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Aliases for ACLY Gene

Aliases for ACLY Gene

  • ATP Citrate Lyase 2 3 5
  • ATP-Citrate (Pro-S-)-Lyase 3 4
  • Citrate Cleavage Enzyme 3 4
  • EC 4 56
  • ACL 3 4
  • ATP Citrate Synthase 2
  • ATP-Citrate Synthase 3
  • ATPCL 3
  • CLATP 3

External Ids for ACLY Gene

Previous GeneCards Identifiers for ACLY Gene

  • GC17M039579
  • GC17M042174
  • GC17M039931
  • GC17M040396
  • GC17M037276
  • GC17M040023
  • GC17M035785

Summaries for ACLY Gene

Entrez Gene Summary for ACLY Gene

  • ATP citrate lyase is the primary enzyme responsible for the synthesis of cytosolic acetyl-CoA in many tissues. The enzyme is a tetramer (relative molecular weight approximately 440,000) of apparently identical subunits. It catalyzes the formation of acetyl-CoA and oxaloacetate from citrate and CoA with a concomitant hydrolysis of ATP to ADP and phosphate. The product, acetyl-CoA, serves several important biosynthetic pathways, including lipogenesis and cholesterogenesis. In nervous tissue, ATP citrate-lyase may be involved in the biosynthesis of acetylcholine. Multiple transcript variants encoding distinct isoforms have been identified for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Dec 2014]

GeneCards Summary for ACLY Gene

ACLY (ATP Citrate Lyase) is a Protein Coding gene. Diseases associated with ACLY include Atrichia With Papular Lesions and Acrocallosal Syndrome. Among its related pathways are Fatty Acyl-CoA Biosynthesis and Innate Immune System. Gene Ontology (GO) annotations related to this gene include cofactor binding and ATP citrate synthase activity. An important paralog of this gene is SUCLG1.

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for ACLY Gene

  • ATP-citrate synthase is the primary enzyme responsible for the synthesis of cytosolic acetyl-CoA in many tissues. Has a central role in de novo lipid synthesis. In nervous tissue it may be involved in the biosynthesis of acetylcholine.

Tocris Summary for ACLY Gene

  • ATP citrate lyase (ATP citrate synthase, ACLY) is a transferase that catalyzes the conversion of citrate and coenzyme A to acetyl-CoA. ACLY is the key regulator between the high rates of aerobic glycolysis and de novo lipid synthesis exhibited in many types of tumor cells.

Additional gene information for ACLY Gene

No data available for CIViC summary , Gene Wiki entry , PharmGKB "VIP" Summary , fRNAdb sequence ontologies and piRNA Summary for ACLY Gene

