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Aliases for ACOD1 Gene

Aliases for ACOD1 Gene

  • Aconitate Decarboxylase 1 2 3 4 5
  • Cis-Aconitic Acid Decarboxylase 3 4
  • IRG1 3 4
  • CAD 3 4
  • Immune-Responsive Gene 1 Protein Homolog 3
  • Immunoresponsive 1 Homolog (Mouse) 2
  • Immune-Responsive Gene 1 Protein 4
  • Cis-Aconitate Decarboxylase 3
  • Immunoresponsive 1 Homolog 3
  • Aconitate Decarboxylase 4
  • EC 4.1.1.6 4

External Ids for ACOD1 Gene

Previous HGNC Symbols for ACOD1 Gene

  • IRG1

Summaries for ACOD1 Gene

GeneCards Summary for ACOD1 Gene

ACOD1 (Aconitate Decarboxylase 1) is a Protein Coding gene. Among its related pathways are Glucose / Energy Metabolism.

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for ACOD1 Gene

  • Involved in the inhibition of the inflammatory response. Acts as a negative regulator of the Toll-like receptors (TLRs)-mediated inflammatory innate response by stimulating the tumor necrosis factor alpha-induced protein TNFAIP3 expression via reactive oxygen species (ROS) in LPS-tolerized macrophages. Involved in antimicrobial response of innate immune cells; ACOD1-mediated itaconic acid production contributes to the antimicrobial activity of macrophages. Plays a role in the embryo implantation.

Additional gene information for ACOD1 Gene

No data available for Entrez Gene Summary , CIViC summary , Tocris Summary , Gene Wiki entry , PharmGKB "VIP" Summary , fRNAdb sequence ontologies and piRNA Summary for ACOD1 Gene

Genomics for ACOD1 Gene

GeneHancer (GH) Regulatory Elements for ACOD1 Gene

Promoters and enhancers for ACOD1 Gene
GeneHancer (GH) Identifier GH Type GH
Score
GH Sources Gene Association Score Total Score TSS distance (kb) Number of Genes Away Size (kb) Transcription Factor
Binding Sites
Gene Targets
GH13J076917 Enhancer 1.1 Ensembl ENCODE 11.2 -30.6 -30580 1.2 HDAC1 ATF1 ARNT NFRKB TCF12 EGR1 ATF7 IKZF2 NCOA1 CEBPB ACOD1 CLN5 BTF3P11 ENSG00000278727
GH13J076976 Enhancer 0.7 ENCODE 10.6 +28.0 27950 0.7 INSM2 FEZF1 GATA3 ZNF213 ZNF366 SCRT2 PRDM10 ATF7 TCF7L2 ZNF639 ACOD1 GC13M076982
GH13J076903 Enhancer 0.7 ENCODE 10.1 -44.8 -44755 0.2 CTCF RB1 MAX IRF4 RAD21 GATA3 SCRT2 SMC3 ZNF143 BCLAF1 ACOD1 ENSG00000278727 BTF3P11
GH13J076972 Enhancer 0.3 Ensembl 11.3 +24.0 24004 0.2 POLR2A ACOD1 GC13M076982
GH13J076831 Enhancer 0.3 ENCODE 9.6 -115.7 -115725 1.7 GATA3 ENSG00000284809 KCTD12 ACOD1 LOC105370265
- Elite GeneHancer and/or Elite GeneHancer-gene association Download GeneHancer data from 2017 publication | Request up-to-date GeneHancer data (full dataset)

GeneHancers around ACOD1 on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Genomic Locations for ACOD1 Gene

Genomic Locations for ACOD1 Gene
chr13:76,948,497-76,958,659
(GRCh38/hg38)
Size:
10,163 bases
Orientation:
Plus strand
chr13:77,511,985-77,532,794
(GRCh37/hg19)
Size:
20,810 bases
Orientation:
Plus strand

Genomic View for ACOD1 Gene

Genes around ACOD1 on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Cytogenetic band:
ACOD1 Gene in genomic location: bands according to Ensembl, locations according to GeneLoc (and/or Entrez Gene and/or Ensembl if different)
Genomic Location for ACOD1 Gene
GeneLoc Logo Genomic Neighborhood Exon StructureGene Density

