Acetylcholinesterase hydrolyzes the neurotransmitter, acetylcholine at neuromuscular junctions and brain cholinergic synapses, and thus terminates signal transmission. It is also found on the red blood cell membranes, where it constitutes the Yt blood group antigen. Acetylcholinesterase exists in multiple molecular forms which possess similar catalytic properties, but differ in... See more...

Aliases for ACHE Gene

Aliases for ACHE Gene

  • Acetylcholinesterase (Cartwright Blood Group) 2 3 5
  • Acetylcholinesterase (Yt Blood Group) 2 3
  • Acetylcholinesterase 3 4
  • Yt Blood Group 2 3
  • EC 4 54
  • Apoptosis-Related Acetylcholinesterase 3
  • Acetylcholinesterase (YT Blood Group) 2
  • EC 3.1.1 54
  • ARACHE 3
  • N-ACHE 3
  • ACEE 3
  • AChE 4
  • YT 3

External Ids for ACHE Gene

Previous HGNC Symbols for ACHE Gene

  • YT

Previous GeneCards Identifiers for ACHE Gene

  • GC07M099022
  • GC07M100085
  • GC07M100099
  • GC07M100132
  • GC07M100325
  • GC07M100487
  • GC07M095117

Summaries for ACHE Gene

Entrez Gene Summary for ACHE Gene

  • Acetylcholinesterase hydrolyzes the neurotransmitter, acetylcholine at neuromuscular junctions and brain cholinergic synapses, and thus terminates signal transmission. It is also found on the red blood cell membranes, where it constitutes the Yt blood group antigen. Acetylcholinesterase exists in multiple molecular forms which possess similar catalytic properties, but differ in their oligomeric assembly and mode of cell attachment to the cell surface. It is encoded by the single ACHE gene, and the structural diversity in the gene products arises from alternative mRNA splicing, and post-translational associations of catalytic and structural subunits. The major form of acetylcholinesterase found in brain, muscle and other tissues is the hydrophilic species, which forms disulfide-linked oligomers with collagenous, or lipid-containing structural subunits. The other, alternatively spliced form, expressed primarily in the erythroid tissues, differs at the C-terminal end, and contains a cleavable hydrophobic peptide with a GPI-anchor site. It associates with the membranes through the phosphoinositide (PI) moieties added post-translationally. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

GeneCards Summary for ACHE Gene

ACHE (Acetylcholinesterase (Cartwright Blood Group)) is a Protein Coding gene. Diseases associated with ACHE include Yt Blood Group Antigen and Colonic Pseudo-Obstruction. Among its related pathways are Sympathetic Nerve Pathway (Pre- and Post- Ganglionic Junction) and Transmission across Chemical Synapses. Gene Ontology (GO) annotations related to this gene include protein homodimerization activity and collagen binding. An important paralog of this gene is BCHE.

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Summary for ACHE Gene

  • Terminates signal transduction at the neuromuscular junction by rapid hydrolysis of the acetylcholine released into the synaptic cleft. Role in neuronal apoptosis.

Tocris Summary for ACHE Gene

  • Cholinesterases inactivate the neurotransmitter acetylcholine by catalyzing its hydrolysis to choline and acetic acid. Acetylcholinesterase (AChE) is found in erythroid cells and at neuronal synapses, whilst butyrylcholinesterase is mostly expressed in the liver.

Gene Wiki entry for ACHE Gene

Additional gene information for ACHE Gene

No data available for CIViC Summary , PharmGKB "VIP" Summary , Rfam classification and piRNA Summary for ACHE Gene

Genomics for ACHE Gene

GeneHancer (GH) Regulatory Elements for ACHE Gene

Promoters and enhancers for ACHE Gene
- Elite GeneHancer and/or Elite GeneHancer-gene association Download GeneHancer data from 2017 publication | Request up-to-date GeneHancer data (full dataset)

GeneHancers around ACHE on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Top Transcription factor binding sites by QIAGEN in the ACHE gene promoter:
  • Egr-1
  • Sp1
  • TBP