Genomics for ACLY Gene

GeneHancer (GH) Regulatory Elements for ACLY Gene

Promoters and enhancers for ACLY Gene
GeneHancer (GH) Identifier GH Type GH
GH Sources Gene Association Score Total Score TSS distance (kb) Number of Genes Away Size (kb) Transcription Factor
Binding Sites
Gene Targets
GH17I041929 Promoter/Enhancer 2.3 EPDnew Ensembl ENCODE dbSUPER 550.8 +0.3 282 2.4 HDGF PKNOX1 FOXA2 MLX ARNT ARID4B SIN3A DMAP1 ZNF2 YY1 ACLY GC17M041929 TTC25 NT5C3B PLEKHH3 HSD17B1 ENSG00000259623 HSD17B1P1 CNTNAP1 TUBG2
GH17I041917 Promoter/Enhancer 2.2 EPDnew Ensembl ENCODE dbSUPER 550.4 +11.6 11557 3.7 HDGF PKNOX1 SMAD1 ARID4B SIN3A DMAP1 YY1 POLR2B ZNF207 ZNF143 GC17P041919 ACLY NT5C3B HSD17B1 FKBP10 ZNF385C PIR36467 GC17M041900
GH17I041687 Promoter/Enhancer 2.5 EPDnew Ensembl ENCODE dbSUPER 20.1 +240.1 240143 6.1 CLOCK MLX ZFP64 FEZF1 DMAP1 YY1 SLC30A9 ZNF213 E2F8 ZNF143 EIF1 GC17P041692 GC17P041691 ENSG00000267758 ENSG00000259623 KLHL10 CNTNAP1 NT5C3B STAT5A CCR10
GH17I042308 Enhancer 1.8 FANTOM5 Ensembl ENCODE dbSUPER 20.1 -385.5 -385514 15.9 MLX ZFP64 DMAP1 IRF4 YY1 SLC30A9 E2F8 ZNF143 ZNF263 MEF2D GC17M042314 HMGN1P29 STAT5A ENSG00000267758 ACLY NBR2 ENSG00000267340 PLEKHH3 STAT5B ATP6V0A1
GH17I041518 Promoter/Enhancer 2.8 EPDnew FANTOM5 Ensembl ENCODE dbSUPER 11.6 +405.3 405288 13.6 HDGF PKNOX1 SMAD1 FOXA2 ARNT ARID4B SIN3A FEZF1 DMAP1 ZBTB7B KRT19 KRT15 ENSG00000267758 SMARCE1 ACLY DHX58 KRT36 ENSG00000259623 KRT14 STAT5A
- Elite GeneHancer and/or Elite GeneHancer-gene association Download GeneHancer data dump

GeneHancers around ACLY on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Top Transcription factor binding sites by QIAGEN in the ACLY gene promoter:

Genomic Locations for ACLY Gene

Genomic Locations for ACLY Gene
63,635 bases
Minus strand

Genomic View for ACLY Gene

Genes around ACLY on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Cytogenetic band:
ACLY Gene in genomic location: bands according to Ensembl, locations according to GeneLoc (and/or Entrez Gene and/or Ensembl if different)
Genomic Location for ACLY Gene
GeneLoc Logo Genomic Neighborhood Exon StructureGene Density

RefSeq DNA sequence for ACLY Gene

Proteins for ACLY Gene

  • Protein details for ACLY Gene (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)

    Protein Symbol:
    Recommended name:
    ATP-citrate synthase
    Protein Accession:
    Secondary Accessions:
    • B4DIM0
    • B4E3P0
    • Q13037
    • Q9BRL0

    Protein attributes for ACLY Gene

    1101 amino acids
    Molecular mass:
    120839 Da
    Name=Mg(2+); Xref=ChEBI:CHEBI:18420;
    Quaternary structure:
    • Homotetramer.

    Three dimensional structures from OCA and Proteopedia for ACLY Gene

    Alternative splice isoforms for ACLY Gene


neXtProt entry for ACLY Gene

Selected DME Specific Peptides for ACLY Gene


Post-translational modifications for ACLY Gene

  • Acetylated at Lys-540, Lys-546 and Lys-554 by KAT2B/PCAF. Acetylation is promoted by glucose and stabilizes the protein, probably by preventing ubiquitination at the same sites. Acetylation promotes de novo lipid synthesis. Deacetylated by SIRT2.
  • ISGylated.
  • Ubiquitinated at Lys-540, Lys-546 and Lys-554 by UBR4, leading to its degradation. Ubiquitination is probably inhibited by acetylation at same site (Probable).
  • Ubiquitination at Lys4, Lys12, Lys17, posLast=5858, posLast=6464, posLast=6868, posLast=8282, posLast=9797, Lys148, Lys151, Lys230, posLast=232232, Lys265, posLast=272272, Lys488, Lys498, posLast=630630, posLast=650650, Lys780, posLast=836836, Lys918, Lys944, posLast=948948, posLast=991991, Lys1077, posLast=10801080, and Lys471
  • Modification sites at PhosphoSitePlus

Domains & Families for ACLY Gene

Gene Families for ACLY Gene

Human Protein Atlas (HPA):
  • Cancer-related genes
  • Enzymes
  • Plasma proteins
  • Predicted intracellular proteins