RefSeq DNA sequence for ACOD1 Gene

Proteins for ACOD1 Gene

  • Protein details for ACOD1 Gene (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)

    Protein Symbol:
    A6NK06-IRG1_HUMAN
    Recommended name:
    Cis-aconitate decarboxylase
    Protein Accession:
    A6NK06

    Protein attributes for ACOD1 Gene

    Size:
    481 amino acids
    Molecular mass:
    52628 Da
    Quaternary structure:
    No Data Available

neXtProt entry for ACOD1 Gene

Post-translational modifications for ACOD1 Gene

  • Modification sites at PhosphoSitePlus
  • Modification sites at neXtProt

Other Protein References for ACOD1 Gene

ENSEMBL proteins:
REFSEQ proteins:

No data available for DME Specific Peptides for ACOD1 Gene

Domains & Families for ACOD1 Gene

Gene Families for ACOD1 Gene

Human Protein Atlas (HPA):
  • Enzymes
  • Predicted intracellular proteins

Protein Domains for ACOD1 Gene

InterPro:
ProtoNet:

Suggested Antigen Peptide Sequences for ACOD1 Gene

GenScript: Design optimal peptide antigens:

Graphical View of Domain Structure for InterPro Entry

A6NK06

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot:

IRG1_HUMAN :
  • Belongs to the PrpD family.
Family:
  • Belongs to the PrpD family.
genes like me logo Genes that share domains with ACOD1: view

Function for ACOD1 Gene

Molecular function for ACOD1 Gene

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Function:
Involved in the inhibition of the inflammatory response. Acts as a negative regulator of the Toll-like receptors (TLRs)-mediated inflammatory innate response by stimulating the tumor necrosis factor alpha-induced protein TNFAIP3 expression via reactive oxygen species (ROS) in LPS-tolerized macrophages. Involved in antimicrobial response of innate immune cells; ACOD1-mediated itaconic acid production contributes to the antimicrobial activity of macrophages. Plays a role in the embryo implantation.
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot CatalyticActivity:
Cis-aconitate = itaconate + CO(2).
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Induction:
Up-regulated after lipopolysaccharide (LPS) stimulation. Up-regulated in LPS-tolerized macrophage by LPS. Up-regulated in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) of patient after acute sepsis.

Enzyme Numbers (IUBMB) for ACOD1 Gene

Gene Ontology (GO) - Molecular Function for ACOD1 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0016829 lyase activity IEA --
GO:0047547 2-methylcitrate dehydratase activity IBA --
GO:0047613 aconitate decarboxylase activity IDA,IEA 23610393
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with ACOD1: view
genes like me logo Genes that share phenotypes with ACOD1: view

Animal Models for ACOD1 Gene

MGI Knock Outs for ACOD1:
  • Acod1 Acod1<tm1a(KOMP)Wtsi>

Animal Model Products

  • Taconic Biosciences Mouse Models for ACOD1

miRNA for ACOD1 Gene

miRTarBase miRNAs that target ACOD1

Clone Products

No data available for Phenotypes From GWAS Catalog , Human Phenotype Ontology , Transcription Factor Targets and HOMER Transcription for ACOD1 Gene

Localization for ACOD1 Gene

Subcellular locations from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for ACOD1 Gene

Mitochondrion.

Subcellular locations from

COMPARTMENTS
Extracellular space Cytosol Plasma membrane Cytoskeleton Lysosome Endosome Peroxisome ER Golgi Apparatus Nucleus Mitochondrion 0 1 2 3 4 5 Confidence
COMPARTMENTS Subcellular localization image for ACOD1 gene
Compartment Confidence
mitochondrion 5
nucleus 3
peroxisome 2
cytosol 2
extracellular 1
lysosome 1

Gene Ontology (GO) - Cellular Components for ACOD1 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0005739 mitochondrion IBA,ISS --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with ACOD1: view

No data available for Subcellular locations from the Human Protein Atlas (HPA) for ACOD1 Gene

Pathways & Interactions for ACOD1 Gene

SuperPathways for ACOD1 Gene

SuperPathway Contained pathways
1 Glucose / Energy Metabolism
genes like me logo Genes that share pathways with ACOD1: view