Genomic Locations for ACHE Gene

Genomic Locations for ACHE Gene
6,981 bases
Minus strand
6,980 bases
Minus strand

Genomic View for ACHE Gene

Genes around ACHE on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Cytogenetic band:
ACHE Gene in genomic location: bands according to Ensembl, locations according to GeneLoc (and/or Entrez Gene and/or Ensembl if different)
Genomic Location for ACHE Gene
GeneLoc Logo Genomic Neighborhood Exon StructureGene Density

RefSeq DNA sequence for ACHE Gene

Proteins for ACHE Gene

  • Protein details for ACHE Gene (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)

    Protein Symbol:
    Recommended name:
    Protein Accession:
    Secondary Accessions:
    • A4D2E2
    • B7ZKZ0
    • D6W5X7
    • Q16169
    • Q29S23
    • Q2M324
    • Q504V3
    • Q53F46
    • Q86TM9
    • Q86YX9
    • Q9BXP7

    Protein attributes for ACHE Gene

    614 amino acids
    Molecular mass:
    67796 Da
    Quaternary structure:
    • Interacts with PRIMA1. The interaction with PRIMA1 is required to anchor it to the basal lamina of cells and organize into tetramers (By similarity). Isoform H generates GPI-anchored dimers; disulfide linked. Isoform T generates multiple structures, ranging from monomers and dimers to collagen-tailed and hydrophobic-tailed forms, in which catalytic tetramers are associated with anchoring proteins that attach them to the basal lamina or to cell membranes. In the collagen-tailed forms, isoform T subunits are associated with a specific collagen, COLQ, which triggers the formation of isoform T tetramers, from monomers and dimers. Isoform R may be monomeric.

    Three dimensional structures from OCA and Proteopedia for ACHE Gene

    Alternative splice isoforms for ACHE Gene


neXtProt entry for ACHE Gene

Selected DME Specific Peptides for ACHE Gene


Post-translational modifications for ACHE Gene

  • Glycosylation at Asn296, Asn381, and Asn495
  • Modification sites at PhosphoSitePlus

Antibody Products

  • Boster Bio Antibodies for ACHE
  • Santa Cruz Biotechnology (SCBT) Antibodies for ACHE

Domains & Families for ACHE Gene

Gene Families for ACHE Gene

Human Protein Atlas (HPA):
  • Blood group antigen proteins
  • Enzymes
  • FDA approved drug targets
  • Predicted intracellular proteins
  • Predicted membrane proteins
  • Predicted secreted proteins

Suggested Antigen Peptide Sequences for ACHE Gene

GenScript: Design optimal peptide antigens:
  • Acetylcholinesterase (ACES_HUMAN)
  • Acetylcholinesterase (Yt blood group), isoform CRA_a (D6W5X8_HUMAN)
  • Acetylcholinesterase (Q13697_HUMAN)
  • N-terminal extended acetylcholinesterase (Q6TQD3_HUMAN)

Graphical View of Domain Structure for InterPro Entry



  • Belongs to the type-B carboxylesterase/lipase family.
  • Belongs to the type-B carboxylesterase/lipase family.
genes like me logo Genes that share domains with ACHE: view

Function for ACHE Gene

Molecular function for ACHE Gene

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Function:
Terminates signal transduction at the neuromuscular junction by rapid hydrolysis of the acetylcholine released into the synaptic cleft. Role in neuronal apoptosis.
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot CatalyticActivity:
Reaction=acetylcholine + H2O = acetate + choline + H(+); Xref=Rhea:RHEA:17561, ChEBI:CHEBI:15354, ChEBI:CHEBI:15355, ChEBI:CHEBI:15377, ChEBI:CHEBI:15378, ChEBI:CHEBI:30089; EC=;.
GENATLAS Biochemistry:

Enzyme Numbers (IUBMB) for ACHE Gene

Phenotypes From GWAS Catalog for ACHE Gene

Gene Ontology (GO) - Molecular Function for ACHE Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0001540 amyloid-beta binding TAS 11283752
GO:0003990 acetylcholinesterase activity IDA,IMP 1517212
GO:0004104 cholinesterase activity IDA 1517212
GO:0005515 protein binding IPI 10800960
GO:0005518 collagen binding IDA 12524166
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with ACHE: view
genes like me logo Genes that share phenotypes with ACHE: view