Suggested Antigen Peptide Sequences for ACLY Gene

Graphical View of Domain Structure for InterPro Entry



  • In the N-terminal section; belongs to the succinate/malate CoA ligase beta subunit family.
  • In the N-terminal section; belongs to the succinate/malate CoA ligase beta subunit family.
  • In the C-terminal section; belongs to the succinate/malate CoA ligase alpha subunit family.
genes like me logo Genes that share domains with ACLY: view

Function for ACLY Gene

Molecular function for ACLY Gene

GENATLAS Biochemistry:
ATP-citrate lyase,catalyzing the synthesis of the cytosolic acetyl-CoA,used as a substrate for de novo biosynthesis of fatty acid and cholesterol
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot CatalyticActivity:
ADP + phosphate + acetyl-CoA + oxaloacetate = ATP + citrate + CoA.
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot EnzymeRegulation:
Phosphorylation results in a 6-fold increase in V(max) and the conversion of citrate dependence from sigmoidal to hyperbolic. Fructose 6-phosphate (F6P) is also a potent activator.
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Function:
ATP-citrate synthase is the primary enzyme responsible for the synthesis of cytosolic acetyl-CoA in many tissues. Has a central role in de novo lipid synthesis. In nervous tissue it may be involved in the biosynthesis of acetylcholine.

Enzyme Numbers (IUBMB) for ACLY Gene

Phenotypes From GWAS Catalog for ACLY Gene

Gene Ontology (GO) - Molecular Function for ACLY Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0003824 catalytic activity IEA --
GO:0003878 ATP citrate synthase activity TAS,IDA 23932781
GO:0005515 protein binding IPI 23932781
GO:0005524 ATP binding TAS 1371749
GO:0016740 transferase activity IEA --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with ACLY: view
genes like me logo Genes that share phenotypes with ACLY: view

Animal Model Products

Clone Products

No data available for Human Phenotype Ontology , Animal Models , Transcription Factor Targets and HOMER Transcription for ACLY Gene

Localization for ACLY Gene

Subcellular locations from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for ACLY Gene


Subcellular locations from

Extracellular space Cytosol Plasma membrane Cytoskeleton Lysosome Endosome Peroxisome ER Golgi Apparatus Nucleus Mitochondrion 0 1 2 3 4 5 Confidence
COMPARTMENTS Subcellular localization image for ACLY gene
Compartment Confidence
plasma membrane 5
extracellular 5
nucleus 5
cytosol 5
lysosome 4
mitochondrion 2
peroxisome 2
cytoskeleton 1

Subcellular locations from the

Human Protein Atlas (HPA)
  • Cytosol (3)
  • Nucleoplasm (3)
  • Plasma membrane (3)
See all subcellular structures

Gene Ontology (GO) - Cellular Components for ACLY Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0005576 extracellular region TAS --
GO:0005654 nucleoplasm IDA --
GO:0005737 cytoplasm IEA --
GO:0005829 cytosol IBA,TAS --
GO:0005886 plasma membrane IDA --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with ACLY: view

Pathways & Interactions for ACLY Gene

genes like me logo Genes that share pathways with ACLY: view

Gene Ontology (GO) - Biological Process for ACLY Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0006085 acetyl-CoA biosynthetic process IDA 1371749
GO:0006101 citrate metabolic process IDA 1371749
GO:0006107 oxaloacetate metabolic process IDA 1371749
GO:0006629 lipid metabolic process IEA --
GO:0006633 fatty acid biosynthetic process IBA --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with ACLY: view

No data available for SIGNOR curated interactions for ACLY Gene

Drugs & Compounds for ACLY Gene

(15) Drugs for ACLY Gene - From: ApexBio, HMDB, Tocris, and Novoseek

Name Status Disease Links Group Role Mechanism of Action Clinical Trials
Citric Acid Approved, Vet_approved Nutra Agonist, Activator 1243
Phosphoric acid Approved Pharma 0
ATP Investigational Nutra Agonist 0
Coenzyme A Investigational Nutra 0
BMS-303141 Pharma ATP-citrate lyase inhibitor,potent, ATP citrate lyase inhibitor; orally bioavailable 0