Pathways by source for ACOD1 Gene

1 Cell Signaling Technology pathway for ACOD1 Gene

Interacting Proteins for ACOD1 Gene

Gene Ontology (GO) - Biological Process for ACOD1 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0002760 positive regulation of antimicrobial humoral response IDA 23610393
GO:0006952 defense response IDA 23610393
GO:0006954 inflammatory response IEA --
GO:0007566 embryo implantation ISS --
GO:0019679 propionate metabolic process, methylcitrate cycle IBA --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with ACOD1: view

No data available for SIGNOR curated interactions for ACOD1 Gene

Drugs & Compounds for ACOD1 Gene

No Compound Related Data Available

Transcripts for ACOD1 Gene

mRNA/cDNA for ACOD1 Gene

(1) REFSEQ mRNAs :
(2) Ensembl transcripts including schematic representations, and UCSC links where relevant :

Clone Products

Alternative Splicing Database (ASD) splice patterns (SP) for ACOD1 Gene

No ASD Table

Relevant External Links for ACOD1 Gene

GeneLoc Exon Structure for
ACOD1
ECgene alternative splicing isoforms for
ACOD1

Expression for ACOD1 Gene

NURSA nuclear receptor signaling pathways regulating expression of ACOD1 Gene:

ACOD1

mRNA Expression by UniProt/SwissProt for ACOD1 Gene:

A6NK06-IRG1_HUMAN
Tissue specificity: Expressed in LPS-tolerized macrophages (at protein level). Expressed in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs), microglia and macrophage cells.

No data available for mRNA expression in normal human tissues , mRNA expression in embryonic tissues and stem cells from LifeMap Discovery , mRNA differential expression in normal tissues , Protein differential expression in normal tissues , Protein expression , Protein tissue co-expression partners , Evidence on tissue expression from TISSUES and Phenotype-based relationships between genes and organs from Gene ORGANizer for ACOD1 Gene

Orthologs for ACOD1 Gene

This gene was present in the common ancestor of chordates.

Orthologs for ACOD1 Gene

Organism Taxonomy Gene Similarity Type Details
chimpanzee
(Pan troglodytes)
Mammalia IRG1 34 33
  • 98.8 (n)
OneToOne
cow
(Bos Taurus)
Mammalia LOC504806 33
  • 85.25 (n)
IRG1 34
  • 82 (a)
OneToOne
dog
(Canis familiaris)
Mammalia IRG1 34 33
  • 84.37 (n)
OneToOne
rat
(Rattus norvegicus)
Mammalia Irg1 33
  • 83.87 (n)
mouse
(Mus musculus)
Mammalia Irg1 34 33
  • 83.23 (n)
OneToOne
Acod1 16
oppossum
(Monodelphis domestica)
Mammalia IRG1 34
  • 76 (a)
OneToOne
platypus
(Ornithorhynchus anatinus)
Mammalia IRG1 34
  • 68 (a)
OneToOne
chicken
(Gallus gallus)
Aves IRG1 34 33
  • 66.67 (n)
OneToOne
lizard
(Anolis carolinensis)
Reptilia IRG1 34
  • 63 (a)
OneToOne
tropical clawed frog
(Silurana tropicalis)
Amphibia irg1 33
  • 65.09 (n)
zebrafish
(Danio rerio)
Actinopterygii irg1 34 33
  • 59.29 (n)
OneToOne
Species where no ortholog for ACOD1 was found in the sources mined by GeneCards:
  • A. gosspyii yeast (Ashbya gossypii)
  • Actinobacteria (Mycobacterium tuberculosis)
  • African clawed frog (Xenopus laevis)
  • African malaria mosquito (Anopheles gambiae)
  • Alicante grape (Vitis vinifera)
  • alpha proteobacteria (Wolbachia pipientis)
  • amoeba (Dictyostelium discoideum)
  • Archea (Pyrococcus horikoshii)
  • baker's yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae)
  • barley (Hordeum vulgare)
  • beta proteobacteria (Neisseria meningitidis)
  • bread mold (Neurospora crassa)
  • Chromalveolata (Phytophthora infestans)
  • common water flea (Daphnia pulex)
  • corn (Zea mays)
  • E. coli (Escherichia coli)
  • filamentous fungi (Aspergillus nidulans)
  • Firmicute bacteria (Streptococcus pneumoniae)
  • fission yeast (Schizosaccharomyces pombe)
  • fruit fly (Drosophila melanogaster)
  • green algae (Chlamydomonas reinhardtii)
  • honey bee (Apis mellifera)
  • K. lactis yeast (Kluyveromyces lactis)
  • loblloly pine (Pinus taeda)
  • malaria parasite (Plasmodium falciparum)
  • medicago trunc (Medicago Truncatula)
  • moss (Physcomitrella patens)
  • orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus)
  • pig (Sus scrofa)
  • rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)
  • rice (Oryza sativa)
  • rice blast fungus (Magnaporthe grisea)
  • schistosome parasite (Schistosoma mansoni)
  • sea anemone (Nematostella vectensis)
  • sea squirt (Ciona intestinalis)
  • sea squirt (Ciona savignyi)
  • sea urchin (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus)
  • sorghum (Sorghum bicolor)
  • soybean (Glycine max)
  • stem rust fungus (Puccinia graminis)
  • sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum)
  • thale cress (Arabidopsis thaliana)
  • tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum)
  • toxoplasmosis (Toxoplasma gondii)
  • Trichoplax (Trichoplax adhaerens)
  • wheat (Triticum aestivum)
  • worm (Caenorhabditis elegans)