Animal Models for ACHE Gene

MGI Knock Outs for ACHE:
  • Ache Ache<tm1Loc>
  • Ache Ache<tm1.1Hssh>

Animal Model Products

CRISPR Products

miRNA for ACHE Gene

miRTarBase miRNAs that target ACHE

Clone Products

  • Addgene plasmids for ACHE

No data available for Human Phenotype Ontology , Transcription Factor Targets and HOMER Transcription for ACHE Gene

Localization for ACHE Gene

Subcellular locations from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for ACHE Gene

Cell junction, synapse. Secreted. Cell membrane; Peripheral membrane protein.
Isoform T: Nucleus. Note=Only observed in apoptotic nuclei.
Isoform H: Cell membrane; Lipid-anchor, GPI-anchor; Extracellular side.

Subcellular locations from

Extracellular space Cytosol Plasma membrane Cytoskeleton Lysosome Endosome Peroxisome ER Golgi Apparatus Nucleus Mitochondrion 0 1 2 3 4 5 Confidence
COMPARTMENTS Subcellular localization image for ACHE gene
Compartment Confidence
plasma membrane 5
extracellular 5
nucleus 5
golgi apparatus 4
endoplasmic reticulum 3
cytoskeleton 2
mitochondrion 2
lysosome 2
cytosol 1

Subcellular locations from the

Human Protein Atlas (HPA)
  • Golgi apparatus (2)
  • Vesicles (2)
See all subcellular structures

Gene Ontology (GO) - Cellular Components for ACHE Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0005576 extracellular region IDA,TAS 11283752
GO:0005604 basement membrane IEA,NAS 16289501
GO:0005615 extracellular space IBA,IEA 21873635
GO:0005634 nucleus IEA --
GO:0005794 Golgi apparatus IDA 15454088
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with ACHE: view

Pathways & Interactions for ACHE Gene

genes like me logo Genes that share pathways with ACHE: view

Gene Ontology (GO) - Biological Process for ACHE Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0001507 acetylcholine catabolic process in synaptic cleft NAS 1517212
GO:0001919 regulation of receptor recycling IEA --
GO:0002076 osteoblast development IEP 15454088
GO:0006260 DNA replication TAS 11283752
GO:0006581 acetylcholine catabolic process IDA 1517212
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with ACHE: view

No data available for SIGNOR curated interactions for ACHE Gene

Drugs & Compounds for ACHE Gene

(134) Drugs for ACHE Gene - From: DrugBank, PharmGKB, ApexBio, DGIdb, HMDB, Tocris, and Novoseek

Name Status Disease Links Group Role Mechanism of Action Clinical Trials
Rivastigmine Approved, Investigational Pharma Target, inhibitor Cholinesterase inhibitor 90
Ambenonium Approved Pharma Target, inhibitor 0
Donepezil Approved Pharma Target, inhibitor 311
Edrophonium Approved Pharma Target, inhibitor 1
Galantamine Approved Pharma Target, inhibitor Acetylcholinesterase inhibitor 108

(73) Additional Compounds for ACHE Gene - From: Novoseek and HMDB

Name Synonyms Role CAS Number PubChem IDs PubMed IDs

(4) Tocris Compounds for ACHE Gene

Compound Action Cas Number
Ambenonium dichloride Cholinesterase inhibitor 115-79-7
Phenserine Cholinesterase inhibitor 101246-66-6
Physostigmine hemisulfate Cholinesterase inhibitor 64-47-1
Tacrine hydrochloride Cholinesterase inhibitor 1684-40-8