(21) Additional Compounds for ACLY Gene - From: HMDB, Novoseek, and Tocris

Name Synonyms Role CAS Number PubChem IDs PubMed IDs
  • Ac-CoA
  • Ac-Coenzyme A
  • Ac-S-CoA
  • Ac-S-Coenzyme A
  • Acetyl coenzyme-A
  • Adenosindiphosphorsaeure
  • Adenosine 5'-pyrophosphate
  • Adenosine diphosphate
  • Adenosine pyrophosphate
  • Adenosine-5'-diphosphate
Full agonist, Agonist 58-64-0
Oxalacetic acid
  • 2-Ketosuccinate
  • 2-Ketosuccinic acid
  • 2-Oxobutanedioate
  • 2-Oxobutanedioic acid
  • 2-Oxosuccinate
  • NFB Orthophosphate
  • O-Phosphoric acid
  • Ortho-phosphate
  • Orthophosphate (PO43-)
  • Orthophosphate(3-)
SB 204990

(2) Tocris Compounds for ACLY Gene

Compound Action Cas Number
BMS 303141 ATP citrate lyase inhibitor; orally bioavailable 943962-47-8
SB 204990 ATP citrate lyase (ACLY) inhibitor 154566-12-8

(2) ApexBio Compounds for ACLY Gene

Compound Action Cas Number
BMS-303141 ATP-citrate lyase inhibitor,potent 943962-47-8
ETC-1002 ACL inhibitor and AMPK activator
genes like me logo Genes that share compounds with ACLY: view

Drug Products

Transcripts for ACLY Gene

Unigene Clusters for ACLY Gene

ATP citrate lyase:
Representative Sequences:

Clone Products

Alternative Splicing Database (ASD) splice patterns (SP) for ACLY Gene

ExUns: 1a · 1b · 1c · 1d ^ 2a · 2b ^ 3 ^ 4 ^ 5 ^ 6 ^ 7 ^ 8a · 8b ^ 9 ^ 10a · 10b ^ 11 ^ 12 ^ 13 ^ 14 ^ 15a · 15b ^ 16a · 16b ^ 17a · 17b ^
SP1: - -
SP2: - -
SP3: - - -
SP4: - - -
SP5: -
SP6: -
SP7: - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

ExUns: 18 ^ 19a · 19b ^ 20 ^ 21 ^ 22 ^ 23 ^ 24 ^ 25a · 25b ^ 26 ^ 27a · 27b ^ 28 ^ 29 ^ 30a · 30b · 30c
SP1: -
SP2: -
SP3: -
SP7: - - - - - - - - - -

Relevant External Links for ACLY Gene

GeneLoc Exon Structure for
ECgene alternative splicing isoforms for

Expression for ACLY Gene

mRNA expression in normal human tissues from GTEx, Illumina, BioGPS, and CGAP SAGE for ACLY Gene

mRNA expression in embryonic tissues and stem cells from LifeMap Discovery

Protein differential expression in normal tissues from HIPED for ACLY Gene

This gene is overexpressed in Lymph node (7.6) and Bone marrow stromal cell (6.8).

Integrated Proteomics: protein expression in normal tissues and cell lines from ProteomicsDB, PaxDb, MaxQB, and MOPED for ACLY Gene

Protein tissue co-expression partners for ACLY Gene

NURSA nuclear receptor signaling pathways regulating expression of ACLY Gene:


SOURCE GeneReport for Unigene cluster for ACLY Gene:


Evidence on tissue expression from TISSUES for ACLY Gene

  • Nervous system(5)
  • Liver(4.7)
  • Blood(4.6)
  • Skin(3.2)
  • Eye(2.8)
  • Kidney(2.7)
  • Lung(2.7)
  • Adrenal gland(2.6)
  • Heart(2.6)
  • Intestine(2.4)
  • Pancreas(2.2)
  • Muscle(2.1)
genes like me logo Genes that share expression patterns with ACLY: view

No data available for mRNA differential expression in normal tissues , mRNA Expression by UniProt/SwissProt and Phenotype-based relationships between genes and organs from Gene ORGANizer for ACLY Gene

Orthologs for ACLY Gene

This gene was present in the common ancestor of eukaryotes.