Evolution for ACOD1 Gene

ENSEMBL:
Gene Tree for ACOD1 (if available)
TreeFam:
Gene Tree for ACOD1 (if available)
Aminode:
Evolutionary constrained regions (ECRs) for ACOD1: view image

Paralogs for ACOD1 Gene

No data available for Paralogs for ACOD1 Gene

Variants for ACOD1 Gene

Sequence variations from dbSNP and Humsavar for ACOD1 Gene

SNP ID Clin Chr 13 pos Variation AA Info Type
rs1000196345 -- 76,949,381(+) T/C intron_variant
rs1000264365 -- 76,956,233(+) C/T intron_variant
rs1000314429 -- 76,947,934(+) T/A upstream_transcript_variant
rs1000346905 -- 76,948,290(+) A/G upstream_transcript_variant
rs1000496931 -- 76,955,004(+) G/C intron_variant

Structural Variations from Database of Genomic Variants (DGV) for ACOD1 Gene

Variant ID Type Subtype PubMed ID
nsv832651 CNV gain 17160897
nsv832652 CNV gain 17160897
nsv832653 CNV loss 17160897

Variation tolerance for ACOD1 Gene

Gene Damage Index Score: 2.34; 41.72% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)

Additional Variant Information for ACOD1 Gene

SNPedia medical, phenotypic, and genealogical associations of SNPs for
ACOD1

SNP Genotyping and Copy Number Assay Products

No data available for Polymorphic Variants from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for ACOD1 Gene

Disorders for ACOD1 Gene

Additional Disease Information for ACOD1

No disorders were found for ACOD1 Gene.

No data available for MalaCards , UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot and Genatlas for ACOD1 Gene

Publications for ACOD1 Gene

  1. Immune-responsive gene 1 protein links metabolism to immunity by catalyzing itaconic acid production. (PMID: 23610393) Michelucci A … Hiller K (Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 2013) 2 3 4 58
  2. Immune responsive gene 1 (IRG1) promotes endotoxin tolerance by increasing A20 expression in macrophages through reactive oxygen species. (PMID: 23609450) Li Y … Cao X (The Journal of biological chemistry 2013) 3 4 58
  3. Progesterone regulation of the mammalian ortholog of methylcitrate dehydratase (immune response gene 1) in the uterine epithelium during implantation through the protein kinase C pathway. (PMID: 12893884) Chen B … Pollard JW (Molecular endocrinology (Baltimore, Md.) 2003) 2 3 58
  4. Polymorphisms in IRG1 gene associated with immune responses to hepatitis B vaccination in a Chinese Han population and function to restrain the HBV life cycle. (PMID: 28004399) Liu X … Liu Y (Journal of medical virology 2017) 3 58
  5. IRG1 increases MHC class I level in macrophages through STAT-TAP1 axis depending on NADPH oxidase mediated reactive oxygen species. (PMID: 28477473) Liu X … Liu Y (International immunopharmacology 2017) 3 58

Products for ACOD1 Gene

Sources for ACOD1 Gene

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