(18) ApexBio Compounds for ACHE Gene

Compound Action Cas Number
(-)-Huperzine A NMDA receptor antagonist/AChE inhibitor 102518-79-6
(±)-Huperzine A 120786-18-7
Acephate 30560-19-1
Ambenonium dichloride 115-79-7
Cryptotanshinone STAT3/AChE inhibitor 35825-57-1
Donepezil HCl AChE inhibitor 120011-70-3
Galanthamine HBr Acetylcholinesterase inhibitor 1953-04-4
Galanthaminone Cholinesterase(AChE) inhibitor 510-77-0
GSK 264220A 685506-42-7
JW 642 1416133-89-5
KML 29 1380424-42-9
Neostigmine Bromide Cholinesterase inhibitor 114-80-7
PE 154 1192750-33-6
Phenserine 101246-66-6
Physostigmine hemisulfate 64-47-1
Pristimerin 1258-84-0
Pyridostigmine Bromide 101-26-8
Tacrine hydrochloride 1684-40-8
genes like me logo Genes that share compounds with ACHE: view

Transcripts for ACHE Gene

CRISPR Products

Clone Products

  • Addgene plasmids for ACHE

Alternative Splicing Database (ASD) splice patterns (SP) for ACHE Gene

ExUns: 1 ^ 2 ^ 3a · 3b · 3c ^ 4a · 4b ^ 5a · 5b ^ 6a · 6b ^ 7a · 7b ^ 8 ^ 9a · 9b
SP1: - - -
SP2: - - - - -
SP3: - -
SP4: - - -
SP5: -
SP6: - - -
SP7: - - - - - -
SP8: - - - - -
SP9: -
SP10: - - - - - - -

Relevant External Links for ACHE Gene

GeneLoc Exon Structure for
ECgene alternative splicing isoforms for

Expression for ACHE Gene

mRNA expression in normal human tissues from GTEx, Illumina, BioGPS, and CGAP SAGE for ACHE Gene

mRNA differential expression in normal tissues according to GTEx for ACHE Gene

This gene is overexpressed in Brain - Hypothalamus (x8.4), Muscle - Skeletal (x4.3), and Brain - Cerebellum (x4.0).

Protein differential expression in normal tissues from HIPED for ACHE Gene

This gene is overexpressed in Plasma (25.5), Retina (21.3), Vitreous humor (10.7), and Heart (10.7).

Integrated Proteomics: protein expression in normal tissues and cell lines from ProteomicsDB and MOPED for ACHE Gene

Protein tissue co-expression partners for ACHE Gene

NURSA nuclear receptor signaling pathways regulating expression of ACHE Gene:


SOURCE GeneReport for Unigene cluster for ACHE Gene:


mRNA Expression by UniProt/SwissProt for ACHE Gene:

Tissue specificity: Isoform H is highly expressed in erythrocytes.

Evidence on tissue expression from TISSUES for ACHE Gene

  • Nervous system(4.9)
  • Blood(4.5)
  • Muscle(3.8)
  • Adrenal gland(2.4)
  • Intestine(2.4)
  • Liver(2.4)
  • Kidney(2.1)
  • Lung(2)
genes like me logo Genes that share expression patterns with ACHE: view

No data available for mRNA expression in embryonic tissues and stem cells from LifeMap Discovery and Phenotype-based relationships between genes and organs from Gene ORGANizer for ACHE Gene

Orthologs for ACHE Gene

This gene was present in the common ancestor of animals.