Orthologs for ACLY Gene

Organism Taxonomy Gene Similarity Type Details
(Pan troglodytes)
Mammalia ACLY 34 33
  • 98.89 (n)
(Monodelphis domestica)
Mammalia ACLY 34
  • 94 (a)
(Ornithorhynchus anatinus)
Mammalia ACLY 34
  • 92 (a)
(Bos Taurus)
Mammalia ACLY 33 34
  • 91.87 (n)
(Canis familiaris)
Mammalia ACLY 33 34
  • 91.67 (n)
(Rattus norvegicus)
Mammalia Acly 33
  • 90.25 (n)
(Mus musculus)
Mammalia Acly 16 34 33
  • 90.25 (n)
(Gallus gallus)
Aves ACL 34
  • 94 (a)
  • 80.23 (n)
(Anolis carolinensis)
Reptilia ACLY 34
  • 88 (a)
tropical clawed frog
(Silurana tropicalis)
Amphibia acly 33
  • 78.86 (n)
Str.7236 33
African clawed frog
(Xenopus laevis)
Amphibia Xl.11981 33
(Danio rerio)
Actinopterygii aclyb 34
  • 82 (a)
aclya 33 34
  • 76.75 (n)
fruit fly
(Drosophila melanogaster)
Insecta ATPCL 35 33 34
  • 66.45 (n)
African malaria mosquito
(Anopheles gambiae)
Insecta AgaP_AGAP010156 33
  • 64.22 (n)
(Caenorhabditis elegans)
Secernentea B0365.1 35
  • 59 (a)
acly-2 33 34
  • 58.32 (n)
D1005.1 35 34
  • 58 (a)
baker's yeast
(Saccharomyces cerevisiae)
Saccharomycetes LSC1 34
  • 25 (a)
thale cress
(Arabidopsis thaliana)
eudicotyledons ACLB-1 33
  • 56.91 (n)
(Oryza sativa)
Liliopsida Os01g0300200 33
  • 55.13 (n)
Os.8730 33
(Hordeum vulgare)
Liliopsida Hv.4574 33
(Triticum aestivum)
Liliopsida Ta.15086 33
sea squirt
(Ciona savignyi)
Ascidiacea -- 34
  • 69 (a)
bread mold
(Neurospora crassa)
Ascomycetes NCU06785 33
  • 64.01 (n)
fission yeast
(Schizosaccharomyces pombe)
Schizosaccharomycetes SPBC1703.07 33
  • 60.72 (n)
sea squirt
(Ciona intestinalis)
Ascidiacea Cin.5723 33
Species where no ortholog for ACLY was found in the sources mined by GeneCards:
  • A. gosspyii yeast (Ashbya gossypii)
  • Actinobacteria (Mycobacterium tuberculosis)
  • Alicante grape (Vitis vinifera)
  • alpha proteobacteria (Wolbachia pipientis)
  • amoeba (Dictyostelium discoideum)
  • Archea (Pyrococcus horikoshii)
  • beta proteobacteria (Neisseria meningitidis)
  • Chromalveolata (Phytophthora infestans)
  • common water flea (Daphnia pulex)
  • corn (Zea mays)
  • E. coli (Escherichia coli)
  • filamentous fungi (Aspergillus nidulans)
  • Firmicute bacteria (Streptococcus pneumoniae)
  • green algae (Chlamydomonas reinhardtii)
  • honey bee (Apis mellifera)
  • K. lactis yeast (Kluyveromyces lactis)
  • loblloly pine (Pinus taeda)
  • malaria parasite (Plasmodium falciparum)
  • medicago trunc (Medicago Truncatula)
  • moss (Physcomitrella patens)
  • orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus)
  • pig (Sus scrofa)
  • rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)
  • rice blast fungus (Magnaporthe grisea)
  • schistosome parasite (Schistosoma mansoni)
  • sea anemone (Nematostella vectensis)
  • sea urchin (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus)
  • sorghum (Sorghum bicolor)
  • soybean (Glycine max)
  • stem rust fungus (Puccinia graminis)
  • sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum)
  • tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum)
  • toxoplasmosis (Toxoplasma gondii)
  • Trichoplax (Trichoplax adhaerens)

