi-associated vesicle IEA --
GO:0032991 protein-containing complex IDA 7521127
GO:0043159 acrosomal matrix TAS 12398221
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with ACR: view

No data available for Subcellular locations from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot and Subcellular locations from the Human Protein Atlas (HPA) for ACR Gene

Pathways & Interactions for ACR Gene

SuperPathway Contained pathways
1 Fertilization
genes like me logo Genes that share pathways with ACR: view

Pathways by source for ACR Gene

3 Reactome pathways for ACR Gene

Gene Ontology (GO) - Biological Process for ACR Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0002077 acrosome matrix dispersal NAS 10418103
GO:0006508 proteolysis IEA --
GO:0007190 activation of adenylate cyclase activity IDA 3880736
GO:0007338 single fertilization ISS,IEA --
GO:0007339 binding of sperm to zona pellucida IEA --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with ACR: view

No data available for SIGNOR curated interactions for ACR Gene

Drugs & Compounds for ACR Gene

(50) Drugs for ACR Gene - From: ClinicalTrials and Novoseek

Name Status Disease Links Group Role Mechanism of Action Clinical Trials
Abatacept Approved Pharma 210
Apremilast Approved, Investigational Pharma 81
Methotrexate Approved Pharma Folate antagonist,inhibits DFHR 1603
Thalidomide Approved, Investigational, Withdrawn Pharma Immunomodulatory agent,sedative drug,angiogenesis inhibitor, Immunomodulatory agents, TNF-alpha synthesis inhibitor 1195
Folic Acid Approved, Vet_approved Nutra 4610

(12) Additional Compounds for ACR Gene - From: Novoseek

Name Synonyms Role CAS Number PubChem IDs PubMed IDs
genes like me logo Genes that share compounds with ACR: view

Transcripts for ACR Gene

mRNA/cDNA for ACR Gene

(1) REFSEQ mRNAs :
(3) Additional mRNA sequences :
(15) Selected AceView cDNA sequences:
(4) Ensembl transcripts including schematic representations, and UCSC links where relevant :

Unigene Clusters for ACR Gene

Representative Sequences:

Clone Products

Alternative Splicing Database (ASD) splice patterns (SP) for ACR Gene

No ASD Table

Relevant External Links for ACR Gene

GeneLoc Exon Structure for
ECgene alternative splicing isoforms for

Expression for ACR Gene

mRNA expression in normal human tissues from GTEx, Illumina, BioGPS, and CGAP SAGE for ACR Gene

mRNA expression in embryonic tissues and stem cells from LifeMap Discovery

mRNA differential expression in normal tissues according to GTEx for ACR Gene

This gene is overexpressed in Testis (x34.4).

Protein differential expression in normal tissues from HIPED for ACR Gene

This gene is overexpressed in Testis (55.2) and Ovary (9.9).

Integrated Proteomics: protein expression in normal tissues and cell lines from ProteomicsDB and MOPED for ACR Gene

Protein tissue co-expression partners for ACR Gene

- Elite partner

NURSA nuclear receptor signaling pathways regulating expression of ACR Gene:


SOURCE GeneReport for Unigene cluster for ACR Gene:


Evidence on tissue expression from TISSUES for ACR Gene

  • Blood(4.3)
genes like me logo Genes that share expression patterns with ACR: view

No data available for mRNA Expression by UniProt/SwissProt and Phenotype-based relationships between genes and organs from Gene ORGANizer for ACR Gene

Orthologs for ACR Gene

This gene was present in the common ancestor of animals.