Orthologs for ACHE Gene

Organism Taxonomy Gene Similarity Type Details
(Pan troglodytes)
Mammalia ACHE 33 32
  • 99.78 (n)
(Bos Taurus)
Mammalia ACHE 33 32
  • 89.72 (n)
(Canis familiaris)
Mammalia ACHE 33 32
  • 89.63 (n)
(Mus musculus)
Mammalia Ache 17 33 32
  • 84.91 (n)
(Rattus norvegicus)
Mammalia Ache 32
  • 84.69 (n)
(Monodelphis domestica)
Mammalia ACHE 33
  • 80 (a)
(Ornithorhynchus anatinus)
Mammalia ACHE 33
  • 76 (a)
(Gallus gallus)
Aves ACHE 32
  • 64.66 (n)
(Anolis carolinensis)
Reptilia -- 33
  • 41 (a)
-- 33
  • 41 (a)
-- 33
  • 40 (a)
-- 33
  • 40 (a)
-- 33
  • 40 (a)
-- 33
  • 39 (a)
-- 33
  • 39 (a)
-- 33
  • 37 (a)
-- 33
  • 36 (a)
-- 33
  • 36 (a)
tropical clawed frog
(Silurana tropicalis)
Amphibia LOC100490673 32
  • 63.67 (n)
African clawed frog
(Xenopus laevis)
Amphibia Xl.8963 32
(Danio rerio)
Actinopterygii ache 33 32 32
  • 64.04 (n)
African malaria mosquito
(Anopheles gambiae)
Insecta ACES_ANOGA 32
  • 56.23 (n)
fruit fly
(Drosophila melanogaster)
Insecta Jhe 34
  • 36 (a)
alpha-Est8 34
  • 36 (a)
Est-P 34
  • 35 (a)
CG3841 34
  • 35 (a)
Est-6 34
  • 35 (a)
Ace 33 34
  • 33 (a)
BcDNA:GH05741 34
  • 32 (a)
clt 34
  • 32 (a)
CG6414 34
  • 32 (a)
Gli 34
  • 31 (a)
CG6018 34
  • 31 (a)
alpha-Est1 34
  • 31 (a)
CG4382 34
  • 31 (a)
alpha-Est7 34
  • 31 (a)
CG7529 34
  • 30 (a)
CG10175 34
  • 30 (a)
alpha-Est10 34
  • 30 (a)
alpha-Est2 34
  • 29 (a)
alpha-Est9 34
  • 29 (a)
alpha-Est6 34
  • 29 (a)
alpha-Est5 34
  • 29 (a)
CG8424 34
  • 29 (a)
alpha-Est4 34
  • 29 (a)
CG10339 34
  • 28 (a)
alpha-Est3 34
  • 28 (a)
CG5397 34
  • 26 (a)
(Caenorhabditis elegans)
Secernentea ace-1 33 34 32
  • 47.89 (n)
R173.3 34
  • 42 (a)
T07H6.1a 34
  • 37 (a)
B0238.13 34
  • 34 (a)
ace-4 33 34
  • 33 (a)
ace-3 33 34
  • 31 (a)
ace-2 33 34
  • 31 (a)
F13H6.3 34
  • 30 (a)
B0238.1 34
  • 30 (a)
K11G9.1 34
  • 29 (a)
F55D10.3 34
  • 28 (a)
T02B5.3 34
  • 27 (a)
T28C12.4b 34
  • 26 (a)
T28C12.4a 34
  • 26 (a)
T02B5.1 34
  • 25 (a)
sea squirt
(Ciona savignyi)
Ascidiacea -- 33
  • 30 (a)
Species where no ortholog for ACHE was found in the sources mined by GeneCards:
  • A. gosspyii yeast (Ashbya gossypii)
  • Actinobacteria (Mycobacterium tuberculosis)
  • Alicante grape (Vitis vinifera)
  • alpha proteobacteria (Wolbachia pipientis)
  • amoeba (Dictyostelium discoideum)
  • Archea (Pyrococcus horikoshii)
  • baker's yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae)
  • barley (Hordeum vulgare)
  • beta proteobacteria (Neisseria meningitidis)
  • bread mold (Neurospora crassa)
  • Chromalveolata (Phytophthora infestans)
  • common water flea (Daphnia pulex)
  • corn (Zea mays)
  • E. coli (Escherichia coli)
  • filamentous fungi (Aspergillus nidulans)
  • Firmicute bacteria (Streptococcus pneumoniae)
  • fission yeast (Schizosaccharomyces pombe)
  • green algae (Chlamydomonas reinhardtii)
  • honey bee (Apis mellifera)
  • K. lactis yeast (Kluyveromyces lactis)
  • loblloly pine (Pinus taeda)
  • malaria parasite (Plasmodium falciparum)
  • medicago trunc (Medicago Truncatula)
  • moss (Physcomitrella patens)
  • orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus)
  • pig (Sus scrofa)
  • rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)
  • rice (Oryza sativa)
  • rice blast fungus (Magnaporthe grisea)
  • schistosome parasite (Schistosoma mansoni)
  • sea anemone (Nematostella vectensis)
  • sea urchin (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus)
  • sorghum (Sorghum bicolor)
  • soybean (Glycine max)
  • stem rust fungus (Puccinia graminis)
  • sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum)
  • thale cress (Arabidopsis thaliana)
  • tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum)
  • toxoplasmosis (Toxoplasma gondii)
  • Trichoplax (Trichoplax adhaerens)
  • wheat (Triticum aestivum)