Evolution for ACLY Gene

Gene Tree for ACLY (if available)
Gene Tree for ACLY (if available)

Paralogs for ACLY Gene

Paralogs for ACLY Gene

(1) SIMAP similar genes for ACLY Gene using alignment to 4 proteins:

genes like me logo Genes that share paralogs with ACLY: view

Variants for ACLY Gene

Sequence variations from dbSNP and Humsavar for ACLY Gene

SNP ID Clin Chr 17 pos Variation AA Info Type
rs886037888 pathogenic, Ciliary dyskinesia, primary, 35 41,930,838(-) G/T upstream_transcript_variant
rs387907379 uncertain-significance, not provided 41,897,783(-) C/A/T coding_sequence_variant, synonymous_variant
rs387907380 uncertain-significance, not provided 41,918,923(-) G/A 5_prime_UTR_variant, coding_sequence_variant, intron_variant, missense_variant
rs387907381 uncertain-significance, not provided 41,892,284(-) C/T coding_sequence_variant, missense_variant
rs387907382 uncertain-significance, not provided 41,901,757(-) T/G coding_sequence_variant, synonymous_variant

Structural Variations from Database of Genomic Variants (DGV) for ACLY Gene

Variant ID Type Subtype PubMed ID
nsv1057008 CNV gain 25217958
nsv1146669 OTHER inversion 26484159
nsv475511 CNV novel sequence insertion 20440878
nsv833447 CNV loss 17160897

Variation tolerance for ACLY Gene

Residual Variation Intolerance Score: 1.96% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)
Gene Damage Index Score: 2.41; 42.54% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)

Additional Variant Information for ACLY Gene

Human Gene Mutation Database (HGMD)
SNPedia medical, phenotypic, and genealogical associations of SNPs for

SNP Genotyping and Copy Number Assay Products

No data available for Polymorphic Variants from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for ACLY Gene

Disorders for ACLY Gene

MalaCards: The human disease database

(2) MalaCards diseases for ACLY Gene - From: HGMD and DISEASES

Disorder Aliases PubMed IDs
atrichia with papular lesions
  • apl
acrocallosal syndrome
  • acls
- elite association - COSMIC cancer census association via MalaCards
Search ACLY in MalaCards View complete list of genes associated with diseases

Additional Disease Information for ACLY

Genetic Association Database
Human Genome Epidemiology Navigator
ATLAS of Genetics and Cytogenetics in Oncology and Haematology
genes like me logo Genes that share disorders with ACLY: view

No data available for UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot and Genatlas for ACLY Gene

Publications for ACLY Gene

  1. Cloning and expression of a human ATP-citrate lyase cDNA. (PMID: 1371749) Elshourbagy NA … Gloger IS (European journal of biochemistry 1992) 2 3 4 22 58
  2. Localization of the gene for ATP citrate lyase (ACLY) distal to gastrin(GAS) and proximal to D17S856 on chromosome 17q12-q21. (PMID: 8088842) Couch FJ … Weber BL (Genomics 1994) 2 3 22 58
  3. Acetylation stabilizes ATP-citrate lyase to promote lipid biosynthesis and tumor growth. (PMID: 23932781) Lin R … Lei QY (Molecular cell 2013) 3 4 58
  4. ADP-Mg2+ bound to the ATP-grasp domain of ATP-citrate lyase. (PMID: 22102020) Sun T … Fraser ME (Acta crystallographica. Section F, Structural biology and crystallization communications 2011) 3 4 58
  5. Investigation of genetic susceptibility factors for human longevity - a targeted nonsynonymous SNP study. (PMID: 20800603) Flachsbart F … Nebel A (Mutation research 2010) 3 44 58

Products for ACLY Gene