Orthologs for ACR Gene

Organism Taxonomy Gene Similarity Type Details
(Pan troglodytes)
Mammalia ACR 34 33
  • 90.85 (n)
(Canis familiaris)
Mammalia ACR 34 33
  • 79.42 (n)
(Bos Taurus)
Mammalia ACR 34 33
  • 76.35 (n)
(Rattus norvegicus)
Mammalia Acr 33
  • 74.81 (n)
(Mus musculus)
Mammalia Acr 16 34 33
  • 74.15 (n)
(Monodelphis domestica)
Mammalia ACR 34
  • 35 (a)
(Gallus gallus)
Aves LOC769176 33
  • 55.32 (n)
-- 34
  • 41 (a)
-- 34
  • 37 (a)
(Anolis carolinensis)
Reptilia -- 34
  • 35 (a)
tropical clawed frog
(Silurana tropicalis)
Amphibia LOC101732614 33
  • 58.88 (n)
(Danio rerio)
Actinopterygii tmprss12 34
  • 35 (a)
fruit fly
(Drosophila melanogaster)
Insecta CG11836 34
  • 32 (a)
CG6865 34
  • 29 (a)
CG3355 34
  • 27 (a)
CG11843 34
  • 26 (a)
CG9294 34
  • 25 (a)
CG4914 34
  • 25 (a)
CG4613 34
  • 24 (a)
CG11842 34
  • 24 (a)
CG11841 34
  • 24 (a)
CG18735 34
  • 23 (a)
CG9372 34
  • 23 (a)
CG4386 34
  • 22 (a)
CG3700 34
  • 21 (a)
CG4927 34
  • 21 (a)
psh 34
  • 21 (a)
spirit 34
  • 20 (a)
CG14892 34
  • 19 (a)
snk 34
  • 19 (a)
CG11668 34
  • 18 (a)
CG11670 34
  • 17 (a)
CG14642 34
  • 17 (a)
CG1299 34
  • 16 (a)
CG32260 34
  • 15 (a)
CG8172 34
  • 14 (a)
CG6361 34
  • 13 (a)
CG31728 34
  • 13 (a)
Sb 34
  • 11 (a)
CG7432 34
  • 11 (a)
CG34350 34
  • 9 (a)
CG8213 34
  • 5 (a)
sea squirt
(Ciona savignyi)
Ascidiacea -- 34
  • 31 (a)
Species where no ortholog for ACR was found in the sources mined by GeneCards:
  • A. gosspyii yeast (Ashbya gossypii)
  • Actinobacteria (Mycobacterium tuberculosis)
  • African clawed frog (Xenopus laevis)
  • African malaria mosquito (Anopheles gambiae)
  • Alicante grape (Vitis vinifera)
  • alpha proteobacteria (Wolbachia pipientis)
  • amoeba (Dictyostelium discoideum)
  • Archea (Pyrococcus horikoshii)
  • baker's yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae)
  • barley (Hordeum vulgare)
  • beta proteobacteria (Neisseria meningitidis)
  • bread mold (Neurospora crassa)
  • Chromalveolata (Phytophthora infestans)
  • common water flea (Daphnia pulex)
  • corn (Zea mays)
  • E. coli (Escherichia coli)
  • filamentous fungi (Aspergillus nidulans)
  • Firmicute bacteria (Streptococcus pneumoniae)
  • fission yeast (Schizosaccharomyces pombe)
  • green algae (Chlamydomonas reinhardtii)
  • honey bee (Apis mellifera)
  • K. lactis yeast (Kluyveromyces lactis)
  • loblloly pine (Pinus taeda)
  • malaria parasite (Plasmodium falciparum)
  • medicago trunc (Medicago Truncatula)
  • moss (Physcomitrella patens)
  • orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus)
  • pig (Sus scrofa)
  • platypus (Ornithorhynchus anatinus)
  • rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)
  • rice (Oryza sativa)
  • rice blast fungus (Magnaporthe grisea)
  • schistosome parasite (Schistosoma mansoni)
  • sea anemone (Nematostella vectensis)
  • sea urchin (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus)
  • sorghum (Sorghum bicolor)
  • soybean (Glycine max)
  • stem rust fungus (Puccinia graminis)
  • sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum)
  • thale cress (Arabidopsis thaliana)
  • tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum)
  • toxoplasmosis (Toxoplasma gondii)
  • Trichoplax (Trichoplax adhaerens)
  • wheat (Triticum aestivum)
  • worm (Caenorhabditis elegans)

Evolution for ACR Gene

Gene Tree for ACR (if available)
Gene Tree for ACR (if available)
Evolutionary constrained regions (ECRs) for ACR: view image

Paralogs for ACR Gene Pseudogenes for ACR Gene

genes like me logo Genes that share paralogs with ACR: view

Variants for ACR Gene

Sequence variations from dbSNP and Humsavar for ACR Gene

SNP ID Clin Chr 22 pos Variation AA Info Type
rs5771002 benign, not specified 50,744,827(+) A/G coding_sequence_variant, missense_variant
rs6009961 benign, not specified 50,744,057(+) A/G intron_variant
rs1000049898 -- 50,743,702(+) C/T intron_variant
rs1000082147 -- 50,743,462(+) C/T intron_variant
rs1002439534 -- 50,738,762(+) G/C intron_variant

Structural Variations from Database of Genomic Variants (DGV) for ACR Gene

Variant ID Type Subtype PubMed ID
dgv1344e212 CNV gain 25503493
dgv784n67 CNV gain 20364138
esv3648096 CNV loss 21293372
nsv428394 CNV loss 18775914
nsv955205 CNV deletion 24416366
nsv962805 CNV duplication 23825009
nsv962806 CNV duplication 23825009

Variation tolerance for ACR Gene

Residual Variation Intolerance Score: 77.2% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)
Gene Damage Index Score: 1.93; 35.83% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)

Additional Variant Information for ACR Gene

SNPedia medical, phenotypic, and genealogical associations of SNPs for

SNP Genotyping and Copy Number Assay Products

No data available for Polymorphic Variants from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for ACR Gene

Disorders for ACR Gene

MalaCards: The human disease database

(3) MalaCards diseases for ACR Gene - From: DISEASES, Novoseek, and GeneCards

Disorder Aliases PubMed IDs
male infertility
  • infertility male
spermatogenic failure 6
  • spgf6
pelvic varices
- elite association - COSMIC cancer census association via MalaCards
Search ACR in MalaCards View complete list of genes associated with diseases
genes like me logo Genes that share disorders with ACR: view

No data available for UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot and Genatlas for ACR Gene

Publications for ACR Gene

  1. Molecular cloning of human preproacrosin cDNA. (PMID: 2298447) Adham IM … Engel W (Human genetics 1990) 2 3 4 22 58
  2. Evaluation of the proacrosin/acrosin system and its mechanism of activation in human sperm extracts. (PMID: 11839395) Zahn A … Vazquez-Levin MH (Journal of reproductive immunology 2002) 3 4 22 58
  3. Inhibition of acrosin by protein C inhibitor and localization of protein C inhibitor to spermatozoa. (PMID: 7521127) Zheng X … Binder BR (The American journal of physiology 1994) 3 4 22 58
  4. Molecular cloning, sequencing and restriction mapping of the genomic sequence encoding human proacrosin. (PMID: 1628652) Vazquez-Levin MH … Gordon JW (European journal of biochemistry 1992) 3 4 22 58
  5. Nucleotide sequence and exon-intron organization of the human proacrosin gene. (PMID: 2114285) Keime S … Engel W (European journal of biochemistry 1990) 3 4 22 58

Products for ACR Gene

Sources for ACR Gene

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