Evolution for ACHE Gene

Gene Tree for ACHE (if available)
Gene Tree for ACHE (if available)
Evolutionary constrained regions (ECRs) for ACHE: view image

Paralogs for ACHE Gene

Paralogs for ACHE Gene

(15) SIMAP similar genes for ACHE Gene using alignment to 11 proteins:

  • C9J2S3_HUMAN
  • C9JD78_HUMAN
  • D6W5X8_HUMAN
  • F8WD34_HUMAN
  • F8WD68_HUMAN
  • Q13697_HUMAN
genes like me logo Genes that share paralogs with ACHE: view

Variants for ACHE Gene

Polymorphic Variants from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for ACHE Gene

ACHE is responsible for the Yt blood group system [MIM:112100]. The molecular basis of the Yt(a)=Yt1/Yt(b)=Yt2 blood group antigens is a single variation in position 353; His-353 corresponds to Yt(a) and the rare variant with Asn-353 to Yt(b).

Sequence variations from dbSNP and Humsavar for ACHE Gene

SNP ID Clin Chr 07 pos Variation AA Info Type
rs1799805 benign, YT BLOOD GROUP POLYMORPHISM, - 100,893,176(-) G/T coding_sequence_variant, missense_variant, non_coding_transcript_variant
rs1000084778 -- 100,895,649(-) A/C genic_upstream_transcript_variant, intron_variant, upstream_transcript_variant
rs1000529033 -- 100,894,767(-) A/G genic_upstream_transcript_variant, intron_variant, upstream_transcript_variant
rs1001224035 -- 100,894,919(-) G/C genic_upstream_transcript_variant, intron_variant, upstream_transcript_variant
rs1001371809 -- 100,890,193(-) G/T 3_prime_UTR_variant, non_coding_transcript_variant

Structural Variations from Database of Genomic Variants (DGV) for ACHE Gene

Variant ID Type Subtype PubMed ID
esv2734888 CNV deletion 23290073
esv2759547 CNV gain+loss 17122850
nsv1020837 CNV loss 25217958
nsv1137273 CNV deletion 24896259
nsv482110 CNV gain 20164927
nsv607965 CNV loss 21841781
nsv607966 CNV loss 21841781
nsv607967 CNV loss 21841781
nsv607968 CNV loss 21841781
nsv607969 CNV loss 21841781
nsv607970 CNV loss 21841781
nsv831073 CNV loss 17160897

Variation tolerance for ACHE Gene

Residual Variation Intolerance Score: 23% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)
Gene Damage Index Score: 9.64; 89.12% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)

Additional Variant Information for ACHE Gene

Blood Group Antigen Gene Mutation Database (BGMUT)
Blood Group System
Human Gene Mutation Database (HGMD)
SNPedia medical, phenotypic, and genealogical associations of SNPs for

SNP Genotyping and Copy Number Assay Products

Disorders for ACHE Gene

MalaCards: The human disease database

(48) MalaCards diseases for ACHE Gene - From: HGMD, OMIM, DISEASES, Novoseek, and GeneCards

Disorder Aliases PubMed IDs
yt blood group antigen
  • cartwright antigen
colonic pseudo-obstruction
  • primary chronic pseudo-obstruction of colon
primary orthostatic hypotension
  • neurogenic orthostatic hypotension
myasthenic syndrome, congenital, 5
  • cms5
vascular dementia
  • multi infarct dementia
- elite association - COSMIC cancer census association via MalaCards
Search ACHE in MalaCards View complete list of genes associated with diseases

Additional Disease Information for ACHE

Genetic Association Database
Human Genome Epidemiology Navigator
ATLAS of Genetics and Cytogenetics in Oncology and Haematology